millimetre-wave wireless communications

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Improvement of 5G performance through network densification in millimetre wave band

Improvement of 5G performance through network densification in millimetre wave band

requirements. These devices include wireless sensor, weather and environment sensors, and vehicular communications [154]. In addition, there are wearable sensors that used to measure user health status (body temperature, blood pressure, and heart beat), these wearable devices will monitor the health of patients and will trigger an alert when health issue arises. This will help patients and General Practice (GP) to facilitate their work, improve quality of life, and reduce National Health Service (NHS) costs [155]. Such machines need to be scheduled in the next generation 5G network. Whereas the 4G system has been driven by the proliferation of devices, 5G system will be driven by massive traffic in IoT applications. With 5G, shared physical resource blocks will be allocated based on user demands, content awareness, fairness, and location [7]. Globally, around 100 million wearable devices (a sub-segment of M2M category generated 15 petabytes of monthly traffic in 2015. The major traffic growth is forecasted to occur in M2M communication. M2M communication links will reach more than %26 of total connections by 2020. M2M communication will grow at %38 in 2020 compared to 2015. Generally, more than 50 billion of machines will need to be seamlessly connected to the internet in the upcoming few years [148][155]. Solutions to cope with this massive growth comprise HetNets that include macrocells and dense small-cells (such as picocells), extend the operational frequency to higher carrier frequency in mmWave band.
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Improved capacity and fairness of massive machine type communications in millimetre wave 5G network

Improved capacity and fairness of massive machine type communications in millimetre wave 5G network

Abstract: In the Fifth Generation (5G) wireless standard, the Internet of Things (IoT) will interconnect billions of Machine Type Communications (MTC) devices. Fixed and mobile wearable devices and sensors are expected to contribute to the majority of IoT traffic. MTC device mobility has been considered with three speeds, namely zero (fixed) and medium and high speeds of 30 and 100 kmph. Different values for device mobility are used to simulate the impact of device mobility on MTC traffic. This work demonstrates the gain of using distributed antennas on MTC traffic in terms of spectral efficiency and fairness among MTC devices, which affects the number of devices that can be successfully connected. The mutual use of Distributed Base Stations (DBS) with Remote Radio Units (RRU) and the adoption of the millimetre wave band, particularly in the 26 GHz range, have been considered the key enabling technologies for addressing MTC traffic growth. An algorithm has been set to schedule this type of traffic and to show whether MTC devices completed their traffic upload or failed to reach the margin. The gains of the new architecture have been demonstrated in terms of spectral efficiency, data throughput and the fairness index.
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Millimetre-Wave Fibre-Wireless Technologies for 5G Mobile Fronthaul

Millimetre-Wave Fibre-Wireless Technologies for 5G Mobile Fronthaul

The LTE mobile broadband since its standardisation by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has been widely deployed by most service providers around the world. The introduction of LTE marked a paradigm shift in mobile broadband with the adoption of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and single carrier frequency division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA), which are based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) access technology [3]. Techniques such as higher order modulation as well as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing are employed to improve spectral efficiency (SE) and increase network capacity. The peak throughput of LTE is 300Mbps and 75Mbps in DL and UL, respectively. In order to meet the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendations for 4G mobile communications as defined in the International Mobile Telecommunication-Advanced (IMT-Advanced), LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) was specified in Rel. 10 by the 3GPP [4]. As an enhancement to LTE specified in Rel. 8, LTE-A was envisioned to provide a much higher peak data rate of up to 1Gbps and 500Mbps in the DL and UL, respectively [5]. The main feature of LTE-A is that it allows the combination of up to 5 component carriers (CCs) in a technique referred to as carrier-aggregation (CA). Therefore, a maximum of 100MHz can be realised by CA using five 20MHz LTE channels. CA can be achieved within the same band using a contiguous or non-contiguous stream of channels or between channels from two different bands. In addition, new techniques such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP) and higher order MIMO was introduced to improve SE and throughput. While LTE can support 4x4 MIMO configurations, LTE-A has the capability for 8x8 MIMO. Furthermore, LTE-A supports heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with coexisting Macro, Micro and Pico cells in the same infrastructure. Recently, LTE-A Pro was ratified by the 3GPP in Rel. 13 [6], to support the ever-growing demand for wireless resources as well as the emerging new class of services requiring more flexible network planning. An example of such service is the narrowband IoT (NB-IoT). The main feature in LTE-A Pro is the exploitation of unlicensed 5GHz band, which enables the support for up to 32 CCs in CA as well as higher order modulation (i.e. 256QAM) [6]. Evidently, more bandwidth is required in order to provide ubiquitous and high capacity services that meet mobile users’ growing demand.
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Characterization of Millimetre waveband at 40 GHz wireless channel

