Mnrega and Rural Development

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AN ANALYSIS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MNREGA IN DISTRICT MANDI OF HIMACHAL PRADESH

AN ANALYSIS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MNREGA IN DISTRICT MANDI OF HIMACHAL PRADESH

overty, illiteracy and development of rural areas are the biggest bottlenecks in economic development of India. The Government has always focused on framing policies to ensure social and economic security to its residents. A number of development programmes has been started by the Government from time to time in this direction since independence. Some of these programs were like: Rural Manpower Program (1960-69), Food for Work Program (1979- 80) and Jawahar Rozgar Yojna (1999-2001) etc. All these development programmes faced some loopholes (Dreze 2007) towards their effective implementation and objective accomplishment. Hence poor people in rural areas were not benefited by them at all and were trapped in the vicious cycle of poverty. To overcome all these concerns MNREGA was introduced by the Government of India on February 6, 2006 in 200 most backward districts of the country. It was a path breaking legislation in the direction of rural development and poverty elimination. Since seeking 100 days of employment in a financial year was guaranteed under the Act and the assets created were meant to increase the agricultural productivity. Based on the themes of EGS in Maharashtra, MNREGA is aimed to strengthen the livelihood security of rural people (CSE 2008).
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IMPACT OF LOCATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF RURAL PEOPLE FOR OVERALL RURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER MNREGA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KHARGONE AND BARWANI DISTRICTS OF MADHYA PRADESH

IMPACT OF LOCATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF RURAL PEOPLE FOR OVERALL RURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER MNREGA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KHARGONE AND BARWANI DISTRICTS OF MADHYA PRADESH

The people of India live mostly in rural areas or it is in the heart of villages that the nation lives. But the rural mass faces various challenges like poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, lack of infrastructure etc. After independence, the government launched a number of schemes for economic and social well being of rural people. In 2005, the government of India passed Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to eradicate poverty and generate employment in villages. This scheme is demand driven and decentralized. It generates employment by undertaking projects related to water conservation, drought proofing, land development and rural connectivity. With time MNREGA has also appeared as an important work opportunity for women who would have otherwise remained unemployed or underemployed. Today this scheme not only contributes in income and livelihood security but also work for gender and social empowerment, sustainable asset creation and increasing agricultural productivity. For smooth functioning of the world‟s largest scheme in terms of beneficiaries regular monitoring and updation is demanded. The current research is an attempt to study and evaluate the impact of MNREGA on rural development of India. The study investigates various aspects of development indicators viz. agri-economic development, employment and empowerment, rural infrastructure, migration reduction and irrigation. These indicators have been taken as basic parameters to study the impact on rural households.
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IMPACT OF AGE ON THE PERCEPTION OF RURAL PEOPLE FOR OVERALL RURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER MNREGA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KHARGONE AND BARWANI DISTRICTS OF MADHYA PRADESH

IMPACT OF AGE ON THE PERCEPTION OF RURAL PEOPLE FOR OVERALL RURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER MNREGA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KHARGONE AND BARWANI DISTRICTS OF MADHYA PRADESH

“India lives in villages” were the golden words of Mahatma Gandhi many decades ago. Ironically after almost 50 years the data does not seem to disagree. Today a majority of the Indian population still live in the villages. Though there is substantial migration from rural to urban areas in, still almost 68% of India continues to live in rural areas. And the rural mass faces the major issues of poverty and unemployment. India’s government is well aware that poverty is a giant barrier to overcome if it is to fully develop the nation. A wide range of anti-poverty policies and employment generation schemes have been introduced since the 1950s, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) is one of them. This act addresses to rural poor and their fundamental right to work with dignity. It ensures their legal right to work for a hundred days whoever is willing to work at a given minimum wage rate and within 5 km radius of the village. The employment under MGNREGA is an entitlement that creates an obligation on the government, failing which an unemployment allowance is to be paid within 15 days. MNREGA is not only a competitive tool to eradicate poverty and generate employment but also contributes in women empowerment, social security, migration reduction and overall rural development. The current research is an attempt to study and evaluate the impact of MNREGA on rural development of India. The study investigates various aspects of development indicators viz. agri-economic development, employment and empowerment, rural infrastructure, migration reduction and irrigation. These indicators have been taken as basic parameters to study the impact of age on the perception of rural people for overall rural development under MNREGA.
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Volume 04  Issue 05: (2015) . Sep.-Oct  2015

