Minor salivary gland

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Transoral endoscopic head and neck surgery (eHNS) for minor salivary gland tumors of the oropharynx

Transoral endoscopic head and neck surgery (eHNS) for minor salivary gland tumors of the oropharynx

This study further demonstrates the safety of transoral eHNS (both TLM and TORS) in approaching tumors of the oropharynx and adds to current data demonstrating the efficacy of these techniques in the management of minor salivary gland malignancies [43]. The data presented here compare favorably to another series that described the use of TORS to manage patients with either T1 or T2 minor salivary gland tumors of the oro- pharynx [43]. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most fre- quently encountered in this experience and only 30% of patients were found to have close margins (<5 mm). Radiation therapy was given to 40% of patients and most did well: at an average follow-up of 24 months, 70% of patients were disease-free [43]. Our series adds to this data, presents a more diverse set of pathology, and extends follow-up and further demonstrates the value of transoral eHNS in minor salivary gland tumors of the oropharynx.
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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland in Buccal mucosa  A rare case report

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland in Buccal mucosa A rare case report

malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is the most common malignant tumor of the parotid gland and the second most common malignant tumor of the Brad W. Neville, 2002) Mucoepidermoid rs as asymptomatic swellings in minor salivary glands, being the second most common site of occurrence after the parotid gland, most commonly located on palate, followed by (Fatih Sengul et al., 2013) Only few cases have been reported in literature regarding the MEC’s of minor salivary gland tumors in buccal We report a case of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland in a 26yr old female patient. She presented with swelling in the left buccal mucosa, which was noticed gradually increased to its present size. In children and adolescents, MECs have a female predilection and occur most commonly on the hard and soft palate or both and rare in buccal mucosa. The surgical excision of the swelling was successful with no recurrence reported. The ss occupying this territory of minor salivary glands represent intellectually stimulating diciplines because of the relative paucity of theses lesions in these
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Role of the mTOR pathway in minor salivary gland changes in Sjogren’s syndrome and systemic sclerosis

Role of the mTOR pathway in minor salivary gland changes in Sjogren’s syndrome and systemic sclerosis

α -SMA: Alpha smooth muscle actin; ACR: American College of Rheumatology; AECG: American-European Consensus Group; Akt: Protein kinase B; AMP: Adenosine monophosphate; AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; Bcl- 2: B-cell lymphoma 2; BUT: Breakup time; CD4: Cluster of differentiation; eIF4E: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; ERK: Extracellular signal- regulated kinases; EULAR: European League Against Rheumatism; H&E: Hematoxylin and eosin; HLA: Human leukocyte antigen; IHC: Immunohistochemical; IL: Interleukin; JAK: Janus activated kinase; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase; mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid; MSGB: Minor salivary gland biopsy; mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin; mTORC1: Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1; mTORC2: Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2; NF- κ B: Nuclear factor kappa B; PI3K: Phosphoinositol-3-kinase; PKB: Protein kinase B; PKC: Protein kinase C; PTEN: Phosphatase and tensin homolog; S6K1: S6 kinase 1; SD: Standard deviation; SMAD: Small mothers against decapentaplegic; SPSS: Statistical Package of Social Science; SS: Sjogren ’ s syndrome; SSc: Systemic sclerosis; STAT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription; TGF: Transforming growth factor
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A clinical analysis of nine new pediatric and adolescent cases of benign minor salivary gland neoplasms and a review of the literature

A clinical analysis of nine new pediatric and adolescent cases of benign minor salivary gland neoplasms and a review of the literature

Information regarding the biologic behavior of minor salivary gland PAs in children and adolescents is, in gen- eral, underprovided. The risk of recurrence of PAs has been speculated to be lower if arising from the minor salivary glands rather than the major glands [34]. In fact, Chau and Radden reported follow-up on 27 intra-oral PAs in patients over a wide age range (second to eighth decade) treated by excisional biopsy and found no recur- rences (mean follow-up period 5.3 years), including in two neoplasms which were incompletely excised and two where the tumor extended to the surgical margins [35]. Additionally, Budnick reported a PA in the upper lip of a 17-year-old black woman which was incom- pletely excised and had no evidence of recurrence on 3 years of follow-up [7]. The recurrence rate of PAs in minor salivary glands of children in our study was 13.0%, which is of clinical significance. This recurrence rate was recorded from 24 well-documented pediatric and adolescent PAs with an average follow-up duration of 9.2 years. The three recurrent PAs involved the hard palate, with one causing bone resorption, one with no bone involvement [19] and one case did not state if there was bone involvement [3]. The assessment for pos- sible causes of recurrence in the three cases varied. The size of the lesion was recorded in two of the three recur- rent cases; both were 2.0cm or less in diameter. With regards the surgical margins of these recurrent cases, Byars et al. [3] did not comment on the state of the sur- gical margins, Shaaban et al. [19] reported the surgical margins in the definitive excision were free of tumor and, in the LSUSD case, the margins could not be defini- tively determined as treatment consisted of tumor exci- sion with curettage of the involved palatal bone, making assessment difficult to evaluate with certainty.
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Case Report Usefulness of minor salivary gland biopsy in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease: a case report