Characterization of Millimetre waveband at 40 GHz wireless channel

In terms of Wireless networking and communications, millimetre waveband generally corresponds to a few select bands of frequencies around 38-40 GHz, 60 GHz and more recently 70 and 80 GHz becomes an area of interest [1], but more specifically 40 GHz and 60 GHz Wireless Channel represents an attractive band for the corresponding fields to be researched and utilized to achieve those requirement of large bandwidth. [2] As we all know that frequency is an essential resource in Wireless Communications. Millimetre wave technology fortunately can exploit unregulated bandwidth that is available worldwide. As higher frequencies utilized in mm-Wave band which in turn means shorter wavelengths. So, as a result the s ize of electronic components to be utilized also reduced and more specifically the size of transmitter and receiver antenna will be reduced as well. So, this mm-Wave band will be very useful in this regard.
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Overview of 5G Wireless Networks and Scope of Millimeter Wave in 5G Communications

Overview of 5G Wireless Networks and Scope of Millimeter Wave in 5G Communications

As the available bandwidth below 6 GHz is limited, engineers start to experiment in the millimetre Wave (mmW) range [2], starting from 3 up to 300 GHz [4]. In [6] the authors did many tests on the 28 GHz and 38 GHz frequencies where they measured loss and gain using different distances. Testing was completed on numerous building materials with run of the mill unpleasant and smooth surfaces, i.e. block and drywalls, clear and tinted glass for their flag reflection and infiltration properties. They discovered 200 m is the perfect separation with the negligible misfortune in most conditions. A Google venture identified with the 5G millimeter-wave under the name of SkyBender [4] is under trying to convey quick web get to (40 times speedier than 4G LTE) utilizing various automatons controlled by sunlight based cells, the testing is occurring at Spaceport America in New Mexico. Prior to that, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) had investigated a comparative field, the name of the venture is Mobile Hotspots, expecting to help the correspondence for the military troops in wireless territories by means of conveying multi-rambles or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which give a correspondence up to the speed 1 Gb/s [5]. The creators in [6] have tested in combining wire correspondence with the wireless correspondence by utilizing low intelligence based mmW transporter age with a double shading encoded laser diode to shape the cross breed wireless mmW over Fiber (mmWoF), 12 Gb/s is accomplished in the recently proposed mmWoF connect contrasted with 36 Gb/s in the optical wired band. In [7] the creators proposed another half breed engineering for 5G cell frameworks called; RF/millimeter wave, which coordinates the RF groups (e.g. 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz), and mmWave (e.g. spreading over the range between 30 GHz to 300 GHz) interfaces for beamforming and information exchange.
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Feature exploration for biometric recognition using millimetre wave body images

Feature exploration for biometric recognition using millimetre wave body images

The use of millimetre wave images has been proposed recently in the biometric field to overcome certain limitations when using images acquired at visible frequencies. Furthermore, the security community has started using millimetre wave screening scanners in order to detect concealed objects. We believe we can exploit the use of these devices by incorporating biometric functionalities. This paper proposes a biometric recognition system based on the information of the silhouette of the human body, which may be seen as a type of soft biometric trait. To this aim, we report experimental results on the BIOGIGA database with four feature extraction approaches (contour coordinates, shape contexts, Fourier descriptors and landmarks) and three classification methods (Euclidean distance, dynamic time warping and support vector machines). The best configuration of 1.33 % EER is achieved when using contour coordinates with dynamic time warping.
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The impact of higher order sectorisation on the performance of millimetre wave 5G network

The impact of higher order sectorisation on the performance of millimetre wave 5G network

