This paper has proposed a 6in4 tunnel based IPv6 transition solution for IPv4 mobile terminals, so that they can easily get access to IPv6. The solution proposed could also provide possible solution for telecom carriers who are eager to offer IPv6 services without much improvements or replacements done on their current system. It is unique for the fact that it aims at providing a suitable way for existing mobile terminals to migrate from IPv4 to IPv6. With the application software designed and implemented, IPv4 mobile terminals are able to reach IPv6 resources in the experimental environment. Moreover, host mobility has been taken into account, and mobile terminals can “stay on IPv6” when they move from one network to another, as long as the new IPv4 address assigned to them allows a new tunnel to be established. Qualitative and quantitative tests have proved the practical significance and effectiveness of the solution.
Abstract—The extending applications for mobile computing have experienced immense progress over the previous decade. However, this has ultimately inﬂuenced the shortage of bandwidth. Therefore, to fulﬁll the consumers’ demand, inexpensive antennas need to be uniquely designed for the next/ﬁfth generation (5G) frequency spectrum. Consequently, this paper presents a novel antenna composed of inductors (L) or capacitors (C) on an air-substrate. Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) materials are utilized to fabricate the lumped LC resonator prototype. The eﬀects of antenna’s and substrate’s thickness on resonant frequency or bandwidth have been studied. The ﬁnalized conﬁguration engaged 1113 sq. mm area and operated at 28 GHz with approximately 3 GHz bandwidth. At resonant frequency, the system demonstrates peak gain and eﬃciency values of 10.6 dBi and 91%, respectively. The core objective of this paper is to report an antenna featuring simple and economical design along with premium results for 5G mobile terminals.
Several methods have been proposed in the literature for the location of mobile terminals in wireless networks based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), Time of Arrival (ToA), or Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements [7, 8]. Other options ex- plored in the literature include adding GPS receiver hardware to the mobile terminals . GPS can offer very high precision geo-location. This technology has the disadvantage that the mobile terminals have to be modiﬁed to be located. Also un- modiﬁed GPS does not work inside buildings or in outdoor areas where buildings or hills can block the signal from the GPS satellites . Regions like this are quite common in the heavy urban centers of greatest interest to cellular network providers.
Multi-standard mobile devices are allowing users to enjoy higher data rates and ubiquitous connectivity. These advances are achieved on the expense of higher energy consumption requirements due to the continuous connectivity and the multiple active wireless interfaces. In this article, we use one advantage of the multiple interfaces, namely short-range (SR) communications. Mobile terminals (MTs) use SR cooperative networking to take advantage of the good channel quality of SR links to save energy in multi-standard MTs. In this cooperative network, the combined energy of all MTs is treated as a pool of resources, which is used by all MTs in the network. Towards this end, we propose using cooperation between MTs using SR technology to achieve energy savings. We conduct a quantitative numerical analysis to show the energy saving gains that can be achieved. We derive the energy gains in different use cases, considering different combinations of technologies (WiFi-WiMedia, WiMAX-WiFi and WiFi-WiFi) and different channel conditions. We show that up to 80% energy savings can be achieved when using a combination of WiMedia as SR and WiFi as long-range technology, compared to using WiFi without cooperation. We also show that SR cooperation can be used to extend the lifetime of the whole network. In such scenario, terminals, which are running out of battery or low in energy, can still relay their data through other MTs, even if this will result in a slight increase in the total consumption of all MTs. This way, source MTs with low battery level benefit from the good condition of the SR channel, extending the lifetime of their batteries. The increase in the energy consumption of the relays can hence be compensated by some kind of payment, which opens opportunities for new business models involving source MTs, relays and network operators.
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The desirable features of antennas integrated on a 5G mobile terminal include conformal structure hence occupying least volume to achieve the desired gain, low speciﬁc absorption rate, high impedance bandwidth to facilitate future bands near 28 GHz, and high gain for the available aperture at the mobile front-end. Pattern diversity is also a desired feature to support the landscape and portrait modes of the smartphone . Several designs for antennas to be integrated on 5G mobile terminals have been proposed. For instance the multilayered antenna array would increase the complexity, and the aperture size might be unsuitable for mobile terminals . The circularly polarized narrowband high gain element proposed in  has an aperture of 25 × 25 mm, which exceeds the available space in a mobile terminal. The antenna designed in  has 58% wideband with stable patterns and a reasonable gain of 6–8 dBi but suﬀers from high SAR, if integrated on a mobile terminal. The radiation patterns of the strongly resonant structure reported in  are unusable for the mobile terminal in any feasible orientation. It must be noted that most of the reported papers have planar design with microstrip feed.
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The major contribution of this study is the use of recent developments in reconfigurable parasitic arrays and in the beamspace representation of their patterns, in order to optimize the performance of the forward link in opportunistic beamforming and MIMO broad- cast channel MU systems. The presentation of our find- ings is organized in the following sections. In Section 2, we present a review of reconfigurable parasitic antenna technologies with emphasis on their feasibility and adap- tive capabilities, which enable the analysis of this article. Section 3 presents the advantages of using parasitic arrays on mobile terminals in opportunistic beamform- ing multiuser scenarios, while Section 4 presents the respective gains achieved in MIMO broadcast channel MU scenarios. Section 5 concludes the results of this research activity. One paragraph describing paper con- tents and contribution. (Actually in opportunistic beam- forming MU systems and in MU-MIMO broadcast channels).
