overty, illiteracy and development of rural areas are the biggest bottlenecks in economic development of India. The Government has always focused on framing policies to ensure social and economic security to its residents. A number of development programmes has been started by the Government from time to time in this direction since independence. Some of these programs were like: Rural Manpower Program (1960-69), Food for Work Program (1979- 80) and Jawahar Rozgar Yojna (1999-2001) etc. All these development programmes faced some loopholes (Dreze 2007) towards their effective implementation and objective accomplishment. Hence poor people in rural areas were not benefited by them at all and were trapped in the vicious cycle of poverty. To overcome all these concerns MNREGA was introduced by the Government of India on February 6, 2006 in 200 most backward districts of the country. It was a path breaking legislation in the direction of ruraldevelopment and poverty elimination. Since seeking 100 days of employment in a financial year was guaranteed under the Act and the assets created were meant to increase the agricultural productivity. Based on the themes of EGS in Maharashtra, MNREGA is aimed to strengthen the livelihood security of rural people (CSE 2008).
The people of India live mostly in rural areas or it is in the heart of villages that the nation lives. But the rural mass faces various challenges like poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, lack of infrastructure etc. After independence, the government launched a number of schemes for economic and social well being of rural people. In 2005, the government of India passed Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to eradicate poverty and generate employment in villages. This scheme is demand driven and decentralized. It generates employment by undertaking projects related to water conservation, drought proofing, land development and rural connectivity. With time MNREGA has also appeared as an important work opportunity for women who would have otherwise remained unemployed or underemployed. Today this scheme not only contributes in income and livelihood security but also work for gender and social empowerment, sustainable asset creation and increasing agricultural productivity. For smooth functioning of the world‟s largest scheme in terms of beneficiaries regular monitoring and updation is demanded. The current research is an attempt to study and evaluate the impact of MNREGA on ruraldevelopment of India. The study investigates various aspects of development indicators viz. agri-economic development, employment and empowerment, rural infrastructure, migration reduction and irrigation. These indicators have been taken as basic parameters to study the impact on rural households.
“India lives in villages” were the golden words of Mahatma Gandhi many decades ago. Ironically after almost 50 years the data does not seem to disagree. Today a majority of the Indian population still live in the villages. Though there is substantial migration from rural to urban areas in, still almost 68% of India continues to live in rural areas. And the rural mass faces the major issues of poverty and unemployment. India’s government is well aware that poverty is a giant barrier to overcome if it is to fully develop the nation. A wide range of anti-poverty policies and employment generation schemes have been introduced since the 1950s, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) is one of them. This act addresses to rural poor and their fundamental right to work with dignity. It ensures their legal right to work for a hundred days whoever is willing to work at a given minimum wage rate and within 5 km radius of the village. The employment under MGNREGA is an entitlement that creates an obligation on the government, failing which an unemployment allowance is to be paid within 15 days. MNREGA is not only a competitive tool to eradicate poverty and generate employment but also contributes in women empowerment, social security, migration reduction and overall ruraldevelopment. The current research is an attempt to study and evaluate the impact of MNREGA on ruraldevelopment of India. The study investigates various aspects of development indicators viz. agri-economic development, employment and empowerment, rural infrastructure, migration reduction and irrigation. These indicators have been taken as basic parameters to study the impact of age on the perception of rural people for overall ruraldevelopment under MNREGA.
India has more than 430 million young people in the age group of 15-34 years, which constitutes 35% of the country‟s population. RuralDevelopment is a process of change, by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve their economic, social and cultural conditions, and to enable them to contribute fully to national development. Since independence, rural employment has been prime agenda of debate as 74% of the unemployed population hails from rural India. To ensure inclusion of the rural poor in the national development, for the past 3 decades, the Ministry of RuralDevelopment (MoRD), Government of India has been implementing many rural employment generation programmes, like, various pilot projects through public private partnership, establishment of Self Help Groups, Women Entrepreneurs, Aajeevika Skills, National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), MNREGA, PMEGP, Watershed Development Programmes, NABARD Consultancy Services, engagement in Security Solutions (TOPSGRUP), Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarojgar Yojana, National Skill Development Coordination Board, National Vocational Education Qualifications Framework, RuralDevelopment and Self Employment Training Institutes, Self-Employed Women‟s Association, implementing remote village electrification, village energy security test projects and decentralized biogas-based power generation programmes etc. and many more. Different innovative scheme and programme have been initiated time again in different 5 year plans. These approaches help the poor to build their self confidence through community action and ultimately lead to the strengthening and socio economic empowerment of the rural poor as well as their collective bargaining power.