Abstract— The fifth Generation (5G) mobile network will provide services with extreme data rate and latency demands compared to current cellular network, and provide massive capacity and connectivity to multitude of devices with diverse requirements and applications. Therefore, it is important to utilise all network resources to provide the 5G vision. In this paper, performance evaluations and impact of higher order horizontal sectorisation on next generation 5G mobile access is presented. The study has been focused on busy urban areas in high carrier frequency. Millimetre wave band has precious wide unexploited bandwidth that can be harnessed for mobile communication. The results for these scenarios show that higher-order horizontal sectorisation in millimetre wave based smallcell deployment can significantly increase the network capacity to meet the future requirement of 5G network, and provide high data rate and connectivity to huge number of devices. Moreover, beamforming can highly increase the data rate by efficiently increase signal power and suppress interference from unwanted directions.
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Better than Rician: modelling millimetre wave channels as two wave with diffuse power

Better than Rician: modelling millimetre wave channels as two wave with diffuse power

This contribution provides experimental evidence for the two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) fading model. We have conducted two indoor millimetre wave measurement campaigns with directive horn antennas at both link ends. One horn antenna is mounted in a corner of our laboratory, while the other is steerable and scans azimuth and elevation. Our first measurement campaign is based on scalar network analysis with 7 GHz of bandwidth. Our second measurement campaign obtains magnitude and phase information; it is additionally sampled directionally at several positions in space. We apply Akaike’s information criterion to decide whether Rician fading sufficiently explains the data or the generalised TWDP fading model is necessary. Our results indicate that the TWDP fading hypothesis is favoured over Rician fading in situations where the steerable antenna is pointing towards reflecting objects or is slightly misaligned at line-of-sight. We demonstrate TWDP fading in several different domains, namely, frequency, space, and time.
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Millimetre wave quasi optical signal processing and spread spectrum techniques

Millimetre wave quasi optical signal processing and spread spectrum techniques

The asymmetry of the frequency response of the detector is clear and the hump around 90GHz is similar to that shown in Fig. 2 11. In order to study the region of the main peak more closely, I altered the frequency of the oscillator by bias tuning and normalised the power level by using a rotatable wire-grid polariser. In this way, I achieved frequency sweeps of about 700MHz around the peak with power fluctuations of less than one percent. The detected power level was 653pW. Fig. 213 shows the frequency response obtained in this way for the same block and diode as in Fig. 2-9. The peak sensitivity is 590mV/mW at 85 53GHz. Note the bump around 85.45GHz - this effect was seen with other block/diode combinations but its cause is not understood. It might be due to standing wave effects in the measurement optics.
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Coverage and rate analysis in the uplink of millimeter wave cellular networks with fractional power control

Coverage and rate analysis in the uplink of millimeter wave cellular networks with fractional power control

In this paper, using the concept of stochastic geometry, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) coverage in the uplink of millimeter wave cellular networks. By using a distance-dependent line-of-sight (LOS) probability function, the location of LOS and non-LOS users are modeled as two independent non-homogeneous Poisson point processes, with each having a different pathloss exponent. The analysis takes account of per-user fractional power control (FPC), which couples the transmission of users based on location-dependent channel inversion. We consider the following scenarios in our analysis: (1) pathloss-based FPC (PL- FPC) which is performed using the measured pathloss and (2) distance-based FPC (D-FPC) which is performed using the measured distance. Using the developed framework, we derive expressions for the area spectral efficiency. Results suggest that in terms of SINR coverage, D-FPC outperforms PL-FPC scheme at high SINR where the future networks are expected to operate. It achieves equal or better area spectral efficiency compared with the PL-FPC scheme. Contrary to the conventional ultra-high frequency cellular networks, in both FPC schemes, the SINR coverage decreases as the cell density becomes greater than a threshold, while the area spectral efficiency experiences a slow growth region.
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Design considerations of ultra dense 5G network in millimetre wave band

Design considerations of ultra dense 5G network in millimetre wave band

In this work, we have introduced a 5G network that’s based on densification, which includes densification over frequency through millimetre wave, and space through higher antennas, higher sectorisation order, and denser deployment of small cells. Our results show that this theme has significantly improved network capacity and user quality of experience, and decrease rain attenuation, which is significant at millimetre wave. In addition, beamforming is a very important in millimetre wave to cope with weak signal transmission and suppress interference. The aforementioned combinations of densification options can efficiently raise the user experience to the level that 5G vision promised. 5G will be capable of providing multi Gbps data rates in millimetre wave band and meeting the massive increase in global mobile data traffic. And how to decrease interference in ultra-dense small cells environment in mm-wave will be the topic of future work.
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Green Communication :Current Scenario with special reference to Mobile Industry Growth and Potential

