]. The mobile commerce involves such applications like mobile banking, mobile payment, mobile mar- keting  . Mobile banking involves mini-statements and checking of account history; alerts on account ac- tivity or passing of set thresholds; monitoring of term deposits; access to card statements; mutual funds/equity statements; insurance policy management; pension plan management; access to loan statements; status on cheque, stop payment on cheque; ordering check books; balance checking in the account; PIN provision, change of PIN and reminder over the internet; domestic and international fund transfers; recent transactions; due date of pay- ment; micro-payment handling; mobile recharging; commercial payment processing; bill payment processing; peer to peer payments; and deposit at banking agent . Mobile banking is allowing customers to receive a text message showing their account balance. It is been claimed that mobile banking has spread around the world and it has brought about positive change from the customers perception, could this be concluded about Ghana as well? In the case of Ghana the subject matter has gain little or no attention in literature, therefore, this research will bridge the gap. It is in this light that the researchers seek to examine mobile banking adoption as a commu- nication tool on customer behaviour in the banking industry with specific focus on Access Bank Ghana Limited.
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banking and provided a better understanding of the concepts (Lee M.-C. , 2009). Mobile banking may be considered an extension of Internet banking, but with its own unique characteristics given that a cell phone is used rather than a web browser on a personal computer (Barnes & Brian, 2003). It was established that performance risk, security risk, social risk, financial risk and time did not have a positive impact on online banking adoption (Lee M.-C. , 2009); (Lee et al, 2007). The risk that did not have a major impact on the intent to utilize online banking was social risk (Lee, 2009). It was further found that the ease of use needs to be highlighted when a new technology is deployed and is seen to be a high risk by users (Im et al, 2008). In contrast it was found that the usefulness of technology needs to be emphasized when technology deployment is seen as low risk by users (Im et al, 2008). It was identified from research conducted by (Tan & Teo, 2000) that perceived risk is a major factor that impacts internet banking adoption. These results were applied in the cell phone banking environment by (Brow et al, 2003) and it was established that perceived risk is indeed a critical factor that affects the adoption of cell phone banking, even though perceived risk was used a single attribute. In terms of this research all risk factors will be focused on as preceding occurrences of perceived risk. The proposition as indicated in the literature review is that social risk, financial risk, security risk, performance risk and time risk would probably result in a negative impact on cell phone banking adoption.
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Nowadays, mobile banking technology is one of most important technologies in the banking sector. As a result many banks all over the world are adopting it and taking advantage of the technology. Ethiopia, on the other hand didn’t adopt the technology yet. Therefore, this research is conducted to identify the determinants of mobile technology adoption of commercial banks in Ethiopia. Thus, the sampling technique used is complete enumeration whereby all commercial banks are considered. However among the seventeen actively operating banks, two banks could not be accessed. Hence the Information Technology managers and presidents of fifteen commercial banks are considered. Data has been collected from the target respondents using questionnaire and interview and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Accordingly technological and non-technological factors are identified. Technological factors are factors that are directly related with the attributes of the technology to be adopted. Such technological factors that are found to determine commercial banks mobile banking technology adoption in Ethiopia includes relative advantage, compatibility, simplicity, observability and trialability. In addition non-technological factors also determine mobile technology adoption of the Ethiopian commercial banks. They are external in nature; in that they are not directly related with the technology itself. These non-technological factors are economical capability, political issue, societal issues as well as organizational readiness. From the interview with the presidents of the banks, we have also found that the main problems that block banks from adopting mobile banking technology yet is the lateness of National Bank of Ethiopia to enact a law regarding mobile banking technology adoption. Moreover, the intention of commercial banks is determined. The banks expressed that they have intention to adopt mobile banking technology.
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The questionnaire with two sections were finalised for the primary data collection from the bank customers residing in the study areas. Section one deals with the personal and banking profile such as, age, gender, marital status, nature of family, marital status, educational qualification, occupational status, monthly family income (in Rs.), nature of bank account, frequency of mobile banking usage and major source of information about mobile banking service are measured in the appropriate nominal and interval scales. Section two consists of twenty five customer perception variables related to the adoption and usage of mobile banking in daily life and this section was measured in the appropriate 5 point Likert Scale, ‘Strongly Agree’ to ‘Strongly Disagree’ ranging from 5 to 1 respectively.
