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On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca)

On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca)

MDO=minimum depth of occurrence; r 2 =0.94; (Seibel et al., 1997; Seibel et al., 2000)]. Individual species within each family are found over similar depth ranges. Normalization constants ranged from 8.2 for ommastrephid squids to 0.14 for the bathypelagic vampire squids. This difference is further enhanced at large sizes due to variation in scaling coefficients. Five of eight cephalopod families analyzed had scaling coefficients (b in Eqn·1) not significantly different from a quarter power. However, each epipelagic squid family (Gonatidae, Loliginidae and Ommastrephidae) had a shallower scaling coefficient that, in the case of Loliginidae, was significantly different from –0.25. Intraspecific scaling slopes are presented in Fig.·2 and Table·2 and most of them are similar to those reported here for familial relationships (Fig.·1; Table·1) (Glazier, 2005; O’Dor and Wells, 1987). The intraspecific scaling coefficients for epipelagic squids are significantly higher (less negative) than for mesopelagic species (Fig.·2C), a pattern consistent with other pelagic animals (Glazier, 2006).
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A new macrofaunal limit in the deep biosphere revealed by extreme burrow depths in ancient sediments

A new macrofaunal limit in the deep biosphere revealed by extreme burrow depths in ancient sediments

Our findings have several biological and geological implications, i) unusually, we can quantify a minimum depth below the seabed that organisms inhabited in ancient sediments, ii) show that the deepest organisms may be pres- ent in sandy sediments, rather than the clays and silts typically targeted in modern seabed investigations, iii) show that less organics are preserved due to carbon consumption during metabolic activity, which then also changes the sediment fabric at depth, with grains being processed and sorted into burrow structures, and iv) most impor- tantly, we have shown that macrofaunal life survives for periods living at depths of up to 8 m below the seabed, giving an entirely new (lower) limit to the macrofaunal biosphere. This new evidence of bioturbation in Permian sandstones at many metres below the seabed suggests that we need to adapt sampling strategies when looking for macrofaunal life in the deep biosphere. Targeting sandy successions in deep-marine systems offers potential for observing the behaviour and diversity of organisms at greater depths than has so far been hitherto appreciated in modern deep-sea sediments.
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An Investigation for CNC Turning Parameters for Machining EN 24

An Investigation for CNC Turning Parameters for Machining EN 24

Vikas B. Magdum et al [7] carried investigation to evaluate and optimize the machining parameters for turning of EN 8 steel using HSS M2, Carbide and Cermet tools. N.Zeelan Basha et al [8] optimized turning process parameters on Aluminium 6061 using Genetic Algorithm. Optimum surface finish was obtained at maximum cutting speed, minimum feed and minimum depth of cut. Y.B. Kumbhar et al [9] investigated tool life and surface finish optimization of PVD TiAlN/TiN multilayer coated Carbide tool inserts in semi hard turning of hardened EN-31 alloy steel under dry cutting conditions. Maximum tool life is obtained at low cutting speed, moderate feed and depth of cut. Feed rate was found to be the most significant factor for tool life. Feed rate was also the most significant factor for surface roughness.
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The Development of Alternative Trading Systems in the U.K. Gilts Market: Lessons and Implications*

The Development of Alternative Trading Systems in the U.K. Gilts Market: Lessons and Implications*

This approach is similar to the mandatory liquidity provision common in most European government bond markets. The DMO believes that a central committed market will provide a benefit to the entire market, ensuring that GEMMs have access to a minimum depth of liquidity in certain stocks and that prices in that market are fully efficient, allowing the GEMMs to carry on their wider market-making activities in confidence. This will be of particular value in an environment where a number of (potentially exclusive) trading venues exist. The DMO hopes that this model will make it more

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SPEL Tankstor and Separator installation instructions

SPEL Tankstor and Separator installation instructions

3. Place first 300mm lift of backfill evenly around the tank by shovelling and pushing beneath the tank bottom, between ribs and end domes to ensure complete support and to eliminate voids. (Where access is confined, long handled probes, curved to enable reaching the underside of the tank, can be used). Place and compact further 300mm lifts as above to a minimum depth of 1/3rd tank diameter. The remainder of the backfill can be poured without consolidation except where required to support a cover slab.