Case Report Usefulness of minor salivary gland biopsy in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease: a case report

Although IgG4-RD is distinct from Sjogren syn- drome, several researchers have indicated that minor salivary gland biopsy may be useful in IgG4-RD diagnosis. Baer et al. reported the usefulness of minor salivary gland biopsy in the diagnosis of Mikulicz’s disease [10]. This is a first case report, which can be diagnosed as IgG4-RD by minor salivary gland biopsy. Moreover, we previously have reported the sim- ilar case of IgG4-RD with retroperitoneal fibro- sis [11]. In the case, the number of IgG4- positive plasma cells per HPF did not exceed 10 and the percentage of IgG4+/IgG+ did not exceed 40% in the minor salivary gland speci- mens. Thus, our previous report did not fulfill the histopathologic criteria for IgG4-RD diagno- sis, allowing us to diagnosis the patient with only “possible” IgG4-RD [2, 11]. In contrast to our previous case, the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells per HPF exceeded 100 and the percentage of IgG4+/IgG+ exceeded 40% in the minor salivary gland specimens of the patient; hence, we were able to diagnosis him with “definitive” IgG4-RD in the present case. Moreover, we investigated other IgG4-RD patients who have been treated in our hospital, and confirmed that 57.1% (4/7) of the patients with IgG4-RD revealed the positive finding in minor salivary gland biopsy (data not shown). Although analysis of a larger number of patients is required for confirmation of our findings, we strongly suggest that minor salivary gland biop- sy is useful for IgG4-RD diagnosis in patients for whom target organ biopsy is difficult to perform.
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Frequency and Distribution Pattern of Minor Salivary Gland Tumors in a Government Dental Teaching Hospital, Chennai, India

Frequency and Distribution Pattern of Minor Salivary Gland Tumors in a Government Dental Teaching Hospital, Chennai, India

minor salivary gland neoplasms and observed that the age range in their patients was 13 to79 years with a mean age of 44±18.9 years, for males being 43±17.5 and females 44±20.2. For benign neoplasms, the age ranged from13 to 79 years with a mean age of 42±18.9 years and the mean age for both males and females was 42 years. For malignant neoplasms, the age ranged from 15 to 79 years with a mean age of 45±18.8 years and the mean age for both males and females was 45years. The age distribution was bimodal with the first peak in the third decade and second peak in the seventh decade. They reported an equal frequency with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Palate (61%) was most commonly affected which was followed by cheek (14%), upper lip (10%), retromolar region(7%), lower lip(2%), tongue (1%) and intra-bony (mandible 2%, maxilla1%).
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True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of tonsillar minor salivary gland origin: diagnostic imaging and endovascular therapeutic embolization

True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of tonsillar minor salivary gland origin: diagnostic imaging and endovascular therapeutic embolization

Given the degree of enhancement of the tumor and its involvement of the parapharyngeal fat space, the patho- genesis was thought to be a mixed tumor, possibly malig- nant, originating from a minor salivary gland of the pha- ryngeal mucosal space or salivary gland rest of the parapharyngeal spaces. The patient was referred for diag- nostic angiography and therapeutic endovascular emboli- zation in preparation for surgical resection. Angiography showed a mass approximately 6.0 cm in longest dimen- sion, with dramatic neovascularity, intense tumor staining, and some arteriovenous shunting (Fig 1E). The major blood supply came from multiple small branches of the mandibular and pterygoid portions of the left internal max- illary artery, branches of the left ascending pharyngeal artery, and ascending palatine branches of the left and right facial arteries.
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Minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma in children and adolescents: a case series and review of the literature

Minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma in children and adolescents: a case series and review of the literature