Green Communication :Current Scenario with special reference to Mobile Industry Growth and Potential

Such unprecedented growth in cellular industry has pushed the limits of energy consumption in wireless networks. There are currently more than 4 million base stations (BSs) serving mobile users, each consuming an average of 25MWh per year. Communication Technology (ICT) already represents around 2% of total carbon emissions (of which mobile networks represent about 0.2%), and this is expected to increase every year. Some broader perspectives have been discussed for different sectors against the environment. 2

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Reconfigurable antennas and radio wave propagation at millimeter-wave frequencies

Reconfigurable antennas and radio wave propagation at millimeter-wave frequencies

Chapter 2 of the thesis discusses different types of reconfigurable antennas. We investigate the applicability of various multi-element antenna configurations and manufacturing processes of these antennas for millimeter wave frequencies. A reconfigurable antenna is an antenna capable to modify dynamically its properties, e.g. the operational frequency or radiation pattern. Antennas with the ability to reconfigure their radiation patterns can be beneficial in high data rate wireless communication systems for frequency reuse and for mitigating interference. In the first part of Chapter 2, antenna structures operating at 5.8 GHz with the use of liquid metals such as gallium are investigated. Using the properties of liquid metals can help us to avoid the main disadvantages of mechanically-actuated reconfigurable antennas, for example, mechanical failures. Another advantage is that antenna arrays with liquid metal, forming the radiating part on a flexible substrate, can be deformable and mechanically tunable. Tunability and beam-steering capability can also be achieved by injecting liquid metal into appropriate channels in the antenna structure. Radiation properties of the antenna can be controlled and these antennas can dynamically adapt to the changes in the communication channel or in the system requirements.
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Interference coordination for millimeter wave communications in 5G networks for performance optimization

Interference coordination for millimeter wave communications in 5G networks for performance optimization

3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project; AAS: Adaptive array systems; ABS: Almost blank subframe; BBU: Baseband unit; BTS: Base station; CBF: Coordinated beamforming; CBIC: Carrier aggregation-based IC; CLSM: Closed loop spatial multiplexing; CPRI: Common public radio interface; CQI: Channel quality indicator; CRAN: Cloud-RAN; CSI: Channel-state information; eIC: Enhanced IC; EPA: Extended pedestrian A; FFR: Fractional frequency reuse; FIC: Frequency domain IC; GIC: Graph-based IC; HPBW: Half power beam width; IC: Interference coordination; ICI: Intercell interference; MAC: Media access control; mmWave: Millimeter wave; MU-MIMO: Multiuser multiple input and multiple output; PCC: Primary component carrier; PFR: Partial frequency reuse; PMI: Precoding matrix indicator;
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Absorption and transmission power coefficients for millimeter waves in a weakly ionised vegetation fire

Absorption and transmission power coefficients for millimeter waves in a weakly ionised vegetation fire

Attenuation per unit path length for a MM wave signal in a simulated shrub fire with maximum temperature of 1000 K varies from 0.06 – 0.70 dBm −1 . This is increased to range from 7.44 – 24.00 dBm −1 for a shrub fire with maximum temperature of 1150 K and potassium content of 1.0%. Signal attenuation is a factor of both temperature and potassium impurities in flame. It appears that at particular temperature and alkali content in the flame, MM-Wave frequency bands are the most affected. Mphale et al ., [6] have predicted very high frequency (vhf) signal attenuation per unit path lengths in the range of 0.001 – 0.49 dBm −1 for a grassfire with potassium content of 2.0% and temperature range of 1000 – 1200 K. The attenuation per unit length in a grassfire was also measured to be in the same range. At microwave frequencies, attenuation per unit path length was measured by Mphale et al ., [7] to be in the range 1.95–11.36 dBm −1 for vegetation litter flame with maximum temperature of about 1100 K. However, within the frequency band such as the MM-wave frequencies considered in the numerical simulation, 60 GHz was the least affected as it had the lowest attenuation for a given collision frequency.
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The impact of base station antennas configuration
on the performance of millimetre wave 5G networks

The impact of base station antennas configuration on the performance of millimetre wave 5G networks

