In 2000, the S. Marti,T.J. Giuli, K. Lai and M. Proposed the ―watchdog and Pathrater‖ scheme that is used to detect & mitigate the effect of nodes that do not forward packets. Watchdog determines misbehavior by replication packets to be forwarded into a buffer and monitoring the behavior of the adjacent node to these packets. Watchdog promiscuously snoops to decide if the adjacent node forwards the packets without modifications or not. If the packets that are snoop match with the observing node’s buffer, then they are discarded; whereas packets that stay in the buffer beyond a timeout period without any successful match are flagged as having been dropped or modified. The node responsible for forwarding the packet is then noted as being suspicious. If the number of violations becomes greater than a certain predetermined threshold, the violating node is marked as being malicious. .
The advent of wireless communication and the proliferation of handheld devices has significantly advanced the growth of nomadic communications. The capability of these handheld mobile devices to self organize themselves on-the-fly in the absence of an infrastructure, and to extend their communications beyond their wireless radio range has potentially led to the development of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). Limited range wireless communication and high node mobility means that the nodes must cooperate with each other to provide essential networking, with the underlying network dynamically changing to ensure needs are continually met. Mobile devices in these networks are commonly referred to as nodes and are predominantly deployed in conditions that include emergency scenarios, such as earthquakes and other natural disasters, rescue operations and defense related applications, environmental monitoring, conferences etc. Furthermore, the self- organized, multi-hop and infrastructure-less features have evolved the MANET into being the basis for sensor networks , Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) , peer-to-peer wireless networks , pervasive networks and mesh networks.
Intrusions are malicious activities aiming to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of a network. Prevention mechanisms can be effective in reducing potential attacks. However, if a node is compromised, all secrets associated with it are prone to attacks. This, in turn, makes such mechanisms inefficient against malicious insiders that cause much greater damage than external attackers (Sun, Osborne, Xiao, & Guizani, 2007). Besides, the history of preventive mechanisms shows the impracticality of such systems to survive on their own in providing a secure, intrusion-free system (Yang et al., 2004). Therefore, the presence of detection and reaction techniques, namely IDSs, that are capable of uncovering intrusions and avoiding their adverse effects through reactions is imperative for the survivability of a network (Yang et al., 2004). IDSs consist of a set of automated components that are capable of detecting suspicious activities and reacting to them in an attempt to prevent the security of the network from getting compromised. The detection part of an IDS involves constant monitoring of network activities. On the other hand, the reaction part involves raising alarms as well as taking preventive measures, such as isolating the suspect from connecting to the network (Mishra, Nadkarni, & Patcha, 2004).
The rapid usage and innovation of wireless networks and mobile computing applications has changed the view and scope of network security. These attacks could significantly disrupt the transmission of data which relies on full cooperation between nodes to route messages. Due to the shared nature of wireless channels, noise within the channels, and instability caused by mobility, wireless communication is much more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks Node authentication and data encryption alone are not sufficient for the security of these networks. Intrusion detection techniques can be classified into anomaly detection, signature-based detection, and specification-based detection Nowadays securing the ad-hoc routing protocol is the challenging problem A mobile wireless network is unprotected due to its features of open medium, dynamic changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring and management point. Future research is needed to address these vulnerabilities.
Wireless networking is now the medium of choice for many applications. In addition, modern manufacturing techniques allow increasingly sophisticated functionality to reside in devices that are ever smaller, and so increasingly mobile. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) combine wireless communication with a high degree of node mobility. Limited range wireless communication and high node mobility means that the nodes must cooperate with each other to provide essential networking, with the underlying network dynamically changing to ensure needs are continually met,. The dynamic nature of the protocols that enable MANET operation means they are readily suited to deployment in extreme or volatile circumstances. MANETs have consequently become a very popular research topic and have been proposed for use in many areas such as rescue operations, tactical operations, environmental monitoring, conferences, and the like . MANETs by their very nature are more vulnerable to attack than wired networks. The flexibility provided by the open broadcast medium and the cooperativeness of the mobile devices introduces new security risks ,. As part of rational risk management we must be able to identify these risks and take appropriate action. In some cases we may be able to design out particular risks cost-effectively. In other cases we may have to accept that vulnerabilities exist and seek to take appropriate action when we believe someone is attacking us . As a result, intrusion detection is an indispensable part of security for MANETs.