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line and create an additional electromagnetic field to enhance port-to- port isolation. But it is a challenge to find a low impedance area that suits for the neutralization line. In addition, the use of electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) is able to suppress surface wave propagation [7, 8], and thus improve the isolation between radiating elements. However, this method occupies significant areas. Other isolation enhanced techniques, such as incorporating a protruded ground between the antennas [9, 10], inserting slits into the ground , applying multi-port conjugate (MC) match , are also used. Nowadays, broadband and Ultra-wideband (UWB) MIMO antenna represents a very appealing solution for multi-standard device because of the increasing number of operating frequency bands required in mobile terminals. There are several effective methods used in narrowband, which also suit for broadband or UWB to improve isolation, such as adding stub or branch [13–16] and etching slot in the ground [17–19]. Though the method of adding branch has good isolation, it acquires antenna size. Though the method of etching slot is not complicated, it affects the integrity of antenna ground. As to reaching high isolation in all the broadband or UWB, it is an open issue.
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impedance matching in both bands, a tradeoff W = 16 mm is chosen. Figure 8 plots the simulated radiation patterns of the proposed antenna at 0.5 GHz, 0.9 GHz and 1.9 GHz, respectively. It can be seen that the radiation patterns are nearly omnidirectional at most frequencies, which is acceptable for terminal communication applications. Figure 9 shows the measured antenna peak gain from 0.475–2 GHz for the proposed antenna. The measured antenna peak gain is about 0.9–3.5 dBi for the lower band and about 3.5–4.7 dBi for the upper band. The peak gain is high enough to be used in practical DVB-H and mobile terminal applications such as netbook or portable devices.
used as the only major signal available on mobile termi- nal. Most mobile stations transceivers are ideally circu- larly polarized and isotropic in nature, with a single low gain antenna element. However, these single element units are particularly more susceptible to noise interfer- ence because they receive signals from all directions. The resolution for a channel in which the multipath arises as a result of specular reflections off a number of objects and each individual multipath component is not dispersed in time . The output of a specular multipath channel consists of the sum of a number of attenuated time-delayed versions of the transmitted signal from sat- ellite, each of which arrives at the mobile terminal with- out distortion . The adaptive antenna has been recog- nized as way to enhance capacity and coverage of the system . Adaptive antenna array mounted on the mo- bile terminal is an approach suitable to combating un- wanted signals in the sidelobes of antenna pattern as communication satellite traverses the sky, which this study attempts to investigate.
Abstract—Co-design of corner bent Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antennas catering to 4G LTE and mmWave 5G applications is proposed. The 4G LTE MIMO antenna module consists of two element microstrip-fed slot antennas operating from 1.7 to 3 GHz with fractional bandwidth of 55%, which covers LTE1900, LTE2300, and LTE2500 bands. For mmWave 5G MIMO antenna module, two element Vivaldi antennas with wideband operating from 25 to 38 GHz and fractional bandwidth of 41% are proposed. The mmWave 5G microstrip fed Vivaldi MIMO antennas exhibit orthogonal pattern diversity at 28 GHz with 1-dB gain bandwidth of 28%. The single element corner bent co-designed antenna is compact having dimensions of 14 × 51 × 0 . 254 mm 3 . The 4G LTE and mmWave 5G antennas are electrically close to each other by 0 . 01 λ at 1.7 GHz for minimal physical footprint. Co-designed 4G LTE and mmWave MIMO antennas are integrated inside a typical mobile case. Simulated and measured results are presented.
systems. It was verified in the beginning that the termi- nals have the required specifications. Later they were measure in which the terminals started to present errors, and it results indicators of the ratio of the cells. For the transmission of data, it was found the power limits changing the modulation schemes. The limit power is an important data for designing and planning of a radio network. This task established the tests for a deep analy- sis from the point of view of coverage in capacity of ra- dio. In future tasks analysis of capacity in transmission will be presented depending on the distance, slots and modulation schemes. It should be remarked that this kind of research is important, due to their results has a great impact at different levels; like that planning, research, manufacturing, scientific and academic areas.
This study examines whether authorized service vendors (ASV) for mobile terminals (MT) are satisfied with the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) in terms of service provided to them and also how the ASV is performing at their premises. A seamless relationship between the OEM and the ASV is essential for both sides to prosper in this business. When the ASV supplies good services to end-users, this contributes to an increase in the customer satisfaction rating, loyalty and retention. The study employs an exploratory research design; in-depth survey interviews were carried out in six different ASV in Europe. The study was conducted at Nokia Corporation in Finland. The survey analysis of the association between category variables is descriptively analyzed. The main findings in this work were that the ASV is satisfied with the MT product manufacturer, and that the internal working practice of the ASV organization was perceived as more positive than negative. From the OEM side, the issue resolution time (iRT) and training before product launch are items that should be focused on in the first place, as these affect customer satisfaction. The ASV management should seek a way to share the end-user customer feedback to the ASV teams, and internal information communication should also be improved.