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Hydraulic Design & Analysis of Underground Drainage System: for a Zone in Tumkur City

Hydraulic Design & Analysis of Underground Drainage System: for a Zone in Tumkur City

Manual calculations were done considering the design parameters such as self cleansing velocity, minimum size of sewer, minimum depth of cover, maximum depth of sewer invert, flow characteristics, hydraulic design consideration & slope of Sewers. For the design of Sewer Network, circular closed conduits with 60 % partial full conditions are adopted with the self cleansing velocity ranging from 0.60 m/s to 0.80 m/s. But minimum velocity of 0.40 m/s is acceptable by the regulatory guidelines [5] .
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ter availability conditions. Figures 3 to 5 are for simple house connections where toilet is flushed by pouring with buckets. Figures 6 to 8 are for full house connection with adequate water sup- ply conditions. In this case, the shower, the sink taps, the water closet and kitchen connections are in full service. Figures 9 to 11 are for an average Nigerian house located in an urban area where water is purchased from commercial water sup- pliers. Figures 12 to 14 are for the basic water re- quirement. Here, water is not in abundance but is sufficient to meet basic needs. The residual depth per occupant is then traced horizontally to meet the residual depth per occupant curve. From this point, the line is produced vertically to cut the length and width curves as well as the horizontal axis which represents the area of the tank. The length and width are noted. The volume of sludge corresponding to the desired (chosen) desludging interval is obtained from Figure 1. The depth of sludge is obtained by dividing the volume of sludge by the plane area read off from Figures 3 to 14. The total depth of tank becomes the sum of sludge depth, overall residual depth and depth of reserve volume. The depth of the re- serve space should be equal to the residual depth since it is based on 24 hours detention time. If the overall depth of the tank is much higher than the length, a lower overall residual depth should be chosen and the design repeated.
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Structure-function relationships in glaucoma using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography-derived parameters: a cross-sectional observational study

Structure-function relationships in glaucoma using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography-derived parameters: a cross-sectional observational study

(iBMO-MRW). Only high quality images were considered for analysis, showing at least a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 25 dB as recommended by the OCT device manufac- turer. To increase LC visibility at the EDI OCT scans, image contrast was optimized to the maximum level and image colors were switched (black or white) as needed using the device software. The line connecting Bruch’s membrane edges was used as a reference plane for all depth measure- ments [15]. The selected parameters were measured in the B-scans based on the horizontal center of the ONH using the built-in software calipers (linear measurements; unit: μm). Area measurements were also taking (manually mea- sured) using the built-in software calipers (unit of measure- ment: mm 2 ). If the selected image presented vascular shadows which compromised the LC or prelaminar tissues visualization, we used the closest temporal B-scan that did not present such artifacts (approximately 30 μm apart). As a result, LC and PLNT were measured as close to the hori- zontal center of the ONH as possible. The thickness of the LC was defined as the distance between the anterior and posterior borders of the highly reflective region at the verti- cal center of the ONH in the vertical EDI OCT cross-sectional B-scans [16]. PLNT was defined as the per- pendicular distance between the anterior PLNT surface and the anterior surface of the LC. Cup depth was defined as the perpendicular distance from the reference line to the anterior PLNT surface. BMO-MRW was defined as the
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Coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonate – a new archive to estimate the Last Glacial minimum permafrost depth in Central Europe

Coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonate – a new archive to estimate the Last Glacial minimum permafrost depth in Central Europe

In the eastern part of the Czech Republic (Moravia), only a single locality with coarsely crystalline CCC occurrence is known at the relatively shallow depth of 30 m below the sur- face (Javoˇr´ıˇcko Caves). The same cavity also hosts other indi- cations of former ice fill (e.g. destroyed speleothems and “ice attachments”). In the large cave systems of the slightly more southerly located Moravian Karst, no CCC site is known. This absence is possibly due to the existence of abundant underground water streams in this karst region, which could produce extensive taliks. Relatively thick permafrost in the northern part of Moravia is indicated by the observation of R˚uˇziˇckov´a and Zeman (1992), who described post-cryogenic structures down to a depth of 220 m in the Blahutovice bore- hole. Unfortunately, this observation is not accompanied by dating and it is not clear when the observed features did form. All the sites in Slovakia are located in mountainous ar- eas. Greater depths for the coarsely crystalline CCC sites can be expected here since even today some of these caves ex- hibit relatively low temperatures. The deepest studied site in Mesaˇcn´y Tieˇn Cave in the High Tatra mountains is located at a depth of 285 m (surface elevation approx. 1800 m a.s.l.). The present-day temperature of the cave interior varies be- tween 1.0 and 3.5 ◦ C (B. ˇSm´ıda, personal communication, 2011; no precise temperature measurements have been per- formed to date). This deep occurrence of coarsely crystalline CCC is in agreement with earlier estimates of Weichselian permafrost depth for the High Tatra mountains, with poten- tial Weichselian permafrost depths down to 400 m below the surface (Dobi´nski, 2004).
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Studies on distribution and biology of an ornamental fish, Puntius shalynius Yazdani and Talukdar in Meghalaya