In this part, we are going to see about the Host Intrusion detection system, where this system can be hybrid with both. In this system we have concentrated only for log in security, where the analyzer will detect the attack when the logging system enabled. Normally in internet world, the first security level everyone knows is Login password for a single user. Even that can prone to the hacker easily. The Host intrusion detection system is the methods of security analyser for networks and computers. In HIDS, where malware detection, antivirus, spyware-detection software are installed on every personal network computer, that has prone to the outside environment such as Internet. But, in network based system like anti threat is installed only at certain point node. Example like servers that which interface between the outsourcing environment and the segment to be safeguarded. By finding that types of attack, for that Host intrusion detection as been introduced. Where, HIDS will detect both attacks unauthorized and login/logoff time. This paper is focus on the both as Network and also Host based intrusion detection system. By the name suggests, that resides in a separate host systemmonitoring and testing on systems configuration. This extra layer of protection may ensure the past your firewall does not leave you into malicious act. HIDS has several aspects, such as anomaly detection, signature identification and detection analysis of protocol to protect you against malware threats.
QR is short for Quick Response it can be read quickly by a mobile phone. From piece of information from a transitory media and can be read by smart phone. Figuren2.1 show the example of QR code image. QR Code always used in advertising materials in the environment such as magazine advert, on a billboard, a web page or even on television. It may give details about that business or details and show the URL (Uniform Resource Locator is a reference (an address) to a resource on the Internet) about link to the individual's full resume or website. This will be a shortcut to connect directly with websites or online resources without having to type a URL into an internet browser.
In this paper, we present a new hybrid scheme combining the DWT and the DCT algorithms under high compression ratio constraint. The algorithm performs the DCT on the lowest level DWT coefficient. It is tested on several types of images, of which chest X-ray images have been shown here and the results of this exhaustive simulation show an improved performance, over 2 level decomposition DWT and other hybrid schemes. Also, the security aspect has been taken care by the use of LSB level substitution. The new scheme reduces the false contouring effect and blocking artifacts significantly. The analysis shows that for a fixed level of distortion, the number of bits required to transmit the hybrid coefficients would be less than those required for other schemes. The proposed scheme has medium computational complexity and is intended to be used for mobile devices, facilitating the doctor to diagnose the patient’s disease from anywhere.
network intrusion detection system looks out for malicious events which could be an intrusion in disguise, by monitoring traffic on a network. In addition to monitoring network traffic, it also scans system files to look for any unauthorised activity there and to maintain data and file integrity. While doing this it is capable of finding alterations in the basic components of the system. It is also capable of checking file logs of servers to find out any dangerous traffic or unlawful ways of using that are not safe for the system. It can also do a proactive role wherein it checks the local firewalls or for possible violation of rules or oversees running traffic to find out the accurate scenario. The advantage of NIDS is it is very straightforward to apply and to deploy. It also keeps a constant eye on the network of any system and thus provides constant monitoring. The NIDS is also less costly to install, as it is installed on a particular segment which covers all the sections in that network segment. It also provides real-time detection of the intrusion i.e. the intrusion happening is immediately detected so that the attacker does not get much time to back out or cover his traces. The disadvantage is, an NIDS is an easy target of a DOS attack. Also, sometimes it generates and collects a huge number of alerts or intrusions per day and thus sometimes unnecessarily burdens the system. It should be noted that a NIDS server can’t work in place of basic security systems like firewall or checking the user identity. 2) Host-Based Intrusion Detection System(HIDS): A Host- Based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) keeps a watch on the systems where they are currently working, finds out attacks or vulnerabilities, and accordingly notifies the required people in charge. An HIDS is capable of working as a mediator who oversees and checks if anyone manipulates the rules and tries to go by bypassing the network or host rules. HIDS agent does the above job by monitoring the adjustments already done on the system, like critical system files (/etc/passwd), registry settings, file checksum, or any such similar parameter. When the machine is under attack, the agent obstructs the contact required, takes a note of the current audits of the running session, notifies the person or device who is responsible and then finally notifies the main authority about the incident. In HIDS normally all the traffic is deciphered, so if the traffic is in encrypted form, then also it can be checked.
In general terms, monitoring is defined as the essential means for obtaining the information required about the components of a distributed system in order to make management decisions and subsequently control their behavior . In such systems the components may evolve during the course of computation and problem solving; therefore static design of monitoring identified at design time may not prove appropriate. Thus it need to dynamically monitor host agents, in order to maximize the reliability and the availability of overall mobile agent based distributed applications. After an agent is submitted into a service network, the client or the network manager may need to know its current location in order to inquire its status, or to control its execution, etc. A simple way is to send another agent called search agent, to search the original agent along the original path or to send a message to every server where the agent might have visited.