Volume 04 Issue 05: (2015) . Sep.-Oct 2015

India has more than 430 million young people in the age group of 15-34 years, which constitutes 35% of the country‟s population. Rural Development is a process of change, by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve their economic, social and cultural conditions, and to enable them to contribute fully to national development. Since independence, rural employment has been prime agenda of debate as 74% of the unemployed population hails from rural India. To ensure inclusion of the rural poor in the national development, for the past 3 decades, the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India has been implementing many rural employment generation programmes, like, various pilot projects through public private partnership, establishment of Self Help Groups, Women Entrepreneurs, Aajeevika Skills, National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), MNREGA, PMEGP, Watershed Development Programmes, NABARD Consultancy Services, engagement in Security Solutions (TOPSGRUP), Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarojgar Yojana, National Skill Development Coordination Board, National Vocational Education Qualifications Framework, Rural Development and Self Employment Training Institutes, Self-Employed Women‟s Association, implementing remote village electrification, village energy security test projects and decentralized biogas-based power generation programmes etc. and many more. Different innovative scheme and programme have been initiated time again in different 5 year plans. These approaches help the poor to build their self confidence through community action and ultimately lead to the strengthening and socio economic empowerment of the rural poor as well as their collective bargaining power.
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A Right to Employment: Mnrega

A Right to Employment: Mnrega

Abstract: This paper deals with the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MG NREGA) that what is the Act, what are its objectives and what are its salient features. As MNREGA was notified on September 7, 2005 and it guarantees 100 days wage employment in a financial year. helps in developing the village infrastructure, creates assets and empowers women. But despite its positive intentions towards rural development' it is not free from corruption.

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The Lisbon Treaty and its consequences for rural development and sustainable tourism : A case study of Romania

The Lisbon Treaty and its consequences for rural development and sustainable tourism : A case study of Romania

Against this background, this paper will examine, firstly, the Lisbon Treaty novelties on rural development and sustainable tourism, paying special attention to the new Policy created specifically for tourism; secondly, it will address the EU legislative and policy frameworks in these two fields and the financial instruments that Romania is entitled to and that it could use to promote rural development and tourism; and thirdly, the paper will focus on the Romanian regulation on rural development and sustainable tourism in order to critically assess the extent to which rural development and tourism have been linked at a domestic level. The final goal of the paper is to assess whether Romania is provided with the necessary legal tools to take a strategic decision about how to develop its rural areas through, amongst other factors, tourism.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 progress report. Commission staff working document. SEC (2011) 1206 final, 12 October 2011

Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 progress report. Commission staff working document. SEC (2011) 1206 final, 12 October 2011

Some efforts were made to integrate into the European Research Area (ERA) and contribute to the Innovation Union (IU). The country joined the EURAXESS network aiming at mobility of researchers; the bridgehead organisation coordinating the national EURAXESS network was established at the University Banja Luka. The funding slightly increased mainly for researchers, modernization of infrastructure and equipment and publications notably by joining the COBISS library-information system. Republika Srpska and other Entities increased investment in research and development. However, overall, investment in research remained low, in particular by the private sector. As Entities and Cantons fund their policies through their budgets, it is difficult to streamline research policies and avoid fragmentation, one of the key ERA objectives. Accurate statistics on science and technology are missing. Overall, alignment with European standards in the areas of education and culture is at an early stage. Strategies and framework laws need to be implemented and the Baseline Qualifications Framework to be further developed and implemented. State-level agencies for education and quality assurance structures need to be made operational. The country's participation in the Culture Programme contributes to the implementation of the EU acquis. In the area of research and innovation, preparations for future integration into the ERA and the Innovation Union started but serious efforts remain to be made and close monitoring is required.
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The redefinition of Europe's Less Favoured Areas

