Spectroscopic results so far obtained discard a possible Re-S binding with formal valence 4+ of the rhenium ions and allow assuming that this scarce metal is rather binded to oxygen under a higher valence state in the analysed materials. Although rhenium concentrations are very low in the studied minewastes, actual results en- courage a future re-appraisal of the former Re-carrier mineral(s) in the original copper-rich pyrite ores exploited at the São Domingos mine, since the occurrence of molybdenite was never formerly reported for the Iberian Py- rite Belt deposit there exploited. Not less important is the significant positive implication that these results may have upon a sustainable future recovery of critical raw materials from minewastes .
Calculations for global anthropogenic Hg emissions vary from 1 9 1 0 to 6000 tonnes per year (Hanisch, 1998; Pacyna and Pacyna, 2002). Fuel combustion, mostly coal, contributes with 75 % of this figure (Pacyna and Pacyna, 200 1 ). Minewastes can also contribute as point emission sources of atmospheric Hg. These emissions are influenced by substrate concentration, light, temperature, and precipitation (Gustin et aI., 1997; Gustin et aI., 2003). It has been calculated that minewastes in Central Western Nevada (USA) release up to 0.4 tonnes per year of atmospheric Hg (Gustin et aI., 1 996). Artisanal and small-scale mining in South America, Russia and Asia are also an important source of anthropogenic emissions, releasing between 450 to 800 tonnes per year of metallic Hg into the environment (Lacerda, 2003; Veiga, 2004). From this total, 80 % is lost to the atmosphere as Hg (0) vapour during amalgam burning and bullion smelting and 20 % contaminates soils and aquatic systems via discharge of Hg-rich amalgamation tailings (Veiga and Hinton, 2002). It is estimated that ASM gold mining contributes 20 % of the total Hg atmospheric emissions from human activities (Lacerda, 2003). Airborne Hg emitted by mining and redeposited in forests can be transported long distances in association with forest fires (Veiga et aI., 1 994). Deforestation by slash and burning is a common agricultural practice in the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for mobilising extensive amounts of Hg contained in the biomass of plants and in the organic fraction of forest soils. It is estimated that these practices emit between 8 to 80 tonnes of Hg per year to the atmosphere of the Amazon region (Veiga et aI., 1 994; Lacerda, 1 995).
For safety analysis speciﬁc tools are used. As the future is unknown, safety analyses are build-up on the concept of scenarios. This concept representing the deterministic safety analysis is demonstrated in ﬁg. 14. In a ﬁrst step, a selection of the features, events, and processes (FEP) is required. The FEP should cover all conceivable facts and ﬁgures of the disposal system including wastes, barriers and hostrock. Relevant FEP can be selected from FEP databases or from site speciﬁc information. A scenario is constructed by combination of the selected FEPs. A common deﬁnition is as follows: “A scenario is speciﬁed by a combination of some FEPs which characterize one potential evolution of the disposal system”. Especially in the case of an incidence scenario, the initiating FEP is of high importance.
The equipment involved included a 15-ton capacity General Electric locomotive (Company No. 51) and a Goodman 15-ton capacity locomotive (No. 55B), four Irwin shield carrier cars (Nos. 8607, 09-16349, 8608 and 8433), and a 74-ton capacity pneumatic air bag. These locomotives, in conjunction with the shield carriers, were used to transport supplies and equipment throughout the mine. The shield carriers were coupled to one another and to the No. 51 and No. 55B locomotive by the use of jennies and automatic couplers. When checked, there were no deficiencies on the locomotives or carrier cars contributing to this accident. A review of the mine operator’s weekly electrical examination records revealed that no deficiencies existed with either motor. The pneumatic air bag was inflated and functioned as intended.
The COM proposal suffers from the same shortcomings. It contains no additional guidance to determine in which sub-category a residue belongs, and no definitions or indicative lists for residues and co- products despite purporting to establish the regulatory framework that will operate through 2020, i.e. capping food-based crops and promoting so-called second generation biofuels (wastes and residues) through double- and quadruple-counting. It should also be noted that second-generation biofuels compete with renewable heating, cooling and electricity needed to meet the 20% target in addition t the oleochemical industry and animal husbandry, which uses agricultural residues and animal fats as feed.