At the present time the usage of mobile applications in any area and desire of people who want to be on- line every time affect and change the development of telemedicine technologies in health sector as like the all sectors. In telemedicine technologies and other areas million applications are developing in nowadays and are served to users. These applications have many properties besides bring solutions to problems that the users faced in daily life. Along the increase in mobile applications make easier patient tracing and increase saving in institutions. With the mobile patient tracing system in this context it’s supplied that no need to go hospital for basic measurements and continuous monitoring and also storing the measurements in a central storing system. Also it’s aimed that accelerate the treating to urgent patience by separating the normal and urgent measurements. In epitome firstly the data taken from the heat, temperature, diabetes and heart rhythm sensors sent to the Arduino micro controller system then sent to the mobile device which has Android operating system and supported NFC or Bluetooth and lastly sent to the central storing system by this mobile device.
The positioning accuracy has been achieved with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in continuously operating GPS network has been considerably improved during the last few years. The rapid development of the positioning accuracy with GPS, mainly under the umbrella of the international GNSS Services for Geodynamics consortium, provide more précised determination of satellite orbital parameters, through the enlargement of the GPS satellite constellation, and the improvement of the global Continuous GPS (CGPS) tracking system coverage (U. Dogan et al 2014).
Within this paper, initially survey on several attacks, issues and the solutions within MANET have been discussed, then here suggested an intrusion-detection-system that may detect the misbehaving connection in the decent manner and within the short-time also the IDS is applied on that terminal is also reliable. Due to this vulnerability, intrusion-prevention techniques like an encryption and authentication are not able to eliminate the attacks. Therefore, IDS has become an unavoidable and important component to provide defense-in-depth security mechanisms for MANETs. In terms of the performance, the intrusion-detection-system has now becomes very exact as it finds out more attacks and generates less false-positive-alarms. Intrusion detection systems must integrate with such networks and devices and provide support for advances in a comprehensible manner. In this paper we have presented the characteristics of MANET, attacks in MANET and comparison of previous IDSs.
The following figure shows the block diagram of Bluetooth based personal medical kit. Slight fluctuation in the normal heart rate, body temperature can be measured to the help of this medical kit. It will forward data to the microcontroller where it will be compared with normal value of body temperature and heart rate. Depending upon the parameters considered by monitor, if it finds any parameter disturbed the result is send to the doctor and he may immediately take the necessary section. Thus without wasting the time patient can be treated whereas sending the report can be done using Bluetooth. Bluetooth based heart rate monitoring and the display system is a portable and a best replacement for the old model stethoscope, which is less efficient. It is a combination of a HIGH POWER LED based heart rate monitor interface with a Bluetooth module to transmit the heart rate of patient to a remote location. The functioning of this device is based on the truth that the blood circulates for every heartbeat that can be sensed by LED. Depending upon the rate of circulation of blood the heart beat per minute is calculated. This calculated value is communicated to the person through a Bluetooth to the receiver which are interfaced to it. Bluetooth based heart rate monitoring and the display system is a portable and a best replacement for the old model stethoscope, which is less efficient.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - Network based technology and Cloud Computing is becoming popular day by day as many enterprise applications and data are moving into cloud or Network based platforms. Because of the distributed and easy accessible nature, these services are provided over the Internet using known networking protocols, Protocol standards and Protocol formats under the supervision of different management’s tools and programming language. Existing bugs and vulnerabilities in underlying technologies and legacy protocols tend to open doors for intrusion so many Attacks like Denial of Service (DDOS), Buffer overflows, Sniffer attacks and Application-Layer attacks have become a common issue today. Recent security incidents and analysis Have manual response to such attacks and resolve that attacks are no longer feasible. In Internet and Network system application or platform facing various types of attacks in every day. Firewalls security and spam filters are in place but they have simple rules such as to allow or deny protocols, ports or IP addresses. Some DoS and other attacks are too complex for today’s firewalls, so firewalls cannot prevent that all attacks. In this paper we define and discuss various types and techniques of Intrusion Detection, Intrusion Prevention and the IDS tools that are employed to detect these attacks and discuss some open source tools to prevent and detection of intrusion and how can we use Open Source tools in our system.