Studies on distribution and biology of an ornamental fish, Puntius shalynius Yazdani and Talukdar in Meghalaya

The abiotic and biotic parameters of stream and pond were investigated for a period of two years in stream and for one year in pond. Seasonal variations of 11 o C (January) to 25 o C (July) observed in water temperature of stream and 12 o C (December) to 25 o C (July) in pond affirmed the subtropical nature of the two systems. The pH of water ranged from 4.87 to 6.69 in stream and 5.11 to 6.42 in pond indicating the acidic nature of the water. The conductivity value ranged between 0.09 mS (December) and 0.13 mS (April) in stream and 0.09 mS (December) and 0.11 mS (April) in pond water highlighting „soft- water‟ character with low electrolyte concentration. The dissolved oxygen content was moderately high with values of 9.7 mgl -1 (May) in stream and 13.1 mgl -1 (March) in pond. Free carbon dioxide was present throughout the study period with the maximum value in March (18.5 mgl -1 ) and minimum in December (4.6 mgl -1 ) in stream. In pond, the maximum value was observed in December (15.4 mgl -1 ) and minimum in October (6.0 mgl -1 ). The alkalinity values were maximum during February (40.3 and 34 mgl -1 ) in stream and May in pond (42.3 mgl -1 ) while minimum in June (20.6 mgl -1 ) and December (22mgl -
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An Experimental Study of Longitudinal Velocity Distribution at Cross-over and Bend Section of a Compound Meandering Channel

An Experimental Study of Longitudinal Velocity Distribution at Cross-over and Bend Section of a Compound Meandering Channel

and Fig. 9 respectively. From the observation of velocity profiles and isovels for all cases and depth ratio, it is shown that in the bend section velocity increases in the inner bend and decreases in the outer bend. In addition to maximum and minimum velocity is obtained nearest to the inner and outer bend respectively in the bend section of a compound meandering channel. Because in the inner bend flow accelerate i.e. surface wind friction does not dominate and no secondary current is developed but in the outer bend flow decelerate i.e. surface wind resistance dominates intensively and secondary current is developed. In the
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Discussion of “Stability assessment of slopes with cracks using limit analysis”

Discussion of “Stability assessment of slopes with cracks using limit analysis”

The minimum of the curves corresponds to the stability factor associated to the failure mechanism analyzed in the discussed paper for a crack of any depth and location, problem c in Util[r]

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Combined measurements of prey availability explain habitat selection in foraging seabirds

Combined measurements of prey availability explain habitat selection in foraging seabirds

the water depth and u is the maximum depth-averaged current speed) was calculated across the study area. Current speeds (ms -1 ) represented maximum values between April 1 st and 31 st 2016, and were sourced from an existing hydrodynamic model [13]; seabed depth (m) was sourced from EMODnet (http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu/). Before calculations of SI, current speed and depth were transposed onto a 1 km orthogonal grid using kriging

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Spatially distributed water-balance and meteorological data from the rain–snow transition, southern Sierra Nevada, California

Spatially distributed water-balance and meteorological data from the rain–snow transition, southern Sierra Nevada, California

Another need for the water-balance measurements of snowpack and soil-moisture storage was the lack of informa- tion on the variability of these quantities across the landscape on sub-daily timescales. For example, historical records of snowpack at a few select locations, useful as a baseline in- dex, only capture a fraction of the variation in snow depth and snow water equivalent across the mountains (Kerkez et al., 2012; Oroza, 2017). Those historical measurement ap- proaches prove inadequate to support sound decision making in a populous, semi-arid state under a changing climate (Can- tor et al., 2018). Distributed sensor nodes that are stratified by elevation, canopy coverage, and aspect can better describe temporal and spatial patterns in the water balance needed by a new generation of forecast tools (Zhang et al., 2017; Zheng et al., 2018). The Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observa- tory (SSCZO) began in 2007 to quantify these measurements through distributed sensor nodes that are thus stratified. The SSCZO is also a test bed for improving the design, communi-
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Vol 9, No 9 (2020)