The redefinition of Europe's Less Favoured Areas

calculating the effect of applying these indicators revealed that the proportion of land classed as intermediate LFA would fall by 12-15% (Council of the European Union 2005b). However, this aggregate Union figure would conceal major disparities in the effects for individual member states: Some would experience significant reductions (in particular Germany, France, but also Poland and Czech Republic), while others would have considerable increases. Moreover, the new methodology would lead to a major shake-up in the existing situation, with areas losing their LFA status and new areas becoming LFA. Member states largely opposed therefore the methodology, arguing “that the proposed agronomic indicators were indirect, easily influenced by man-made factors and too far removed from the natural criteria mentioned in the Regulation. They were therefore not suitable for measuring soil fertility or climatic conditions as such.” Moreover, giving up the socio-economic component was not at all uncontested, as the danger of increased depopulation of rural areas is seen as a rising concern for the CAP.
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Sustainable rural development through agriculture: an answer to economic development in india

Sustainable rural development through agriculture: an answer to economic development in india

Due to poor productivity of land, water resources and livestock and inefficient use of forests along with lack of capabilities and inadequate resources, it is difficult for small farmers to earn their livelihood. Realising this serious situation, poverty alleviation has been the major agenda of the Government of India. Thus, various community development programmes were initiated to build the capabilities of the poor. These programmes provided skill-oriented training and supplied critical agricultural inputs either free or at subsided cost. However, most of these programmes did not succeed due to lack of people’s participation. While there are plenty of opportunities for small farmers to improve their livelihood through various on- farm and non-farm activities making use of appropriate technologies, it is necessary to establish backward and forward integration to develop series of value chains involving all the stakeholders on a common platform. This can bring down the cost of production and value addition for the commodities produced by small farmers. It is also necessary to build the confidence and capabilities of these farmers to take active part in agricultural development and sustain the operation beyond the project period. Agriculture being the main source of rural employment for small and marginal farmers, it is necessary to develop a suitable farming system which can generate year-round employment and substantial income to sustain their livelihood. However, increasing agricultural production on small farms is a challenge because even under well established irrigated conditions, the growth of the agriculture sector itself has been almost stagnant for the last 8-10 years. Therefore, we need to take a fresh look at the present scenario and plan for another Green Revolution with a new focus.
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Rural development in the European Union. Statistical and Economic Information report 2007

Rural development in the European Union. Statistical and Economic Information report 2007

Ammonia is a gas contributing to acid rain and, when emitted in high concentration, also directly harmful to human beings and wildlife. Ammonia emissions could be reduced during the last years in the non-agricultural sectors thanks to the implementation of environmental standards. Development of abatement strategies for agriculture is far more demanding, since ammonia is emitted during biological and soil processes linked to the nitrogen cycle in agriculture. High volatilization losses of ammonia occur from animal manure where typically about 40% of the nitrogen found originally in the excretions is lost as ammonia. In order to make nitrogen plant available, it must be water soluble, and depending on soil conditions, that nitrogen can also be converted into ammonia and lost, so that ammonia volatilization is also coupled to the use of mineral fertilizer or funnelled by biological fixation by leguminous plants. Nitrogen not lost as ammonia may hence contribute to plant growth; unfortunately, it may also leach into the groundwater, run-off to surface water or been lost as N 2 O, which is one of the most harmful gases contributing to global warming. The
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Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on budgetary discipline (presented by the Commission). COM (99) 364 final, 14 July 1999

Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on budgetary discipline (presented by the Commission). COM (99) 364 final, 14 July 1999

For the new period covered by the financial perspective, the European Council considers that the "reform can be implemented within a financial framework of an average level [1999 prices] of 40.5 billion euros plus 14 billion euros 2 over the period for rural development as well as veterinary and plant health measures. This would be more in keeping with actual levels of spending, and is aimed at stabilising agricultural expenditure over the period." 3

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Commission Decision of on a Multi annual Indicative Planning Document (MIPD) 2008 2010 for Serbia

Commission Decision of on a Multi annual Indicative Planning Document (MIPD) 2008 2010 for Serbia

