As stated in the introduction, the group of mobile phone users can be described as extremely divers: There are communication addicted power users of text-messaging and multi-media applications, business users with the need for excellent personal information management and synchronization with other tools – and there are lots of users, which need the mobile for just one task: making calls. This wide range offers a challenging task for the user interface designer: How can we create a user interface in a way so that all kind of user types feel comfortable, find the function they are heading for easily and can use the device quickly and error-free?
With the development of information technology, convenient, fast, efficiently has become the basic requirement of all kinds of information equipment. The using of mobilecommunicationdevices has a great effect on people's study, work and life. To realize resource communion between Mobile phone and other electronics is the electrifying dynamics of the production of Bluetooth mobile phone. Bluetooth mobile phone really provides us great convenience, which can realize the interconnection between terminal facilities from different manufacturers. Across the space constraints is the biggest advantage of Bluetooth network. Nevertheless, people suffered from the security threats of Bluetooth system while enjoying the convenience and efficiency brought by the Mobile phone Bluetooth network. In the range of Bluetooth network, the important confidential information can be issued by the users of Bluetooth mobile phone, and Secret unit faces a serious risk of information leakage; in addition, at begging of the connection establishment of file transfer, malicious attackers can attack the Bluetooth mobile phone, which weaken security of file transfer mechanism. Consequently, to ensure the security of the Bluetooth mobile phone file transmission is particularly important and urgent.
Recently, the use of mobilecommunicationdevices, such as smartphones and cellular phones, is increasing in field data collection due to the emergence of embedded GPS and wireless networking technologies. Obtaining the location information in the field is the first task in geospatial data collection. There are several ways to get the coordinate information from the field. Moreover, some Web and mobile applications can estimate your loca- tion in order to provide you with a more useful service. Every day millions of people around the world use loca- tion-based services with mobiledevices. Under the Wi-Fi networking environment, the estimating of the loca- tion can be done in several different ways. Because GPS is not always available and locations derived from cell towers are not very accurate, Google (and other Internet companies) use publicly broadcast Wi-Fi data from wireless access points to improve the location-based services. By using signals from these access points, the program can read the position of devices and locate the user on a map. However, the accuracy of positions using wireless environment can vary several meters. Therefore, to correct these errors or locate the accurate positions, Web-based high spatial resolution satellite image was used. By providing a tool “Read the Coordinates from a Map” (Figure 3, Item 4) can locate accurate position based on building foot print shape and clear surrounding landscape patterns. Table 1 summarizes coordinate acquisition methods and their advantages and disadvantages for various applications.
• Desktop User Experience. Microsoft has built a very strong franchise with its Office suite of productivity tools and they have shown wide acceptance of their SharePoint and Instant Messaging applications as well, all of which pro- vide complete integration which provides significant user satisfaction and greater response time for business users. Avaya does not offer an equivalent Office suite or team space/portal offering. However, Avaya does integrate with Lync, Office Communicator, the Office Suite, including Outlook, and SharePoint. Avaya offers their own IM and presence capabilities which can be used with their own clients or can be federated with OCS and Lync. Avaya has also introduced the Avaya Flare® Experience which is designed to provide a unique collaboration experience that aggregates access to a variety of communication tools and services. The Flare Experience was originally developed and implemented upon the Avaya Desktop Video Device --- designed to replace a number of desktop appliances --- with plans to introduce it and port to Windows, iOS, and Android platforms in the future.
tions between two content states. Moving of a content object to another state can be caused a) internally, when the values of content attributes have been changed; b) externally, either by an external event or by a change of external but related data. The first case of a content state change is more typical and has been con- sidered in other works described in Chapter 3. In the second case, the external events depends on actual circumstances and the given execution environment. By following this fact, the external events need to be identified adequately for mobile peer-to-peer workflow management. As already discussed, context awareness and context events are quite significant external events that can influence running of mo- bile workflows. Promoting context changes in the content behaviour management can reshape and enrich its evolution, and make the whole lifecycle management ap- proach more flexible and adaptable. Consider an example from the usage scenario about setting the user preference for the picture rating, which specifies the rating score that need to be achieved in order the picture being sent to reviewers. Thereby, to integrate context awareness into content lifecycles, transitions between content states have to be adapted for to handle this type of external context events.