3. A 104(a) Citation , S&S, Moderate negligence, No. 7538675, was issued to Bell County Coal Corporation for a violation of 75.360(b)(3): An investigation of the fatal fall of roof accident, which occurred on June 16, 2004, determined that the pre-shift examiner failed to properly examine the 004/003 MMU super-section. Hillseams (vertical open joints) were present at various locations on the 004/003 MMU that were not adequately supported as required in the approved Roof Control Plan, dated June 6, 2001. The extensiveness of these hillseams should have prompted identification of these as being hazardous roof conditions and corrective actions should have been taken. Due to the hazards associated with mining and specifically with pillar mining. Measures should have been implemented to adequately support the mine roof to correct the hazardous
In common language wastes are scraps and extravagance in any system, however, in production systems wastes are non-value add activities and operations which are increasing the cost and not beneficial for internal and external customers. In order to understand these non-value added activities the experts of this field has segregated the wastes into eight different types named as over production, over waiting, over transportation, over motion, over inventory, defects, over processing and employees underutilization. This literature study has enlightened and explained these wastes in light of previous research available. The literature elaborates that over production is something excess in production which certainly results in over inventory. It is very important to understand that the inventory which is required in any system is not waste however, over inventory of any thing is actually the waste. Moreover, excess in operations in any system is over processing and unnecessary travel of goods in operations is over transportation. Unnecessary travel of employees in any system is over motion and all of these in combination results in over waiting commonly. Furthermore, it has been observed that it is always ideal to have production with zero defects but realistically it’s not possible in any system. However, unnecessary defects certainly effects cost of any system and considered as wastes. Last but not the least is the underutilization of employees in any system is considered as wastes as it is a lack of management which is not capable to utilize his employees and the system is paying for that. Summarily, wastes in production are different from normal wastes and are not acceptable in any plant.
273 The technical details of mechanical and electrical drive system -1 and drive system -2 are same. The corresponding experimental data are presented in table IV and V, for down the gradient and up the gradient of mine haulers. The experimental analysis is shown by various consumption curves are calculated and curves are plotted are shown in figure: 3, figure 4, figure 5, figure 6 respectively. The drive system is located above 8 th Level and serving to 42 nd Level, which is about 4.2km away from the drive system. The total energy consumption chart of both drive system are as shown in figure 7. The energy calculation steps are given in Appendix of this paper.
Coal Mine Security System mainly monitor the parameter in coal mine, like Gas( CH4, CO, etc), Temperature, and so on as well as the main production equipment stop the switch parameter, forecast mine production security information, effectively avoid the occurrence of gas and coal dust explosion significant malignant accident. Compares with the former system, this system subordinate control computer has used the intelligent digital sensor, increased precision of the data acquisition, the expert system module, can provide the solution way when the mine exceptional operation.
Welcome to the Part 46 Starter Kit with Sample Training Plan. This package is designed to help you develop an effective, mine-specific training program that meets the provisions of part 46. This package is divided into eight sections. Six of the sections contain information you can copy or customize to meet your needs. You may want to put this material in a three-ring binder and keep it in your work vehicle so you will have it handy when needed.
(b) A wastewater management contingency plan that details the control, treatment and disposal steps that would be taken to deal with situations such as acid mine drainage, suspended solids, control of storm water events, sedimentation pond breach, etc. If untreated water from the site is entering the Middle River by way of the old workings, the flow of this water is to be contained and controlled until the mine water has been treated and is in compliance with effluent discharge limits.
XPAC Solutions provide users with a smaller learning curve allowing for rapid upskilling of planning personnel while continuing to deliver dependable, consistent mine plans. They reduce your project’s reliance on niche technical skills, reduce the risks of human capital shortfall and free up your senior planners from learning software.