2 Mobile robots are autonomous machines that are capable of movement in a given environment in which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. Many kinds of robots are autonomous to some degree. Different robots can be autonomous in different ways. The most common class of mobile robots is wheeled robots. A second class of mobile robots includes legged robots while a third smaller class includes aerial robots, usually referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments, and appear as consumer products. A path finding robot is one of the mobile robot where the robot is moving base on the line tracking. The main parts of the robots are sensor, motor and controller. The line can be in white / black line tape on the floor. The sensor will detect the line on the floor and send signals to controller to be process. After that it send signals to motor to rotate and the robot is moving base on the signal given.
stage adds two hubs to the leaf dependent on the heterogeneity when it is more noteworthy than an edge (TR) esteem got from the trust scores inferred. We predefine an edge an incentive from the trust worth got to test the bunch partition at first. The even development at each stage, the ideal number of sub bunches of the least level hubs is found powerfully. Until the heterogeneity of all leaves is not exactly an edge TR the procedure proceeds. The hub's heterogeneity is processed from the deviation of score acquired from recurrence and entropy. The crude trust segments characterize trust approach so as to locate the prevailing bunch for secure correspondence. The trust assessment module finds the exceptionally secure overwhelming group to upgrade the bundle conveyance proportion and reduction the vitality utilization by staying away from the re-sending of parcels. In trust based system, the trust value of every hub is assessed by hub practices. The believed hubs in each various leveled level are recognized as a predominant bunch and exceptionally qualify them to take the interest in directing. Versatility is accomplished by bunching the hubs. Ideal number of bunches in a specific various leveled structure is utilized to discover the gatecrasher effectively .
Abstract : Security of Information is one of the keystones of Information Society. Past few year, many attacks are increased, intrusion detection system(IDS) is important component and to protect the network. In present-days, many researchers are using data mining techniques for building IDS. One of the main challenges in the security management of large-scale high speed networks is to detect of inconsistency in network traffic patterns due to Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks or worm propagation. Intrusion detection methods started appearing in the last few years. Here, so we present a Intrusion detection method using K-means clustering, neuro-fuzzy models, Support vector machine (SVM) and C4.5 algorithm. We are using a four level framework for Intrusion detection in which first step related to generate different training datasets by using k-means clustering, second step based on the training datasets different neuro-fuzzy models are trained, third step a vector for SVM classification and radial SVM classification is perform. Finally we build the decision tree using C4.5 decision tree algorithm and we build graph on the basis of SVM classification and C4.5 decision tress algorithm.
Due to the lack of suitable security system a malicious node might join the network freely and act as a legitimate node i.e.an intermediary node which is a threat to salvation of data which is exchanged. Several intrusion detection systems (IDS) have been developed for detecting malicious node in the network. The system which monitors the traffic of network and detect the malicious or selfish node in the network can be defined as intrusion detection system. Due to dynamic topology, the task of IDS is very difficult and challenging to say the least. Generally IDS can be categorized into two types (Fig.1) i.e., data collection and data analysis techniques [4-5]. The data collection techniques are further classified into network based and host based. In network based technique, IDS runs on a portal of a network and capture survey data from network traffic that flows over it, and it analyzes the collected data. In host based technique, IDS access the audit data from system log files that runs on the node. Data analysis technique can also be classified into three major types namely - signature based, specification based and anomaly based. In the signature based technique, the set of predefined rules or patterns which will be compared to match the attack. Several techniques are available for signature based method such as genetic algorithm, expert system, rule based, state transition analysis and pattern matching. In the specification based method, it has the set of predefined constraint which defines the appropriate operation of a protocol which monitors the execution of a protocol in respect of defined constraints. If it is deviated from that then the node will be reported as malicious or selfish node. In anomaly based method, the IDS have the normal behavior system that will be constructed according to the target system. Based on this, threshold value will be defined which shows end point between normal and abnormal behavior of the system. Then the captured profile is compared with the defined profile. The available methods of anomaly based technique are data mining, file checking, statistical, immune system and neural network [4-5].
The idea of internet of things (IoT) was developed in parallel to WSNs. The term Internet of Things was given by Kevin Ashton in 1999  which refer to uniquely identifiable objects and virtual representations in an internet . Internet of things is the collection of tiny low powered resource constraint devices and wireless sensor networks are the major components of IoT. As almost every tiny devices are embedded with sensors and WSNs will bring the IoT to even the smallest objects installed in different kind of environment. WSNs are the network of tiny low cost devices which are having ability to sense various environmental changes and transfer the sensed data to base station from remote areas. Integration of these networks with the IoT will be a more flexible way of data transfer from one remote area to other over Internet. WSNs have wide range of applications like monitoring, tracking, smart grid, smart water, intelligent transportation systems, and many with huge amounts of data which can serve for many purposes. With these feature of WSNs and its advance technologies in wireless communication making WSNs to Integrate with IoT which can lead rapid growth of WSN and IoT in the current business market.