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Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. It needs low power of 5V for functioning thus suiting for this project. The embedded microcontroller has the knowledge to give AT commands to initiate and send the child information message to mobile phone through GSM module.
Dramatic advances in next-generation communication systems have inspired portable and compact mobile terminals with increased spectrum and power eﬃciency. According to the well-known Shannon’s theorem, to improve the spectrum eﬃciency of a communication system, the best way is to use the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology. This technology uses multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver to improve the channel capacity by severalfold. Therefore, compact and broadband multi-antenna systems are required for future high-capacity mobile terminals [1–3].
Abstract- The high generation wireless system increasing their capability to provide high data handover rates, quality of services and continuous mobility. Certain advances in wireless technologies have been evolving various wireless network .This network offers certain transmission of wireless data with the number of transmission method. A heterogeneous wireless network includes personal, local and wireless broadband network .Out of these technologies WiMax and WiFi are major techniques which perform high speed communication over the network. Dynamic clustering with different mobile terminals have to be done for better implementation. Dividing each node into certain slots we form the channels. A dynamic channel assignment (DCA) policy is Hybrid-DCA is planned in a clustered ad hoc network. But when the mobile nodes are moved outside the coverage area of its base station, it is required to switch some other network, process worked as handoffs. Working with same network called horizontal handoff and work with dissimilar network called as vertical handoffs .To support the mobility on the network handoff mechanism is conceptually used with the required techniques to follow. This paper addresses certain handoffs between the dynamic clustering with mobile terminals.
Abstract: In this paper an Archimedean spiral reconfigurable antenna is presented for wireless communication applications of LTE 33-37, Mobile terminals, industrial, scientific and medical group (ISM), PCS Band, UMTS, Widespread Tunable Range, Defense and scientific, IOT, Radio Altimeters etc., The Dimension of designed proposed antenna are\ 40mm×35 mm on FR4 epoxy with thickness of 0.8 and dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna takes a spiral element fed by a feeding line. For switching purpose, PIN diodes are utilized in this design. The proposed antenna can be operating at different frequencies basing on the Switching ON and OFF state of PIN Diodes.The study has shown that the designed antenna can reduce the complete antenna size and improving the bandwidth and also operating at different frequencies. There is a good matching in between measured and simulated results.
The M-commerce will become the mainstream form of online marketing in the future. For this reason, agricultural e-commerce shall actively explore the efficiently integrated marketing model with mobile terminals: interacting with target user groups in the platform of social commerce--WeChat for the voluntary dissemination and promotion of marketing message by users; analyzing data in order to provide better targeted customer services and develop appropriate business strategy.
In Secure access networks, central stations are the nodes which can receive and send data to or from other base stations through input and output terminal. Set of base stations can be connected to input and output terminals. All mobile terminals can be connected to data center. Data center data storage area can hold the data packets which are received from mobile terminals. Mobile or sender / receiver are the users can receive signal from base stations. Multiple virtual proxies can be attached to mobile terminal to minimize additional overhead. In proposed design architecture every request from base station can be forwarded to mobile terminal, in turn it redirects the request to mobile proxy. It is not possible in traditional approach.
The imode is the NTT DoCoMo’s new Internet access system . It is an advanced intelligent messaging service for digital mobile phones and other mobile terminals that will allow you to see Internet content in special text format on special imode- enabled mobile phones. Enabling information access from handheld devices requires a deep understanding of both technical and market issues that are unique to the wireless environment . The imode specification was developed by the industry's best minds to address these issues. Wireless devices represent the ultimate constrained computing device with limited CPU, memory and battery life and a simple user interface.
The objective of this paper is to investigate the system performance of Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) with decoupling network scheme in massive MIMO system to alleviate the effects of pilot contamination. The mutual coupling is characterized by the receiving mutual impedance method (RMIM) and its effects between antenna elements are included in the massive MIMO system model. The error performance and the system capacity of the coupled and decoupled antenna elements at the receiving ends are evaluated using Dirty Paper coding technique. There have been several research works of late on dirty paper coding with the work in  where dirty paper coding and time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission schemes were compared for MIMO broadcast channels. It was shown that dirty paper coding technique provided an upper bound on the sum-rate gain over the TDMA scheme. This paper systematically presents the measurement of receiving mutual impedance of monopole array to formulate the decoupling network operating matrix and design. For illustration, coupling matrix under coupled and compensated voltages is determined. To give a full picture of system performance, coupling matrix is included in the massive MIMO system model with dirty paper system model. Figures of merit for mobile terminals such as channel capacity and error performance are investigated, and measurement results indicate the promising possibilities of dirty paper coding with efficient decoupling scheme to alleviate the pilot contamination effects in massive MIMO technology.
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