2. Promoting and implementing the Reform of the Education System to support the development of economy and to meet the demands of the Lisbon agenda. Fostering a better match between education and labour market needs (school to work and university to work principle 8 ) by adapting education and training systems to new competencies' requirement and by enhancing the involvement of relevant stakeholders The education system does not adequately serve the competitive needs of the Serbian economy and improvements in mainstreaming of entrepreneurship education in the curriculum could help address the gaps. Improving the quality of the education (including civic education and history teaching) and training systems in line with European standards and Serbia’s social, economic and population needs, including mobility. Provide soft and hard support for education, higher education, and vocational education and training. Including marginalized groups (predominantly Roma) and children/ people with special needs into the regular education system. Support to pre-school and basic education, with a special focus on poor and excluded children, should be specifically addressed by the government as a pre-condition of other expected results such as employment, social inclusion and poverty reduction. Developing adult education and a lifelong learning strategy. Promote effective partnership among major actors-including business, social partners and education institutions at all levels. The MIPD for Serbia will finance the Tempus activities for the country programmed under the Multi-Beneficiary MIPD 2008-2010.
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AGRARINA REFORM AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT A – STUDY OF ANDHRA PRADESH

AGRARINA REFORM AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT A – STUDY OF ANDHRA PRADESH

The sampling method used is proportionate stratified Random Sampling. Our purpose is, as stated earlier to study Agrarian reforms and rural development implemented by Central and State Govt. of last five years. Hence the inquiry will be conducted in the towns and villages of Karimnagar, Warangal and Khammam districts. Primary and Secondary data will be collected and, analyzed its inferences, results, and suggestions will be summarized in the last chapter of the thesis.

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Nabard: rural india’s all round assistance provider

Nabard: rural india’s all round assistance provider

India is an agrarian country. Without agriculture, the country’s existence will be a doubtful, questionable and debateable matter. According to 2011 census, country’s population was 121.1 crores and in 2010­2011 foodgrain production was 235 million tonnes. According to estimation, in 2030 country’s population will be 140 crores and food requirement will be 380 million tonnes, hence there is need to enhance (380­235) 145 million tonnes more in 20 years (2010­2030) respect. It is really a biggest challenge in our country. Because, our country’s approximately one­third population still live in below poverty line (BPL), simply poor. Our country is the home of maximum illiterate people in the world, home of maximum malnourished population in the world. These illiterate people and malnourished people are living in maximum in rural India. Hence, rural India’s development is need of the hour and rural India’s development is possible only through agriculture (as a seventh largest country in the world, we have vast agricultural land) not by industrial development because we are still toddling in this sector due to lack of sufficient skilled labourers and resource crunch in field of every aspect of development, though service sector is comparatively fruitful. Therefore, it is proved that agriculture is the only way to develop rural India. To accelerate rural India’s development NABARD is playing a pivotal role or we can say NABARD is rural India’s all round assistance provider. As we analyse the data it shows that NABARD is working for the 360 degree development of rural India. Every year the financial assistance received by NABARD and the disbursement made out of it are increasing. The balance sheet size also increased from Rs.81220 crore to Rs.98706 crore & profit after tax from Rs.856 crore to Rs.1226 crore. In short we can say that NABARD is providing rural India all round assistance and proved to be an institution where "Growth with Social Justice" exists. At present, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has various international partnerships including leading global organizations and World Bank­affiliated institutions that are Table 8. Public sector and private sector banks related with NABARD
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Rural Tourism and Ecotourism – the Main Priorities in Sustainable Development Orientations of Rural Local Communities in Romania

Rural Tourism and Ecotourism – the Main Priorities in Sustainable Development Orientations of Rural Local Communities in Romania

In several European countries rural tourism is a relatively important sector of the tourism industry. Rural tourism can be defined as, at least, one overnight leisure trip to a place situated in a rural setting or in a setting outside cities and tourist centres, aiming to participate especially in other than urban activities (e.g. shopping). The clientele for rural tourism is often mostly domestic, although lots of efforts are targeted to improve rural tourism internationalization [18].

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Rural Development Dimension of Agriculture Policy: A Case of Nepal

Rural Development Dimension of Agriculture Policy: A Case of Nepal

The essence of the rural development is to bring modernity from the city to the rural landscape and more importantly to the agriculture (Guinjoan, Badia, & Tulla, 2016). Moreover, the Washington consensus has brought agriculture and rural development together with stronger bond (Maxwell, Urey, & Ashley, 2001).