In general, awareness promotes and encourages openness and communication among employees (D’Arcy, Hovav, & Galletta, 2009). Increased openness and communication, therefore, builds more trusting climate (Golembiewski & McConkie, 1975). Siponen (2000) defined security awareness as a situation wherein individuals within organizations are aware and committed to the security policies of their organizations. Bulgurcu, Cavusoglu, and Benbasat (2010) defined security awareness as “an employee’s overall knowledge and understanding of potential issues related to information security and their ramifications” (p. 532). Shaw, Chen, Harris, and Huang (2009) described information security awareness as “the degree of understanding of users about the importance of information security and their responsibilities and acts to exercise sufficient levels of information security control” (p. 92). McKnight and Webster (2001) believed that there is a relationship between awareness and trust. They noted that awareness could reinforce and improve trust because being aware indicates that things are satisfactory within the trusting environment. Furthermore, awareness builds trust between teams, develops trust by enhancing communication within organizations, and promotes openness that contributes to trust within organizations (McKnight & Webster, 2001).
In the uplink, many devices may want to connect to the UAV simultaneously, and the decoding vectors at the UAV for each device should be carefully designed. In addition, the transmit power of all the devices is assumed to be equal, because the global channel state information (CSI) is difficult to obtain at each node without ground BSs for any optimization. Thus, we can maximize the throughput of all the devices by jointly optimizing the unit decoding vectors, with a constraint on the rate of each device. Although this optimization is non-convex, it can be transformed into a convex one, and its closed-form solution can be derived through maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of each link via its corresponding decoding vector.
The spread of model data depends on the possibilities of opportunistic communication between peers. Obviously, if the number of participants is small and dispersed over a larger geographical area, the possibilities for data exchange are minimal. An open question is how fast observed changes in the model can be communicated to other nearby participants. In the Haggle project , we introduced a new communication paradigm using dynamic interconnectedness via wireless enabled devices, called a Pocket Switched Network (PSN). People carry devices in their pockets, which communicate directly with other devices within their range or with the infrastructure. As people move around they can exchange messages with nearby devices, carrying a message for someone until it is close to another device. We explore epidemic/gossip mechanisms to achieve fully decentralized communication, combined with infrastructure networks where possible. Messages are spread via epidemic mechanisms, which are robust against disconnection, mobility and node failures, and are simple and decentralized. The experiments show a great potential of efficient data spread through proximity communication. Because the communication is human-to-human, we integrate social networks for improving communication efficiency. Our approach uses the centrality and community structures of social networks to deploy various types of communication mechanisms . We have also shown how to uncover social structures in a distributed manner , where we discover cliques or tightly connected clusters, i.e. communities. To bootstrap a hierarchy quickly for someone who starts participating, it may be possible to copy a full tree from another trusted person (when both agree).
The scope of our usability testing will revolve around the site's compatibility with mobiledevices. We will not perform testing for the purpose of changing and enhancing the content or structure of the website, nor will our team delve into the other aspects of the site. The purpose of our testing will be to reveal the design flaws that affect the compatibility of the website with mobiledevices.
Zimmerman (1999) in his article titled ―Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Benefits, and the Mobile framework‖ defined mobile computing as ―the use of computing devices, which usually interact in some way with a centralised information system while away from the normal fixed workplace‖. He went on to say that, Mobile computing technology enables the mobile person to create, access, process, store and communicate information without being constrained to a single location. It is on the above basis that this researcher views mobile computing as embracing a host of portable technologies the can access internet using wireless fidelity (WIFI). These range from notebook computers to tablets, to smartphones and e-book readers. Such devices have brought about Mobile learning (m-Learning) in Zimbabwe Polytechnics, enabling staff and students to share academic resources, be able to research and develop applications from wherever they are. Zimmerman (1999) went on to identify mobile computing hardware, software and communications in use then. He identified hardware as palmtops, clamshells, handheld Pen Keys, pen slates, and laptops. The characteristics of such devices in terms of screen size was small, processing capability was limited and supported a few mobile applications. Over the years mobiledevices have improved in such characteristics to make mobile computing easy, fast and user friendly. Great improvements also came with the associated systems software, with the modern devices now running on Android, Symbian and windows 8 mobile, as compared to then when MS DOS, Windows 3.1, Pen DOS were used. In communications Zimmerman talked of internet speeds in kilobytes per second (Kbps), while today’s communications devices have speeds of gigabytes per second (Gbps
Mobiledevices battery is one of the main concerns for mobiledevices. Numerous solutions have been proposed to enhance the CPU performance and to manage the disk and screen in an intelligent manner to reduce power consumption. However, these solutions require changes in the structure of mobiledevices, or they require a new h/w that results in an increase of cost and may not be feasible for all mobiledevices. Computation off-loading technique is proposed with the objective to migrate the large computations and complex processing from resource- limited devices (i.e., mobiledevices) to resourceful machines (i.e., servers in clouds). This avoids taking a long application execution time on mobiledevices which results in large amount of power consumption. Rudenkoet al.  and Smailagic and Ettus evaluate the effectiveness of offloading techniques through several experiments. The results demonstrate that the remote application execution can save energy significantly. Especially, Rudenkoet al.  evaluates large-scale numerical computations and shows that up to 45% of energy consumption can be reduced for large matrix calculation. In addition, many mobile applications take advantages from task migration and remote processing. For example, offloading a compiler optimization for image processing can reduce 41% for energy consumption of a mobile device. Also, using memory arithmetic unit and interface (MAUI) to migrate mobile game components to servers in the cloud can save 27% of energy consumption for computer games and 45% for the chess game.