3 launched in Malaysia since year of 2006, the bank is still not able to make customer use of the system and remained unnoticed by customer (Norzaidi et al., 2011). According to the payment system report by Bank Negara in 2010 show that the number of mobile phone user is very large, but the mobile banking penetration accounts only 3.1 percent. Through this statement it can be conclude that people using mobile banking in themarket is still minority. Many banks around the world begin to offer mobile banking services to the customer, but utilizing this service still limited (Matsmak et al., 2013). Same situation happen in other countries like Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, and Taiwan, even wireless services increase quickly, the use of mobile banking is much lower expected and smaller adoption in comparing to other services (Yu, 2012; Al Mashagba and Nassar, 2012).
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Awadhi, A. (2013) in his research about Adoption and Acceptance of M-Banking System in Kingdom of Bahrain says “In Bahrain, it is found that there is little effort applied in this field”. Ithmar Bank was among very few banks have applied m-banking as one of banking methods or services. However, currently most of the banks provide innovative approaches to make mobile banking a powerful tool in delivering banking services. AlSoufi, A. & Ali, H. (2014) in his study on “customers’ perception of m-banking adoption in the Kingdom of Bahrain” found out that there was increasing usage of mobile banking and it is expected to increase tremendously. Most of the banks had already launched mobile banking services to provide better services to customers. Mashhour, A &Saleh, Z., (2015) in their research on the “perception of the community on the security and acceptance of mobile banking services in the Kingdom of Bahrain”, found out the most effective challenges that banks are facing were trust, inexperience and inadequate knowledge in using the mobile apps. Users do not trust the mobile banking technology. Banks were recommended to enhance the security features of the mobile applications, as well as users of the mobile device. It was found out that the growth in smart phones industry and banking apps that have been attributedto the development of the technology applications.
Chaipoopirutana, Combs, Chatchawanwan, and Vij (2009) and Lin (2010), claimed that there exists negative relationship between intention and adoption of mobile banking services. In this paper they have discussed the Roger’s (1995) innovation diffusion theory model’s attributes: relative advantage, complexity, compatibilityand trialability and concluded that Relative advantage, ease of use (opposite of complexity) and compatibility haveansignificant effect on awareness and attitude towards mobile banking services adoption. They have also suggested reducing thecomplication in order to elevate the number of users in mobile banking. They moreover laid stress on the fact that compatibility has a positive relation with the adoption of mobile banking. It was concluded that banks should start advertising their mobile banking services so that they can relate it to their beliefs, values and experiences of the adopters.Favorable attitude of consumers towards mobile banking adoption could only be possible if they possess strong conviction about the relative advantage of mobile banking. Relative advantage refers to the degree to which a technology provides superiority and attractiveness to customers over similar existing products(Rogers, 2003).
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Objective of the study is to find out the factors affecting adoption of mobile banking and their impact on adoption decision. This study analyses the favourable and unfavourable variables in adopting m-banking. How and how much have these factors impact on customers’ decision on adoption and rejection of mobile banking. This study may be useful for bankers to understand the problems of customers and barriers in accepting m-banking. This study also can be helpful for further researchers for reference and guidance.
adoption in Pakistan UTAUT and ITM effects the intention to mobile banking adoption whereas TTF directly affects the mobile banking adoption. In the presentence of current results, it can understand that although UTAUT model is having stronger significance concerning Social influence the nature of significance and relation is same for both other models to mobile banking adoption. In Pakistan, Mobile banking adoption along with all other pros and cons are working and having scope to enhance its productivity. Technological aspect can be modified and can be a strong significant part later with the enhancement of technology. Whereas, Trust factor provides a very important role. Initially, people will trust mobile banking so that mobile banking can be enhanced. It could widen the base of mobile banking users in a very significant way. But Govt. and all other regularity authorises required to spread the mobile banking phenomenon through seminars and awareness schemes. So, their investment could get productivity level. This study is having the implications for regularity
Stepwise regression has shown that factors: Trialability, observability, relative advantage, perceived risk, complexity, and compatibility have statistically significant relationship with mobile banking adoption. Out of them, trialability has the most impact on the dependent variable. As new technology reveals new innovation, people want to see and test the new model before adopting it. Although the users’ assessment about a new technology after trial can be erroneous or biased based on prior knowledge, rumor or experience, however the mobile banking service provider should consider that the trial period must be made available. If the mobile banking service is assessed and tried, the user would eventually see the benefits and adopt the mobile banking with ease.
