This paper presents design and simulation of an inertial electromagnetic micro energy harvester which is able to produce energy from low level environmental vibrations. The proposed device benefits from mechanical frequency up-conversion technique to improve amount of average generated power and systems efficiency, besides it can work over a range of frequencies since there is no need for resonance because of up-converting mechanism. The minimumfrequency needed to trigger all of four beams is 75Hz and device works efficiently in higher frequencies as long as the relative displacement of barrier is enough to trigger beams. The average power resulted from each beam in excitation frequency of 75Hz is 46.6µW which means total power of 186.4µW and power density of 145.6µW/cm 3 , where the internal size of device is 0.64cm 3 . The Generated power will increase in higher external frequencies. In addition to works done in this study it is possible to make device appropriate for lower
individuality was assessed with regard to a population of great spotted kiwi (Apteryx haastii) residing in the Hawdon Valley, Canterbury, New Zealand. Acoustic recorders were installed near the breeding den sites of seven great spotted kiwi pairs between November 2012 and March 2013. In total 303 whistle vocalisations were recorded during this time. A range of temporal and spectral parameters were measured from the highest quality recordings. These measurements were taken at a whole call and individual syllable level. Call parameters were; number of syllables, syllable rate and syllable duration. Syllable parameters were; minimumfrequency (Hz), maximum frequency (Hz), bandwidth (Hz), duration (sec) and peak frequency (Hz). These variables were used to describe and classify calls using one-way repeated measures ANOVAs and stepwise discriminant function analysis.
Ghosting defects occurs when large amount of ink is transferred on some area of the image which required lower amount of ink. The results of the finding depicted that maximum frequency of occurrence was recorded for 36 in case of Punjab Kesari newspaper. Minimumfrequency was 6 recorded for Amar Ujala newspaper as shown in figure 5.
The signals were fast Fourier transformed after filtering of the 6th degree Butter Worth Filter (low pass filter)using MATLAB R2017b (MathWorks Inc., Natick). The following parameters were analyzed: mean power frequency (MPF), first minimumfrequency (FMF: It was detected as the minimum value of power between the first and second peaks using MATLAB program.), spectral areas of the low (SAL) and high (SAH) frequency bands, and the relative ratio (RR) of SAL to SAH. SAL indicates the area of the fre- quency band from the minimum value to the FMF [14, 15]. SAH indicates the area of the frequency band from the FMF to the Nyquist frequency (Figure 4).
In this study, we designed an automatic search method to find appropriate analysis parameters for GOT, which eliminates the trial-and-error process. We first generalized the conditions for the minimum time spacing limit and the minimumfrequency spacing limit from simulations, under which the Gabor coeﬃcient spectrum with Gaussian window will well separate order components. The conditions were then utilized to generate an analysis window in the improved GOT flowchart. Our simulation results and real applications both verified its eﬀectiveness. According to the improved flowchart, as long as σ t,min ≤ σ t,max , any value within [σ t,min , σ t,max ] for σ t will guarantee well-separated
Next, the resulted linear equations in terms of S(∆f ) are applied in the total link power budget as the contribution of the interferer system and, at the same time, the total thermal noise floor for the victim receiver with its channel bandwidth is obtained. Accordingly, each curve or coexistence scenario in Fig. 1 can be realized using Eqs. (6)–(9), as explained below, and Eqs. (2)– (5) are found out by adjusting, for example, the spectrum frequency offset desired, and/or additional isolation loss and/or the necessary separation distance that are required to satisfy coexistence conditions.
The following Tables [5.a, 5.b, 5.c, 5.d] shows that various inputs given as minimum length (Min Len) Minimum number of each pattern repeated called frequency (Min Rep) and Error Threshold ()the Carnatic Songs Collection of 238 Songs and the output shows number of repeating patterns obtained and the execution time is taken for each test.
are more married household heads in his research on gender considerations in decision making in rural Nigeria. The average household size of seven persons suggested that household size in the study area is fairly large and that it will be a vital source of labour for agricultural production activities since rural areas is predominantly agrarian. Most of the respondents had no formal education, with farming being the dominant occupation practiced in the study area. This might be attributed to the fact that the majority of the respondents in the study area are fairly old and may not have had the opportunity of attempting/completing the basic primary education. With monthly average household income of N16, 888, the average household income was below the minimum wage of N18, 000 in Nigeria. This is an indication that average household income was very low in the study area in agreement with the findings of Ibitoye and Oguntade (2015), who reported that average income from agrarian rural communities is generally low. However, it was revealed that most of the respondents in the study area belong to the Christian faith.
From the above graph it can be observed that 13.72% difference of natural frequency is obtained for 1st mode between experimental (30.625Hz) and modal analysis (34.826Hz). But at higher modes, the percentage difference of frequency increases. This is because of lack of measured DOFs compared with respect to the FE model. This difference is considerable at higher modes since they reflect local responses of the system, thus the number of measurement points play an important role for the accuracy of the estimation. Since in this experiment only one measurement point is considered that is at the tip of the rotor blade for all the modes (1 to 6), the natural frequency only for the 1st bending mode is most accurate. If the number of measurement points increases, the accuracy of natural frequency at higher modes increases.