Abstract: This paper deals with the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MG NREGA) that what is the Act, what are its objectives and what are its salient features. As MNREGA was notified on September 7, 2005 and it guarantees 100 days wage employment in a financial year. helps in developing the village infrastructure, creates assets and empowers women. But despite its positive intentions towards ruraldevelopment' it is not free from corruption.
Against this background, this paper will examine, firstly, the Lisbon Treaty novelties on ruraldevelopment and sustainable tourism, paying special attention to the new Policy created specifically for tourism; secondly, it will address the EU legislative and policy frameworks in these two fields and the financial instruments that Romania is entitled to and that it could use to promote ruraldevelopment and tourism; and thirdly, the paper will focus on the Romanian regulation on ruraldevelopment and sustainable tourism in order to critically assess the extent to which ruraldevelopment and tourism have been linked at a domestic level. The final goal of the paper is to assess whether Romania is provided with the necessary legal tools to take a strategic decision about how to develop its rural areas through, amongst other factors, tourism.
Some efforts were made to integrate into the European Research Area (ERA) and contribute to the Innovation Union (IU). The country joined the EURAXESS network aiming at mobility of researchers; the bridgehead organisation coordinating the national EURAXESS network was established at the University Banja Luka. The funding slightly increased mainly for researchers, modernization of infrastructure and equipment and publications notably by joining the COBISS library-information system. Republika Srpska and other Entities increased investment in research and development. However, overall, investment in research remained low, in particular by the private sector. As Entities and Cantons fund their policies through their budgets, it is difficult to streamline research policies and avoid fragmentation, one of the key ERA objectives. Accurate statistics on science and technology are missing. Overall, alignment with European standards in the areas of education and culture is at an early stage. Strategies and framework laws need to be implemented and the Baseline Qualifications Framework to be further developed and implemented. State-level agencies for education and quality assurance structures need to be made operational. The country's participation in the Culture Programme contributes to the implementation of the EU acquis. In the area of research and innovation, preparations for future integration into the ERA and the Innovation Union started but serious efforts remain to be made and close monitoring is required.
calculating the effect of applying these indicators revealed that the proportion of land classed as intermediate LFA would fall by 12-15% (Council of the European Union 2005b). However, this aggregate Union figure would conceal major disparities in the effects for individual member states: Some would experience significant reductions (in particular Germany, France, but also Poland and Czech Republic), while others would have considerable increases. Moreover, the new methodology would lead to a major shake-up in the existing situation, with areas losing their LFA status and new areas becoming LFA. Member states largely opposed therefore the methodology, arguing “that the proposed agronomic indicators were indirect, easily influenced by man-made factors and too far removed from the natural criteria mentioned in the Regulation. They were therefore not suitable for measuring soil fertility or climatic conditions as such.” Moreover, giving up the socio-economic component was not at all uncontested, as the danger of increased depopulation of rural areas is seen as a rising concern for the CAP.
Due to poor productivity of land, water resources and livestock and inefficient use of forests along with lack of capabilities and inadequate resources, it is difficult for small farmers to earn their livelihood. Realising this serious situation, poverty alleviation has been the major agenda of the Government of India. Thus, various community development programmes were initiated to build the capabilities of the poor. These programmes provided skill-oriented training and supplied critical agricultural inputs either free or at subsided cost. However, most of these programmes did not succeed due to lack of people’s participation. While there are plenty of opportunities for small farmers to improve their livelihood through various on- farm and non-farm activities making use of appropriate technologies, it is necessary to establish backward and forward integration to develop series of value chains involving all the stakeholders on a common platform. This can bring down the cost of production and value addition for the commodities produced by small farmers. It is also necessary to build the confidence and capabilities of these farmers to take active part in agricultural development and sustain the operation beyond the project period. Agriculture being the main source of rural employment for small and marginal farmers, it is necessary to develop a suitable farming system which can generate year-round employment and substantial income to sustain their livelihood. However, increasing agricultural production on small farms is a challenge because even under well established irrigated conditions, the growth of the agriculture sector itself has been almost stagnant for the last 8-10 years. Therefore, we need to take a fresh look at the present scenario and plan for another Green Revolution with a new focus.