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The aim of the study was to identify the factors that affect the adoption and use of mobile banking services in Zambia based on the Technology Accep- tance Model. Mobile banking a product offered under electronic banking ser- vices was the focus of the study. A quantitative research design was used, with a sample size of 384 respondents who held retail savings and current accounts that were eligible for mobile banking services in three commercial banks. A survey questionnaire was used as the primary data collection tool and the da- ta collected was analysed using the IBM SPSS statistics. The results of study were that there is a significant positive relationship between perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, user attitude, external variables, user intention and system use. The regression results further showed that, the independent va- riables in the TAM model, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, exter- nal factors, user attitude and user intention account for 47% of the variance in the factors that determine the use of electronic banking technologies such as mobile banking. The study recommends that commercial banks and the providers of mobile banking services need to improve the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, external factors; and promote positive user attitude and user intention. This would result in improved adoption and use of mobile banking services. They should also provide information on how to access and use these services.
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In India technology plays an imperative role in banking sector. Banking is one of the prime financial institutions constantly explores the opportunity of technology enabled services to provide better customer experience and convenience. Mobile phone is a common technology device that became part of every individual in the information era. Mobile Banking is an emerging interchange channel for providing banking services. India is the second largest telecom market in the world, which is having high potential for expanding banking services using mobile phones. This paper has examined the factors are influencing the banking customers to adoption the mobile banking in Chennai city. The study surveys the opinion of 300 customers of banks located in Chennai city. Factor Analysis has been used for having insights in the mobile banking services provided by the different banks. The study found that five predominant factors namely Convenience, Safety, Reliability, Efficiency and Responsiveness are significantly influencing banking customers for adoption of mobile banking in Chennai city.
The findings suggest that banks, in Saudi Arabia, should offer mobile banking services that are compatible with various current user requirements, past experiences, lifestyle and beliefs in order to fulfill customer expectations. With better mobile banking support and provision of variety of services, the more useful customers perceive mobile banking to be and to increase their level of adoption. Hence, bank’s attention should focus on understanding customer behavior and designing reliable mobile banking systems that will meet their needs and provide useful and quality services. In addition, banks should focus on communicating information that emphasizes the relative advantage and usefulness of mobile banking compared to other banking channels like physical presence to the bank or using ATM machines. Banks must seek to reduce risk perceived by their customers by offering specific guarantees protecting them and taking their complaints seriously and urgently. According to Koivu (2002) uptake of mobile phone in Kenya has been unprecedented. The trend of continued reliance on mobile devices to execute monetary transaction is steadily gaining momentum though there are factors influencing the adoption of mobile banking.
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Easy Paisa. In Iran, Guatemala and Mexico consumers can access mobile banking services with local mobile networks, whereas in Saudi Arabia banks like Riyadh, Rajhi, Alahali, SAMBA, and SABB have made substantial investments in mobile banking capabilities and smaller banks are not far behind. In developed countries and developing countries fraud and systemic failures are some of the hindrance to adoption of m-banking and this can severely impair user confidence and cripple widespread acceptance of m-banking services. Customer apprehension of risk and security are genuine concern as transmission Passover multiple network system owned by various service providers. Hence, mechanism to mitigate risk is vital for customer confidence. In addition; penetration of mobile phones is increasing in developing and poorer nations, where a large percentage of the global population resides. Financial institutions, which have had difficulty providing profitable services through traditional channels to poor clients, see opportunity in mobile banking as a form of branchless banking (Ivatury et al., 2008), which lowers the costs of serving low-income customers for the banks.
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Since year 2000, Pakistan has been enjoying a tremendous growth in telecommunication sector. The Pakistan did not pay much attention towards mobile commerce as compared to the western countries. This study intended to examine Pakistani consumers’ behavior towards mobile commerce. The m-commerce market in Pakistan is moving towards little growth. The study aimed to investigate diffusion and adoption of mobile banking among Pakistani university students and lecturers using Technology Acceptance Model. The study used stratified random sampling technique and self-administered questionnaire based on five point likert scale to collect data from university students and teachers having bank accounts (N=300). Regression analysis, reliability analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected data. Findings revealed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and self efficacy heightens the intention to use mobile banking. The perceived risk, perceived costs, perceived compatibility and usage frequency exerts negative influences on intention to use mobile banking. The implications for marketers and limitations were also included in study.