On induction and at least once every three years thereafter. The frequency should be reviewed following any untoward medicines event or where a need for update training on the management of medicines has been identified during the home’s medicines auditing/monitoring programme. Competency assessments should be performed at induction, and reviewed annually or after an untoward medicines event
The figure of merit is an evaluation criterion for the entire DVB-T receiving system. In this context, for all system components the environment is considered. For a minimum required C/N defined by modulation parameters, it is possible to deduce to the required figure of merit of a receiving system from the expected field strength E for any location (see ETSI TR 101 190). For each receiving frequency the figure of merit is a function of the minimum required signal-to-noise ratio and of the received field strength:
At present, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been embraced in many standards such as asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), wireless local area networks (WLANs) and digital video broadcasting (DVB)             .The objective of the Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is to transform a frequency- selective fading channel in to multiple-selective fading channels. This transformation is used for designing a receiver using the simple signal processing techniques . Without introducing the inter-channel interference, the orthogonality of the subcarriers allows the overlapping between the sub- bands, and therefore, the spectral efficiency is increased. However, OFDM systems are highly sensitive to frequency synchronization errors, which are referred to as carrier frequency offset (CFO)   . It is occurred when the
In dynamic channel assignment strategy, temporarily assigned channels are used in the cells during the period of the call. Allocation of channels to cells is not permanently allocated. Every time a call attempt is made from a cell the corresponding Base Station (BS) demands a channel from Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Next, channels are allocated to the demanding the BS by MSC. The channels are returned to central pool when the call is end. The channel can reassigned at the same time to another cell in the system with the condition of separation between the two cells must bigger than the required minimum separation in order to avoid co- channel interference. In comparison with the FCA, DCA has less probability of cutting off and even expanded the trunking capacity of the system as all of the channels are accessible to every cell. However, this category of assignment scheme brings in excessive load on switching center at large traffic status.
personal income tax in Saskatchewan is $8,778. This means that a person can earn $8,778 of income before paying income tax. Currently, residents of Alberta are able to earn $15,435 before any deductions are taken from their pay cheque, which serves to significantly increase the take-home income of lower-income earners. For example, if Saskatchewan were to match Alberta’s basic personal exemption, an individual earning $7.95 per hour would be taking home $14,478.20 after taxes and deductions, earning more than they would have under a minimum wage increase of $0.45 per hour higher. A strategy to implement a higher basic personal exemption would result in higher take-home pay for a greater number of wage earners. While some may argue such a move is costly to the provincial treasury, CFIB believes increasing the basic exemption for those earning under $25,000 would be a good start. Even the Manitoba Minimum Wage Board agrees, stating that, “a combination of strategies is essential to alleviate poverty (including an) increase in personal tax exemptions.” CFIB urges the Minimum Wage Board to recommend the option of increasing the basic personal and spousal exemptions as an effective means of increasing the income for low-income earners.
length, width, crossing angle, and offset providing minimum axial ratio of circular polarization and VSWR. The constructed antenna with optimized parameters was measured, resulting the minimum axial ratio of 1.09 and VSWR of 1.01 comparable to theoretical calculations. Some other key characteristics such as characteristic impedance and radiation power at the operating frequency of 8.7 GHz were also studied and measured.
• Metadata must be collected about the record and maintained with the record, either embedded in it, or stored separately. Descriptive metadata is used for the indexing, discovery, and identification of a digital resource. At a minimum, descriptive metadata should include creator, date, collector, and description. Land and property transactions should include the grantor/grantee names, PIN number, attributes if necessary, and description. Administrative metadata is information that is needed for the management of the digital object, which includes information regarding ownership, transfer information, access and display, and rights management. Preservation metadata that needs to be collected includes the file format, record type, e.g. tax map or correspondence, the operating system, software configurations, the rights/security, and versioning information.
empirical cumulative frequency distribution of LAI for April and December that are reported in Fig. 3a and c, being these months with the highest and the lowest values of NDVI, re- spectively. Such distributions include LAI values, within the Candelaro basin, covered by either cropland (63.6% of the basin area), or shrubland (3.1%), or deciduous vege- tation (broadleaf and conifer for 0.2%). In the same fig- ures, we report as vertical lines some reference values (min- imum and maximum) reported by literature (see Scurlock et al., 2001; Hagemann, 2002; LDAS, 2007 1 ) for the men- tioned vegetation covers. The comparison in Fig. 3a shows that the function of Caraux-Garson provides values of LAI much smaller than those given by the literature in a period when vegetation has the most significant activity. On the other hand, the Beer law yields, especially in December, many negative LAI values which are physically inconsistent and have been replaced with zeros (see Fig. 3c). Such pre- liminary investigation indicates that, according to the avail- able NDVI dataset, the NDVI back parameter needs to be
Consistency The consistency value is meant to represent how constant the use of a particular observation is, so that it can be assessed whether the observation is used in a similar way in the unknown document. For example, the standard deviation of the (relative) frequency of the observation among the known documents is a valid indicator (the lower it is, the higher the consistency is). Other statistics are available, e.g. range between minimum and maximum, ratio between first and third quartile, etc. However these statistics are more reliable with a high number of known documents, and require at the very least two distinct documents.