This method includes an integrated active GPS DEVICE device  that combines a GPS DEVICE recipient, the device sends notifications to the supervisor agents in real time through fernkopie, e-mail or SMS. Manager agents can create add-on or exclusion areas that surround a specific geographic location, as the victim's residence or work place. Using a combo of monitoring devices in victim and aggressor, the agents can control the proximity between both. If perhaps the aggressor is too close to the victim's home, work place or some of the exclusion areas, the two providers and the victim are notified. These approaches do not cover completely in house situations where GPS or GPRS coverage can are unsuccessful or such approaches need to define and control exclusion areas. In this sense, the Guardian system includes devices that incorporate GPS, GPRS and ZigBee in the same wi-fi module, thus covering all situations in an independent way.
However, there are still many parameters that can be manipulated to enhance the communication such as use of language and degree of interaction. For example, the role of politeness conventions and conveying the contextually appropriate ways of communication has been widely investigated for human-human interac- tions in various settings. However, we know little about how politeness should be integrated in HRI to increase user acceptance and satisfaction. Even though not all human-human interaction features can be applied to a human robot interaction, Torrey et al.  suggested that natural human-human assistive interactions can help to plan effective human robot assistants. On the other hand, Salem et al.  found out that the inter- action context (goal directed vs open dialogue) has a greater influence on participant perception of the HRI than the use of verbal politeness strategies.
177 (RFID) and networking technologies, NFC is a unique wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. It allows fast and automatic set-up of wireless networks, providing a virtual connector for existing cellular, Bluetooth and wireless 802.11 devices. This touch-and-go convenience enables rapid and easy communication between all types of consumer devices, making NFC the perfect solution for controlling data in our increasingly complex and connected world. Smart card security NFC combines connectivity with smart card security. NFC devices can read information from contactless cards. This makes smart cards the ideal solution for bringing information and electronic coupons into the NFC world. They can also operate like a contactless card – even when switched off – and are compatible with the huge installed infrastructure of Philips’ MIFARE and Sony’s Felicia contactless card systems. Virtual connector. NFC can be used as a virtual connector for quickly establishing other types of wireless communication between devices. By bringing two devices close together, it can automatically confi gure and initialize other wireless protocols such as WiFi and Bluetooth. This enables communications at longer ranges and higher data rates. In an environment rich with wireless-enabled devices, NFC is the easy way to set up connections without needing to go through complicated selection menus. IV. SECURITY ASPECTS
The „Things‟ in „Internet of Things‟ is „Everything‟ and „Anything‟ we are capable to imagine or fantasize. Internet of things is basically an extension of Internet into physical realm by means of things or embedded devices having unique identification number. A unique identifier is absolutely possible with IPv6, through which it is possible to have literally infinite number of unique identifiers. Technology is always growing and in modern times it is growing at hefty pace. Technological advances made internet easily available in the form of fixed and mobile broadband service at reasonable cost. Availability and affordability of internet coupled with embedded technologies, growth in the field of data mining and RFID technologies have led to development of devices capable of transmitting data without any human help. Although technologies such as 3D printing indicates the inception of Internet of things but significant amount of work is yet to be done in order to truly allow everything to act as things in the Internet of Things. This paper provides current status, architecture and components on which Internet of things will be based, barriers in front of Internet of things and possible smart application of „Internet of Things‟.
Although email communication has been growing exponentially in recent years, communicating in person is still considered very important. Maintaining goodwill is a critical aspect of a company's going concern. Goodwill can be maintained via electronic correspondence and through in-person communication. Striking the right balance between virtual and personal communication is the most effective way to maximize the use of technology and yet sustain face time with people. The importance of face-to-face communication must not be forgotten in our faced-paced, technological world.
mobile client. A restart of the Android client would solve the problem, but this scenario happened multiple times. This is why some of the devices have very few test re- sults for certain technologies, for instance the HN had issues with C2DM. This only happened on the Android 2.3 mobiledevices, whereas the Android 3.1 tablet was very stable over the entire test period. It would be inter- esting and useful for future work to focus on these stabil- ity issues, by including Android version 4 devices in the tests to see if the problems are fixed or at least improved in this newer version of the operating system. However, at the time of writing, an official version of Android 4 is not released for the devices used in the benchmark test.