Vol 9, No 9 (2020)

For numerical purposes, aerosols dependent variables are called Y, and the independent variables are X, for the considered period of study The transformation of the year variable into the year-centered variable – year minus the midpoint of the studied period – becomes necessary, since in polynomial regression models, the terms of the equation are often highly correlated and express the independent variable. Deviation from their mean value is substantially reduced to the self-correlation among them. A trend analysis of the historical series was performed using a multiple linear regression model that best described the relationship between the independent variable X, i.e., the ozone concentration, the number of heat sources, precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, velocity of winds, and the dependent variable Y, aerosol concentration, according to Eqn. (2).
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Invertebrate diversity in the deep Great Australian Bight (200–5000 m)

Invertebrate diversity in the deep Great Australian Bight (200–5000 m)

Species accumulation curves (Fig. 2) show little plat- eauing with number of samples, suggesting the true number of species in the deep GAB is much higher. Al- though obscured by higher sampling effort at the 1500– 3000 m bathomes, results suggest a decreasing number of species with depth, a trend corroborated by an ac- companying study of GAB megafaunal patterns (Wil- liams et al., 2018a). In addition, while using gear type as a proxy for habitat may suggest a much higher species richness in soft sediment habitats, this is more likely the result of the larger size and sampling area of the Beam Trawl, which has not been controlled for here. The total amount of sampling effort on hard substrates was much lower, due to the selective nature of ROV sampling and limited number of Rock Dredge and Benthic Sled opera- tions. Ongoing analysis of photographic transects at soft sediment, volcanic seamounts and rocky outcrops will help elucidate the differences in community composition between substrate types (Williams et al., 2018c).
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The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton IV.  The apparent importance of light intensity as a controlling factor in the behaviour of certain species in the Plymouth area

The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton IV. The apparent importance of light intensity as a controlling factor in the behaviour of certain species in the Plymouth area

If the light intensity units be also regarded as depth units, and if collections are made by the net in the region of the maximum, optimum and minimum light intensities, we shall obtain [r]

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HABITAT REQUIREMENT OF SELECTED GRASSES OF RAJKOT (HETROPOGON CONTORTUS, ARISTIDA ADSCENSIONIS AND MELANOCENCHRIS JACQUEMONTII)

HABITAT REQUIREMENT OF SELECTED GRASSES OF RAJKOT (HETROPOGON CONTORTUS, ARISTIDA ADSCENSIONIS AND MELANOCENCHRIS JACQUEMONTII)

urea and single superphosphate at the rate of 60 kg and 60+30 kgha -1 respectively. Soils contained in remaining nine cylinders of fourth subset for each depth of top soil were not applied with fertilizers and served as control. Subsequently, cylinders for each subset were further arranged in three groups for water treatments. Soils of first group of cylinders were watered at alternate days, those of second group at every fourth days and still those of third group at weekly intervals. Thus soil containing cylinders were arranged in a factorial design with four depths of top soil, four fertilizers treatments and three watering.
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Section 604 applies to land in the Rural Industrial (RI) District. 1. P means the use is a primary use. 2. A means the use is an accessory use.

Section 604 applies to land in the Rural Industrial (RI) District. 1. P means the use is a primary use. 2. A means the use is an accessory use.

Nonconforming Dwellings: Notwithstanding Subsections 604.04(B) and (C), the minimum rear and side yard depth standards applicable in the RA-2 District apply to dwellings that are nonc[r]

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The Complexity of Formula Minimization

The Complexity of Formula Minimization

The expansion described above differs from the expansion strategy used in the MEE reduction, in which a conjunction of w(v) new variables was used rather than an XOR. Our strategy has the advantages that it handles negation without requiring a possible increase in the depth of the formula and can be easily applied to SPP formulae. Lemma 2.3.1 demonstrates that applying this simple transformation is equivalent to positive integer weighting.

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