Introduction: Because well-documented cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas that are of minor salivary gland origin and occur in children and adolescents have rarely been reported, little information regarding their clinical features and biologic behavior is available. This case report represents a retrospective clinical analysis of five minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas accessioned from a 35-year period at the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry and combines the data with 15 well-documented cases from the English language literature. Case presentation: The five mucoepidermoid carcinomas in patients from birth to 19 years of age accounted for 1.3% of the accessioned minor salivary gland neoplasms. There were an additional 15 well-documented cases in the literature. Combining the data for the 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas resulted in a mean age of 13.5 years and a 2.3:1 female-to-male ratio. Collectively, the hard palate, soft palate, and hard palate/soft palate junction accounted for 85% of the cases. Thirty-five percent of the cases presented as a fluctuant submucosal swelling with surface color alterations. The average duration was five months, and bone involvement occurred in seven cases. A histologic grade of low to intermediate predominated (95%). Surgical removal was the treatment in all cases. Thirteen cases had adequate follow-up of three years or more, and recurrence was documented in only one case. There were no cases of death or metastasis in this series.
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Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Hard and Soft Palate: A Case Presentation and Literature Review of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms

Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Hard and Soft Palate: A Case Presentation and Literature Review of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms

The minor salivary glands account for 22% of all salivary gland neoplasms [5]. Unlike parotid and submandibular salivary gland tumors, tumors originating from the minor salivary glands have a greater chance of malignancy. A retrospective case-series study of 546 minor salivary gland tumors concluded that 56% of minor salivary gland tumors were benign, and 44% were malignant [2]. These results are consistent with other stu- dies, which showed that 57.5% of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors were benign and 42.5% were classified as malignant or potentially malignant [4]. Concerning locali- zation, the oral cavity is the most frequent site of minor salivary gland cancer, primarily appearing in the hard and soft palate, the lips and the buccal mucosa. 55% of the setu- mors occur in the palate-mainly at the junction between the hart and soft palate-and 15% occur in the lips. More specifically, regarding palate tumors, a case-series study showed that these tumors are mainly benign (67% benign, 37% malignant). In addition, the upper lip is more frequently involved than the lower lip. The remaining tumors are distributed about equally among the other glands in the tongue, floor of the mouth, re- tromolar region, buccal mucosa and peritonsillar area [6].
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Role of apoptotic, autophagic and senescence pathways in minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

Role of apoptotic, autophagic and senescence pathways in minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a salivary gland malignancy with poor long-term survival, which warrants studies aimed at clarifying the pathogenesis of this disease in order to widen the scope of therapeutic options currently available. Alterations in regulatory mechanisms relating to vascular support, cell death and autophagy are important pathways for tumor growth in cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to access vascular supply, apoptosis, autophagy and cell senescence in ACC of minor salivary glands.

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Long non coding RNA expression profile in minor salivary gland of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

Long non coding RNA expression profile in minor salivary gland of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

examine the potential mechanism of pSS. The GO re- sults indicated that the most significantly enriched cel- lular components of upregulated mRNAs in LSGs of pSS were the external side of the plasma membrane, im- munological synapse, and MHC class II protein complex (Fig. 5a). The most significantly enriched molecular functions of upregulated mRNAs were peptide antigen binding, MHC class II receptor activity, and transmem- brane signaling receptor activity (Fig. 5a). The most sig- nificantly enriched biological processes of upregulated mRNAs were immune response, inflammatory response, and cytokine-mediated signaling pathway (Fig. 5a). The most significantly enriched cellular components of downregulated mRNAs in LSGs of pSS were host cell nucleus, nucleus, and nucleolus (Fig. 5b). The most sig- nificantly enriched molecular functions of downregu- lated mRNAs were heparanase activity, monooxygenase activity, and mu-type opioid receptor binding (Fig. 5b). The most significantly enriched biological processes of downregulated mRNAs were transmembrane transport, mammary gland alveolus development, and potassium ion homeostasis (Fig. 5b). DE mRNAs were analyzed in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG).
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The concordance of minor salivary gland histology with the clinical parameters in patients with a provisional diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome

The concordance of minor salivary gland histology with the clinical parameters in patients with a provisional diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome

An aggregate of more than 50 lymphocytes and histiocytes, usually with a few peripheral plasma cells constituted a lymphocytic focus. A lymphocytic focus has a great density of inflammatory cells and is usually very well demarcated. The mononuclear infiltrate was classified as focal, when periductal and/or perivascular, and diffuse, when sparsely interspersed with seromucinous cells. These aspects were classified as present or absent. Labial salivary gland biopsies were assessed histologically using criteria initially described by Chisholm and Mason. They defined a focus as an aggregate of at least 50 lymphocytes, and found that more than one focus/4 mm 2 area of gland was seen only in patients with SS. 62
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Original Article Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the minor salivary gland: report of two cases