Ammonia is a gas contributing to acid rain and, when emitted in high concentration, also directly harmful to human beings and wildlife. Ammonia emissions could be reduced during the last years in the non-agricultural sectors thanks to the implementation of environmental standards. Development of abatement strategies for agriculture is far more demanding, since ammonia is emitted during biological and soil processes linked to the nitrogen cycle in agriculture. High volatilization losses of ammonia occur from animal manure where typically about 40% of the nitrogen found originally in the excretions is lost as ammonia. In order to make nitrogen plant available, it must be water soluble, and depending on soil conditions, that nitrogen can also be converted into ammonia and lost, so that ammonia volatilization is also coupled to the use of mineral fertilizer or funnelled by biological fixation by leguminous plants. Nitrogen not lost as ammonia may hence contribute to plant growth; unfortunately, it may also leach into the groundwater, run-off to surface water or been lost as N 2 O, which is one of the most harmful gases contributing to global warming. The
For the new period covered by the financial perspective, the European Council considers that the "reform can be implemented within a financial framework of an average level [1999 prices] of 40.5 billion euros plus 14 billion euros 2 over the period for ruraldevelopment as well as veterinary and plant health measures. This would be more in keeping with actual levels of spending, and is aimed at stabilising agricultural expenditure over the period." 3
2. Promoting and implementing the Reform of the Education System to support the development of economy and to meet the demands of the Lisbon agenda. Fostering a better match between education and labour market needs (school to work and university to work principle 8 ) by adapting education and training systems to new competencies' requirement and by enhancing the involvement of relevant stakeholders The education system does not adequately serve the competitive needs of the Serbian economy and improvements in mainstreaming of entrepreneurship education in the curriculum could help address the gaps. Improving the quality of the education (including civic education and history teaching) and training systems in line with European standards and Serbia’s social, economic and population needs, including mobility. Provide soft and hard support for education, higher education, and vocational education and training. Including marginalized groups (predominantly Roma) and children/ people with special needs into the regular education system. Support to pre-school and basic education, with a special focus on poor and excluded children, should be specifically addressed by the government as a pre-condition of other expected results such as employment, social inclusion and poverty reduction. Developing adult education and a lifelong learning strategy. Promote effective partnership among major actors-including business, social partners and education institutions at all levels. The MIPD for Serbia will finance the Tempus activities for the country programmed under the Multi-Beneficiary MIPD 2008-2010.
The sampling method used is proportionate stratified Random Sampling. Our purpose is, as stated earlier to study Agrarian reforms and ruraldevelopment implemented by Central and State Govt. of last five years. Hence the inquiry will be conducted in the towns and villages of Karimnagar, Warangal and Khammam districts. Primary and Secondary data will be collected and, analyzed its inferences, results, and suggestions will be summarized in the last chapter of the thesis.
India is an agrarian country. Without agriculture, the country’s existence will be a doubtful, questionable and debateable matter. According to 2011 census, country’s population was 121.1 crores and in 20102011 foodgrain production was 235 million tonnes. According to estimation, in 2030 country’s population will be 140 crores and food requirement will be 380 million tonnes, hence there is need to enhance (380235) 145 million tonnes more in 20 years (20102030) respect. It is really a biggest challenge in our country. Because, our country’s approximately onethird population still live in below poverty line (BPL), simply poor. Our country is the home of maximum illiterate people in the world, home of maximum malnourished population in the world. These illiterate people and malnourished people are living in maximum in rural India. Hence, rural India’s development is need of the hour and rural India’s development is possible only through agriculture (as a seventh largest country in the world, we have vast agricultural land) not by industrial development because we are still toddling in this sector due to lack of sufficient skilled labourers and resource crunch in field of every aspect of development, though service sector is comparatively fruitful. Therefore, it is proved that agriculture is the only way to develop rural India. To accelerate rural India’s development NABARD is playing a pivotal role or we can say NABARD is rural India’s all round assistance provider. As we analyse the data it shows that NABARD is working for the 360 degree development of rural India. Every year the financial assistance received by NABARD and the disbursement made out of it are increasing. The balance sheet size also increased from Rs.81220 crore to Rs.98706 crore & profit after tax from Rs.856 crore to Rs.1226 crore. In short we can say that NABARD is providing rural India all round assistance and proved to be an institution where "Growth with Social Justice" exists. At present, the National Bank for Agriculture and RuralDevelopment (NABARD) has various international partnerships including leading global organizations and World Bankaffiliated institutions that are Table 8. Public sector and private sector banks related with NABARD
In several European countries rural tourism is a relatively important sector of the tourism industry. Rural tourism can be defined as, at least, one overnight leisure trip to a place situated in a rural setting or in a setting outside cities and tourist centres, aiming to participate especially in other than urban activities (e.g. shopping). The clientele for rural tourism is often mostly domestic, although lots of efforts are targeted to improve rural tourism internationalization .