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2311.pdf

2311.pdf

extracting  resources,  the  full  details  of  the  mineral  rights  leases  were  negotiated  by  the  U.S.   Department  of  the  Interior  (DOI).    This  process  often  led  to  leases  that  were  undervalued   compared  to  what  mining  companies  were  paying  on  the  open  market  to  non-­‐Indian   property  owners.    For  example,  the  original  lease  negotiated  by  the  DOI  for  the  Peabody   Coal  Company  Black  Mesa  coal  mine  on  the  Navajo  Reservation,  paid  the  Navajo  $.17  per   ton  of  coal  during  a  time  when  standard  payment  was  $1.50.    Since  there  was  no  provision   in  the  lease  for  renegotiation  when  the  price  of  coal  increased,  the  Navajo  still  received  $.17   per  ton  even  during  energy  crisis  of  the  1970s  when  coal  reached  $15  per  ton.    In  addition,   the  Black  Mesa  coal  mine  also  consumed  much  of  the  Navajo’s  water  resources  for  a  coal   slurry  and  left  behind  toxic  waste  before  it  was  closed  in  2006  (Perdue  and  Green,  2010,  p.   106-­‐107).    DOI  negotiated  mineral  leases  also  resulted  in  uranium  mines  that  created   significant  environmental  damage  and  toxic  waste  on  the  Navajo  and  Hopi  reservations.     These  uranium  leases  were  quickly  negotiated  during  and  shortly  after  WWII  to  supply  the   development  of  the  U.S.  nuclear  arsenal.    These  abandoned  uranium  mines  still  threaten   the  health  of  tribal  members  and  livestock  raised  on  reservation  lands,  but  the  responsible   mining  companies  have  long-­‐since  dissolved  or  gone  out  of  business  (Macmillan,  2012).   Both  the  Black  Mesa  and  uranium  mining  controversies  exemplify  the  failures  in  the   historic  policy  of  requiring  the  DOI  to  negotiate  mineral  leases  on  behalf  of  American   Indian  tribes.    This  historic  policy  resulted  in  the  economic  exploitation  of  the  Navajo  and   severe  environmental  degradation  on  parts  of  the  Navajo  reservation.      
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The EU proposals for rural development after 2013: A good compromise between innovation and conservative choices?

The EU proposals for rural development after 2013: A good compromise between innovation and conservative choices?

The CSF (PCs at national level) defines a new sys- tem where the design and implementation of EU interventions have more conditions than before. However it will improve the coordination of funds in all countries, giving national and regional governments new responsibility in coordinating them. At the same time, new regulations maintain single and separate programmes for each Fund, including the EAFRD. This means that, unless they opt for a national programme, federal and decen- tralised countries will still have to prepare a great number of Rural Development Plans (RDPs) (as it is the case in Italy, Germany and Spain).
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Livelihood Security of Rural Poor through MNREGAs- A Study of Kurukshetra District in Haryana

Livelihood Security of Rural Poor through MNREGAs- A Study of Kurukshetra District in Haryana

Cleanliness of rural India instead of digging unnecessary holes: Villages represent the picture of real India. Sanitation of villages directly affects health of villagers. There is no waste management system to curb the domestic and agricultural garbage. Some of the sites in the villages look like slums. It has a severe health effect on the human resource. MNREGS can play a very important role to make villages clean and healthy reducing the cost of illness. Clean villages build the real dignity with in the country. Under MNREGS works related to building pavements in Government school, play grounds and maintenance of these assets should be done.
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12th FINANCIAL REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL GUARANTEE FUND   2018 FINANCIAL YEAR  COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the document  COM (2019) 366 final, 7 August 2019

12th FINANCIAL REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL GUARANTEE FUND 2018 FINANCIAL YEAR COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the document COM (2019) 366 final, 7 August 2019

The financial clearance covers the completeness, accuracy and veracity of paying agencies' accounts, the internal control systems set up by these paying agencies and the legality and regularity of the expenditure for which reimbursement has been requested from the Commission. Within this framework, Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG AGRI) pays particular attention to the certifying bodies’ conclusions and recommendations (where weaknesses are found), following their reviews of the paying agencies’ compliance with the accreditation criteria. As part of this review, DG AGRI also covers aspects relating to conformity issues and protecting the financial interests of the EU as regards advances paid, securities obtained and intervention stocks.
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