Original Article Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the minor salivary gland: report of two cases

and other accessory parotid glands. Of all reported cases in the oral cavity, the parotid gland accounted for approximately 70% and the cheek 8%, with the palate, skin, lung, base of the tongue and lip accounting for fewer ca- ses [8-15]. The diameter of the tumour varies from 0.2 cm to 8.5 cm. The duration of the symptoms ranged from 2 months to 30 years [16]. Among the reported cases in the current study, there was a regional difference in differ- ent areas, in which North America showed an apparently higher percentage than other conti- nents, and Africa and South America reported hardly any cases [12]. Generally, MASC is a low- grade malignant disease with low postopera- tive metastasis and a high survival rate [17]. MASC is mainly identified with salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), mucoepidermoid carci- noma (MEC), cystadenocarcinoma, or other Figure 2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland
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Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists

This analysis included 57 epidemiological studies of sal- ivary gland tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. The year 1992 marked the inclusion of PLGA in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumors [12]. Studies were included in the analysis if they contained the data needed to calculate the fraction of PLGAs in the malig- nant minor salivary gland tumor (MMSGT) total.

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Pleomorphic Adenoma Of The Hard Palate – A Clinical StudySharma Pramod

Pleomorphic Adenoma Of The Hard Palate – A Clinical StudySharma Pramod

Results : A total of 12 patients with pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland of hard palate were included in the study. 8 patients were male while 4 patients were females. Most common complaint was a slow growing painless palatal mass. FNAC was done for all patients and was suggestive of Pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. Wide local excision was done in all cases with a margin of about 1cm. Wounds were allowed to heal secondarily and no reconstruction was required. Palatal acrylic splint was given in all patients. All wounds healed uneventfully and there were no recurrences in our study.
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Trends in clinical features and survival of oral cavity cancer: fifty years of experience with 3,362 consecutive cases from a single institution

Trends in clinical features and survival of oral cavity cancer: fifty years of experience with 3,362 consecutive cases from a single institution

patient cohort. The male-to-female ratio of patients stayed approximately 2:1 over time. In terms of histological type, there was an increase in minor salivary gland carcinoma (MSGC), concurrent with decreases in SCC and other types. As for tumor localization, the proportion of oral tongue cancer was steady, accounting for slightly more than one-half of all cases; there was a gradual decline in the proportion of lip cancer and a corresponding increase in the proportion of cancer of other parts of the oral cavity. The proportion of patients who had localized disease at diagnosis was increasing. As for initial therapies, surgery was the main treatment modality over time. More than two-thirds of OCC patients underwent surgery or surgery-based multimodality therapy as their initial treatment. There has been an increase in the use of surgery alone.
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Case Report Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung: a case report and review of literature

Case Report Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung: a case report and review of literature

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a relatively rare tumor showing only myoepithelial differentia- tion without any ductal formation and primarily arise from the salivary glands, the parotid, or the breast [9]. Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare malignant tumor, probably originating from the bronchial minor salivary gland, with only 8 patients reported in the English literature [2-8]; the pre- viously reported cases are summarized in Table 1. Very limited information was available for only one patient [7]. Interestingly 6 patients are Japanese and one patient is Caucasian. The Figure 1. CT findings revealed a solid mass with calcification measuring 65 mm×78 mm in the left lower lobe (A and B).
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Making the diagnosis of Sj&ouml;gren&rsquo;s syndrome in patients with dry eye

Making the diagnosis of Sj&ouml;gren&rsquo;s syndrome in patients with dry eye

Abstract: Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often non- specific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö ® ), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This
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Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma - Case Report And Review Of Literature

Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma - Case Report And Review Of Literature

reported to be palate [ 40%], lips[20%], buccal mucosa[23%], retromolar mucosa[10%], floor of the mouth[1%] and tongue[1%]. A few cases of involvement of Parotid gland and Nasal/ Nasopharynx have been reported. Submandibular gland lesion is rare 5 . PLGA is a common malignancy of minor salivary gland; second in frequency to

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Recommendations from the Brazilian society of rheumatology for the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome (Part I): glandular manifestations (systematic review)

Recommendations from the Brazilian society of rheumatology for the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome (Part I): glandular manifestations (systematic review)

A systematic literature review of the items included in the 2002, 2010 and 2016 classification criteria was performed. A search strategy was designed for the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and www.guidelines.gov (for guidelines). This search strat- egy was based on structured questions formulated according to the PICO method (“Patients,” “Index test,” “Comparator” tests relative to the index test and “Outcomes”). We applied filters for studies on diag- nostic tests. The search was conducted without any language, date or other type of restrictions. We included studies that assessed the accuracy of any test of gland dysfunction in patients with SS. The outcomes considered were accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies–QUADAS-2 [6] (see Additional file 1). Agreement among experts was in- vestigated using the Delphi method in in-person meetings that included rheumatologists, ophthalmolo- gists, pathologists and dentists. We ultimately gener- ated 18 recommendations addressing the diagnosis of glandular dysfunction, histopathological findings in minor salivary gland biopsy specimens and salivary glands ultrasound (SGUS).
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