The essence of the ruraldevelopment is to bring modernity from the city to the rural landscape and more importantly to the agriculture (Guinjoan, Badia, & Tulla, 2016). Moreover, the Washington consensus has brought agriculture and ruraldevelopment together with stronger bond (Maxwell, Urey, & Ashley, 2001).
extracting resources, the full details of the mineral rights leases were negotiated by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). This process often led to leases that were undervalued compared to what mining companies were paying on the open market to non-‐Indian property owners. For example, the original lease negotiated by the DOI for the Peabody Coal Company Black Mesa coal mine on the Navajo Reservation, paid the Navajo $.17 per ton of coal during a time when standard payment was $1.50. Since there was no provision in the lease for renegotiation when the price of coal increased, the Navajo still received $.17 per ton even during energy crisis of the 1970s when coal reached $15 per ton. In addition, the Black Mesa coal mine also consumed much of the Navajo’s water resources for a coal slurry and left behind toxic waste before it was closed in 2006 (Perdue and Green, 2010, p. 106-‐107). DOI negotiated mineral leases also resulted in uranium mines that created significant environmental damage and toxic waste on the Navajo and Hopi reservations. These uranium leases were quickly negotiated during and shortly after WWII to supply the development of the U.S. nuclear arsenal. These abandoned uranium mines still threaten the health of tribal members and livestock raised on reservation lands, but the responsible mining companies have long-‐since dissolved or gone out of business (Macmillan, 2012). Both the Black Mesa and uranium mining controversies exemplify the failures in the historic policy of requiring the DOI to negotiate mineral leases on behalf of American Indian tribes. This historic policy resulted in the economic exploitation of the Navajo and severe environmental degradation on parts of the Navajo reservation.
The CSF (PCs at national level) defines a new sys- tem where the design and implementation of EU interventions have more conditions than before. However it will improve the coordination of funds in all countries, giving national and regional governments new responsibility in coordinating them. At the same time, new regulations maintain single and separate programmes for each Fund, including the EAFRD. This means that, unless they opt for a national programme, federal and decen- tralised countries will still have to prepare a great number of RuralDevelopment Plans (RDPs) (as it is the case in Italy, Germany and Spain).
Cleanliness of rural India instead of digging unnecessary holes: Villages represent the picture of real India. Sanitation of villages directly affects health of villagers. There is no waste management system to curb the domestic and agricultural garbage. Some of the sites in the villages look like slums. It has a severe health effect on the human resource. MNREGS can play a very important role to make villages clean and healthy reducing the cost of illness. Clean villages build the real dignity with in the country. Under MNREGS works related to building pavements in Government school, play grounds and maintenance of these assets should be done.
The financial clearance covers the completeness, accuracy and veracity of paying agencies' accounts, the internal control systems set up by these paying agencies and the legality and regularity of the expenditure for which reimbursement has been requested from the Commission. Within this framework, Directorate-General for Agriculture and RuralDevelopment (DG AGRI) pays particular attention to the certifying bodies’ conclusions and recommendations (where weaknesses are found), following their reviews of the paying agencies’ compliance with the accreditation criteria. As part of this review, DG AGRI also covers aspects relating to conformity issues and protecting the financial interests of the EU as regards advances paid, securities obtained and intervention stocks.