The work has been conducted in the 28GHz band as it could be the first choice among other millimetre wave band due to their stronger path gain with around 1GHz of available bandwidth. Three scenarios have been considered; the first scenario represents a single input single output (SISO) with no RRH deployments, shown in green on the results figures. The second scenario represents a (2x2/4x2) MIMO with no RRH, two RHH, or three RRH deployment, shown in red. The third scenario represents 4x4 MIMO and also with no RRH, two RRHs, or 3RRHs case, shown in blue on the results figures. When using more RRHs, the probability of coverage will be improved and therefore the signal penetration will be highly improved. This means the resources are being used more efficiently, i.e., data throughput per PRB is higher. In addition distributing RRHs can support MIMO with line-of-site (LOS) transmission, since the new signals have less correlation in the LOS, and therefore support CLSM similar to the concept of distributed MIMO (D-MIMO).
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Infrared and millimetre-wave scintillometry in the suburban environment – Part 1: Structure parameters

Infrared and millimetre-wave scintillometry in the suburban environment – Part 1: Structure parameters

tween scalars are thought to be useful indicators for the vi- olation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) (Hill, 1989; Andreas et al., 1998). Correlations are also relevant to the understanding and modelling of turbulent transport pro- cesses through physical quantities such as eddy diffusivities. The objectives of this research are to measure structure parameters and obtain large-area sensible and latent heat fluxes for a suburban area. In this two-part study, a 94 GHz millimetre-wave scintillometer was deployed alongside an infrared scintillometer over the town of Swindon, UK. This is the first use of such a system in the urban environment. In Part 1, structure parameters from the two-wavelength system are compared to structure parameters calculated from an EC system and measured values of r T q are discussed. In Part 2
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Network capacity optimisation in millimetre wave band using fractional frequency reuse

Network capacity optimisation in millimetre wave band using fractional frequency reuse

Abstract— Inter Cell Interference (ICI) is a major challenge that degrades the performance of mobile systems, particularly for cell-edge users. This problem arises significantly in the next generation system, as the trend of deployment is with high densification, which yields an ultra-dense network (UDN). One of the challenges in UDN is the dramatic increase of ICI from surrounding cells. A common technique to minimise ICI is interference coordination techniques. In this context, the most efficient ICI coordination is fractional frequency reuse (FFR). This paper investigates the FFR in UDN millimetre wave network at 26GHz band. The focus is on dense network with short inter site distance (ISD), and higher order sectorisation (HOS). The metrics used in frequency reuse is the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) rather than the distance, as the line of sight in millimetre wave can be easily blocked by obstacles even if they are in close proximity to the serving base station. The work shows that FFR can improve the network performance in terms of per user cell-edge data throughput and average cell throughput, and maintain the peak data throughput at a certain threshold. Furthermore, HOS has a potential gain over default sectored cells when the interference is carefully coordinated. The results show optimal values for bandwidth split per each scenario in FFR scheme to give the best trade-off between inner and outer zone users performance.
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The impact of base station antennas configuration

on the performance of millimetre wave 5G networks

The impact of base station antennas configuration on the performance of millimetre wave 5G networks

The work has been conducted in the 28GHz band as it could be the first choice among other millimetre wave band due to their stronger path gain with around 1GHz of available bandwidth. Three scenarios have been considered; the first scenario represents a single input single output (SISO) with no RRH deployments, shown in green on the results figures. The second scenario represents a (2x2/4x2) MIMO with no RRH, two RHH, or three RRH deployment, shown in red. The third scenario represents 4x4 MIMO and also with no RRH, two RRHs, or 3RRHs case, shown in blue on the results figures. When using more RRHs, the probability of coverage will be improved and therefore the signal penetration will be highly improved. This means the resources are being used more efficiently, i.e., data throughput per PRB is higher. In addition distributing RRHs can support MIMO with line-of-site (LOS) transmission, since the new signals have less correlation in the LOS, and therefore support CLSM similar to the concept of distributed MIMO (D-MIMO).
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Efficient Time Domain Signal and Noise FET Models for Millimetre Wave Applications

Efficient Time Domain Signal and Noise FET Models for Millimetre Wave Applications

A new modeling approach for signal and noise analysis of high frequency transistors was presented. This method can accurately take into account the effect of wave pro- pagation along the device electrodes. The promising model can be applied to solve issues related to simulta- neous signal and noise analysis, as well as in modeling traveling wave FETs in which the gate width is much higher than that of a usual FET

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