The purpose of this paper is to examine whether giving full information feedback raises the coordination level in minimum-effort game. In experimental design there are 2 treatments, that is, full feedback group (treatment I) and limit feedback group (treatment II). Full feedback group is the experiment group in which the subject is in- formed of his own payoff in the period, other group members’ choices in this period and historical choices of last 10 periods, as well as maximum, minimum and average effort level of group in this period and last 10 pe- riods. Limit feedback group is the control group in which the subject is informed of his own payoff and mini- mum effort of the group in the period. In each treatment, there are 10 groups in each of which 6 subjects play the minimum-effort game simultaneously, and the game repeats 50 times in each group to observe the coordination outcome in the long run. Our results indicate that full feedback group coordinates at higher level of effort than limit feedback group, thus, knowing others’ historical strategies in the group contributes to overcome coordina- tion failure.
and minimumeffort problems in terms of L 1 and L ∞ norms. The optimality systems obtained are nonlinear and non-differentiable, which results in bang-bang type optimal control. To overcome this difficulty, a regularized problem is formulated, which is then discretized. Then the semi-smooth Newton method is applied to solve the semi-smooth optimality system. The initialization of the Newton method is achieved by solving the L 2 minimum norm problem. Then we use the continuation method based on sensitivity analysis to solve the problem with varying parameters.
Don’t let your talent go to waste and let the world know who you are! Think of it this way: You can be creative AND you can earn money at the same time. It’s a great way to show the world who you are. Or, if you have some vintage items lying around the house and if you’re no longer using them, then this website is the best place to sell those. It’s a creative people heaven so take advantage of that. And, what’s best is that you know someone gave their time and effort to create something and that something is now in your hands. You know that you got something that was special for someone once upon a time and that really means something.
Simultaneous game-play has been under-studied to date and findings about the effect of behavioral spillover in simultaneous settings have been mixed. Our laboratory experiment provides additional evidence of the effect of simultaneous game-play in minimum- and median- effort coordination games on individual behavior. Previous experimental research has demonstrated that behavior in simultaneous settings differs from games played in isolation, but for games that differ from those we study. Bednar et al. (2010) report a laboratory experiment with two-player bimatrix games that produce behavioral spillovers. When two distinct games are played simultaneously with different opponents, behavior differs from the isolated controls. The authors conclude that subjects apply similar heuristics across games and that the type of game played influences individual behavior in predictable ways. Playing ensembles of games is cognitively difficult and compels agents to apply similar strategies to distinct games in order to reduce their cognitive burdens (Bednar and Page, 2007; Samuelson, 2001). However, when two identical minimum-effort coordination games or two identical public goods games are played simultaneously with different opponents, behavior does not differ from isolated controls (Falk et al., 2011).
In the version of the minimumeffort game in Van Huyck et al. (1990), players simultaneously select an effort level. Player i’s payoff depends on his choice and the minimumeffort in the group (Van Huyck et al., 1990). In particular, the payoff for a given subject is: Provided that the payoff function and strategy set are common knowledge, the game has 7 strict Pareto-ranked Nash equilibria, where each subject selects the same effort level with their counterpart. In the payoff-dominant equilibrium, all players select, while in the risk-dominant equili- brium all players select. With the lower equilibrium effort level, the equilibrium payoff decrease gradually.
The 40-year-old accounting practice does the vast majority of its business in personal income tax returns, plus around 600 small business returns including many companies and trusts. Reckon Elite’s practice management software is the tool that ensures Mr Vail and his staff complete those returns with minimumeffort and maximum accuracy.
Software Effort Estimation has always been an ongoing challenge to software engineers, as testing is one of most critical activities of SDLC. Now-a-days, accurate & reliable effort estimation is the need of software companies. There are various models and techniques used to estimate the software project effort. However, due to some factors or causes, they are unable to give accurate results. So, this paper act as torchbearer to various questions related to factors, importance of estimation, problem faced by estimation techniques, guidelines etc. of effort estimation. In this paper, we also summarized existing techniques that used for effort estimation. Keywords: Function Point Analysis (FPA), WBS, User Case Point (UCP), Wideband Delphi Technique, Three Point Estimation, Percentage of development effort method, Percentage distribution
Entrepreneurs allocate resources among different activities that generates a profit; in particular, in this paper entrepreneurs consider at each instant of time both innovation and rent-seeking as alternative sources of profit. The consequences in terms of economic growth are obviously quite different: the higher the amount of innovations in the economy the higher the rate of economic growth and vice versa. What are the determinants of these different entrepreneurial behavior? Is there anything in the nature of entrepreneurs that essentially distinguishes between innovators and rent seekers? A main claim of this paper is that differences among entrepreneurs are not essential but of degree: all of them are in fact profit-seekers and the only difference is to be found in their attitude towards innovation as a source of profit. In this sense entrepreneurial effort is defined and modelled for each entrepreneur according to its propensity to innovate and the corresponding Entrepreneurial Problem (EP) is posed and solved both analytically and via simulation in terms of profit maximization. The individual decisions measured in units of innovation are then aggregated to calculate the innovation quantity for a given population based on the distribution of heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurship rate and the implications for economic growth are also modelled. Consequently, policy makers should focus on reducing the entry barriers and the costs of production in order to stimulate the entrepreneurial activity and maximize the innovation quantity.