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Abstract: Mobile banking or M-banking has taken a huge surge in the contemporary society. Especially now-a-days, with demonetization fever gripping the entire country, small and mid-level traders like vegetable and grocery vendors have also opted for mobile banking options to receive payment from their customers. The demand-supply gap has opened a window for the use of mobile payment apps. To put it simply, mobile banking is the use of a smart phone cloud storage application that can be put to use for a range of financial transactions, like making payments. This survey is conducted in a state of India i.e., Uttar Pradesh. This survey paper is based on the questionnaire which covers the problems of internet banking and Satisfaction & dissatisfaction level toward Mobile banking. It is observed that there are several problems or challenges towards adoption of Mobile banking. It is observed that with growing positive uses of smart phones, there has also been an increase in its negative uses, with people using services for fraudulent means.
This is a deductive research and the research design of Uma Sekaran is used. In this study, the DOI model of Rogers will be used as a theoretical framework to determine the adoption of m-banking among the customers in Klang Valley. Therefore, the independent variables will be relative advantage, complexity, trialability, compatibility, observability and perceived risk while the dependent variable will be the adoption of m-banking. This is a quantitative research whereby 136 questionnaires will be distributed in Klang Valley. The questionnaires consist of 27 close ended questions and the 5 point likert scale is utilised to answer the questions. Initially, a pre-test and pilot test will be conducted before the full distribution of the questionnaires. The sample respondents are chosen randomly. The SPSS software version 20 will be used to analyse the data collected. Reliability test, correlation and multi-regression will be performed.
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Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting users’ intention to use mobile banking service in a scarcely distributed infrastructure, pastoral dominated demographic setting. Prior studies on this topic using different methods reported mixed results; suggesting the need for particular studies which should consider particularities of such cultural settings. A perception-based survey was conducted on 315 bank customers who have been using the service during the survey in Afar regional state, Ethiopia. So as to collect data, Likert’s-scale was adopted form prior acceptance studies. Ease- of-use, Usefulness, Trust, Social-influence, Attitude and Government-support were the constructs regressed to estimate users’ intention-to-use mobile bank. Out of the six factors, social influence, trust and government support found positive predictors of users’ intention to use mobile bank. In contrast, usefulness, ease of use and attitude did not support hypothesis. Ease of use and attitude specially, have emerged with unexpected negative regression weight. Generally, whether customers perceived mobile banking service is useful or not, they tend to use it: 1) if they perceived influential persons around them are supporting the service; 2) if government rules and regulations are assumed safe and facilities are sufficient; 3) lastly, if they trust security and confidentiality of transactions therein. The study was conducted in a new demographic and cultural settings. Hence, the combination of three trust related constructs emerged significant factors therein could be used in designing a new model of predicting users’ intention to use mobile banking in such type of regions.
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One requirement of mobile applications clients is that they require to be downloaded on the client device before they can be used, which further requires the mobile device to support one of the many development environments like J2ME . J2ME is fast becoming an industry standard to deploy mobile applications and requires the mobile phone to support Java. The major disadvantage of mobile application clients is that the applications needs to be customized to each mobile phone on which it might finally run. J2ME ties together the API for mobile phones which have the similar functionality in what it calls 'profiles'. Out of J2ME and BREW, J2ME seems to have an edge right now as Nokia has made the development tools open to developers which has further fostered a huge online community focused in developing applications based on J2ME. Nokia has gone an additional mile by providing an open online market place for developers where they can sell their applications to major cellular operators around the world.Quite a few mobile software product companies have rolled out solutions, which enable J2ME mobile applications, based banking. One such product is Wireless Ibanco.The mobile user downloads and installs the wireless I-banco application on their J2ME pone. The J2ME client connects to the wireless I-banco server through the service providers GSM network to enable users to access information about their accounts and perform transactions. One of the other big advantages of using a mobile application client is that it can implement a very secure channel with end-to end encryption. Positive impact of Mobile Banking
gender is one of the moderating factors in mobile banking adoption. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) is employed to examine significant difference in intention between gender categories on the basis of ease of use and risk in mobile banking services. Shapiro-Wilk test of normality is applied on the data sets which indicates the intentions of mobile banking adoption with regards to ease of use and risk factor. The technique was tested on SPSS 20 platform and the returned p-values of 0.000 for men and women leads to rejection of null hypothesis that proposes that data sets are coming from populations that are normally distributed. The results requires the utilization of non-parametric test in place of various parametric tests to find out the extent of perceived differences.
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