processes are highly non-linear and dynamic. Design of Multivariable control system is of great demand in the process industries. Systems with more than one actuating control input and more than one sensor output are considered as Output (MIMO) systems. These systems are one in which interactions are not negligible. This paper describes a multivariable process of a laboratory process, the quadruple conical tank system using which the nonlinearities and uncertainties in industrial process can be analyzed. Here is done using the First principle. Here steady state analysis and on of the quadruple tank system in both minimum and non minimum phase is Process Control Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B.Wayne Bequette, Modern Control Engineering, Fourth Edition by Katsuhiko Ogata; Anna
repeatability coefficient in the Brazil nut was estimated by Pedrozo et al. (2015) and Assis (2016) from the methodology of mixed models. However, there is still little research that evaluates the number of measurements needed to select superior genotypes of the Brazil nut, using multivariate techniques. Therefore, we performed this study to estimate the minimum number of measurements needed for more accurate evaluation of Brazil nut genotypes based on the number of fruits and dry mass of seeds, in addition to identifying the most efficient method to estimate the repeatability coefficients.
Most of the studies related to maintainability measurements have been on structured and object-oriented systems. Little work has been done with this regard on web applications. Most of the studies applied on web application measure maintainabil- ity using the effort or the Maintainability Index. None of the studies has used understandability, analyzability, modifiability and testability in measuring maintainability. Most studies used source code metrics for measuring maintainability. The draw- back of using source code metrics is that prediction can only be made later in the development project. Early measurements are much better since they help in mitigating risks early in the development process.
Real Time Polling Services (eRTPS) supports real-time service flows that generate variable sized data packets at periodic intervals, for example, VoIP with silence suppression. The fourth service class is called Non Real Time Polling Services (nRTPS). nRTPS supports delay-tolerant data streams that generate variable size data packets. An example for one such type of traffic is the file transfer protocol data (FTP). The last service class, also called Best Effort (BE), supports data streams which do not require any service level, for example Web browsing, Email etc.
The effort invested in a software project is probably one of the most important and most analyzed variables in recent years in the process of project management. The limitation of algorithmic effort prediction models is their inability to cope with uncertainties and imprecision surrounding software projects at the early development stage. More recently attention has turned to a variety of machine learning methods, and soft computing in particular to predict software development effort. Soft computing is a consortium of methodologies centering in fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and evolutionary computation. It is important to mention here that these methodologies are complementary and synergistic rather than competitive. They provide in one form or another flexible information processing capability for handling real life ambiguous situations. These methodologies are currently used for reliable and accurate estimate of software development effort which has always been a challenge for both the software industry and academia. The aim of this study is to analyze soft computing techniques in the existing models and to provide in depth review of software and project estimation techniques existing in industry and literature based on the different test datasets along with their strength and weaknesses.
This study was anchored on the theory of tax structure development as advanced by Hinricks (1966).This theory explains the connection between the economic structure and nature of tax base as well as the availability of tax bases to raise revenue. In developed and developing countries of the world, tax system crosses through series of stages in the economic development process. (Hinricks, 1966; and Musgrave, 1969). Economic development is said to have a tough effect on the tax base of a country’s economy. The theory recommends that at the prior stages of economic development, the economic structure charges harsh restrictions on the structure of the system. Hence, there is a great level of tax avoidance and evasion. Furthermore, taxes are difficult to collect due to the absence of the machinery for tax collection and administration (Hinricks, 1966). Majority of countries with low incomes also suffer from low tax collection and low tax effort. Low tax collection indicates that tax revenue collected is below its potential. As economic development strides forward and the economic structure grows, new opportunities spring up for countries to promote their tax revenue effort. At this stage, the attainable taxable capacity of a state relies not just on income but on controlled factors like the level of consumption, variations in price, structural composition of the economy, income distribution etc (Bird et al, 2008).
Smith claims that “the loose syntax and flowing rhythm of the earlier lines are abruptly tightened and arrested at the beginning of line 13: ‘I write of Hell’” and that this produces a sense of closure. Smith also says that the introduction of ‘hope’ brings the only new verb into the poem other than ‘write’ and ‘sing’ and that this introduction of a new form at the end ‘strengthens closure’. We might counter that both formal changes are accompanied by a loosening of form, by the use of the poem's only parenthetical (a loosening of syntactic structure) in line 13, and by the move from a strict two-verb pattern throughout the poem to a final three-verb pattern. Thus it is not always clear whether any particular formal change should be interpreted as a tightening or loosening of form. We can avoid this problem by just characterising the end of the poem as involving various formal changes, all of which increase processing effort, in this case linguistic processing effort. The addition of 'hope' increases processing effort because it is the first time a new verb has been introduced into a poem which has previously used only 'write' and 'sing'. The parenthetical increases processing effort because it interrupts the processing of the syntactic structure of its host sentence.