lations conducted with an accurate LTE simulator [9, 10]. More precisely, the considered simulator assumes MTs of limited computational complexity, where decoding is performed by using a 1-tap zero forcing equalizer and a turbo decoder based on the soft output Viterbi algo- rithm. Numerical illustrations are reported in Section 8. For completeness, Table 2 reports the input parameters that are needed for computing the SE and BR in (38) and (39). It is worth emphasizing, however, that (38) and (39) are general enough for being used for analyzing different wireless standards and receiver implementations.
Cloud computing and mobiles are two significant technological trends observed in last few years. When cloud computing, mobilecomputing and wireless networks are combined together such that rich computational resources can be given to mobile users, it gives rise to Mobile Cloud Computing. Network operators as well as cloud service providers also enjoy the availability of rich computational resources as such. Because of mobile cloud computing, all the computational power and storage capacity which were previously with held with mobile devices are transferred to more powerful and centralized platforms located in cloud. It provides various IT resources and information services over the mobile network by the means of on-demand self service. Mobile users are presented with new type of services and facilities by taking the full advantage of cloud computing. Resources in mobile cloud computing are located in various virtualized distributed computers and not on a single local computer. Different companies offer different mobile cloud products such as android operating system offered by Google for the benefits of consumers and enterprises. Geographic search and Google maps are new services launched by Google with the use of mobileterminals in cloud computing. Microsoft introduced a program called LiveMess which is a platform including software and services and through which users can access and share their data and applications. Apple introduced iCloud for storage and backup of data for apple users. Mobile cloud computing can break through the hardware limits of limited calculation ability and limited storage capacity and allows convenient access to data.
With explosive growth of mobile devices including smart phones, PDAs, and tablet computers and the applications installed in them, the mobile-Internet will maintain the development growth trend as 4G communication network is extensively promoted to our lives. What users of the mobile devices and applications need is that mobile-Internetcanprovide them with the service which is user- friendly, highspeed, and steady. In addition, the security issues of mobileterminals and the Internet access are attached importance to. And as a combination ofcloucomputing, mobile devices and wireless networks, mobile cloud computing is an emerging but very promising paradigm which brings rich computational resources to mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing providers The flaws of data storing and data computing in mobile-Internet applications can be overcome by mobile cloud computing while the new paradigm can also accomplish cloud based multi-user data sharing, end
provide continuation of an active call when user moves from one cell to another. The modern cellular industry is using smaller cell sizes in order to increase the system capacity by using frequency reuse. Conventional handoff decisions are normally signal strength based. To make a better handoff and keep Quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks several handoff algorithms, based on soft computing techniques can be used. This paper highlights the basic handoff mechanism and a brief description about some of the soft-computing techniques which can be applied for handoff management in modern cellular networks. At last I have proposed a Fuzzy Logic based handoff technique using Fuzzy tool of MATLAB 7.6.0.
There are various aspects of query processing in mobile environment since the area of mobilecomputing is very broad. There are multiple network connectivity options (3G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, UWB, etc.), with different features. Mobilecomputing can be termed as a specialized class of distributed systems, where some terminals move apart from mobile network, move freely in the physical space and rejoins to a possibly different segment of a computer network in order to resume delayed email@example.com activities. With the increase in use of mobile devices there is considerable increase in fault occurrence in query processing operation in mobile environment. To provide fault tolerance it is necessary to understand the nature of the faults that occur in mobilecomputing environment. Fault tolerance techniques enable systems to perform tasks in the presence of faults. The likelihood of faults grows as systems are becoming more complex and applications are requiring more resources, including execution speed, storage capacity and communication bandwidth. By considering various types of faults, this paper takes a review of different fault tolerant strategies used for query processing in mobile environment.
The LTE system architecture is shown in Figure 2.4, where the evolved-[UMTS] terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN) , uses a simplified single node architecture consisting of the eNB  to communicate with users’ equipments (UEs), while the eNB communicates with other eNB using X2-C and X2-U interfaces for control and user plane respectively, for example in mobile end UE HO situations. The eNB communicates with the evolved packet core (EPC) using the S1 interface; specifically with the mobile management entity (MME) and the user plane entity (UPE) identified as serving gateway (S-GW), using S1-C and S1-U interfaces for control plane and user plane respectively, that supports a many-to-many relation between MMEs / UPEs and eNBs, and by its turn is connected by the internet protocol (IP) Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), and the application server (Apps). The MME and the UPE are preferably implemented as separate network nodes so as to facilitate independent scaling of the control and user plane.
Bluetooth wireless technology is an inexpensive, short-range radio technology that eliminates the need for proprietary cabling between devices such as notebook PCs, handheld PCs, PDAs, cameras, and printers and effective Range of 10 - 100 meters. And generally communicate at less than 1 Mbps and Bluetooth uses specification Of IEEE 802.15.1 standard. At first in 1994 Ericson Mobile Communication company started a project named “Bluetooth”. It is used for the creation of Personal Area Networks (PAN). A set of Bluetooth devices liking a common channel for communication is called Piconet. This Piconet is basically capable of 2 - 8 devices at a point for data sharing, and that data may be text, video, picture, and sound. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group comprises more than 1000 companies with Intel, Cisco, HP, Aruba, Intel, Ericson, IBM, Motorola, and Toshiba.
trends and innovation in the recent history of technological advancement. Also the advances in computer hardware, embedded system devices, networking devices, display devices, control devices, software enhancements etc. has tremendously supported IoT to grow slowly and steadily from leaps to bounds. With computation, connectivity, and data storage becoming more advanced and universal there has been an explosion of IoT based application solutions in diversified domains from health care to public safety, from assembly line scheduling to manufacturing and various other technological domains. IoT represents a system which consists a things in the real world, and sensors attached to or combined to these things, connected to the Internet via wired and wireless network structure. The IoT sensors can use various types of connections such as RFID, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, in addition to allowing wide area connectivity using many technologies such as GSM, GPRS, 3G, and LTE. IoT-enabled things will share information about the condition of things and the surrounding environment with people, software systems and other machines. by the technology of the IoT.
Man-in-the-Middle Attacks – A hacker situated between the client and access point, intercepting all traffic, characterizes this type of attack. The hacker captures and decrypts the frames sent back and forth between a user’s wireless NIC and AP during the association process. This provides essential information about the Wireless NIC and AP such as the IP addresses for both devices, the Wireless NICs association ID, and the network’s SSID. With this information, someone can set up a rogue access point on a different wireless channel closer to a particular user, to force the user’s wireless NIC to re-associate with the bogus access point. Both client and server believe they are connected directly each other, but instead are connected to a man in the middle. The attacker has access to all data passed between the two entities including login information. Dictionary Attacks - This type of attack relies on conventional names and words being used as login names and passwords. The attacker gathers a challenge and response exchange from password-based protocols. Using open source tools based on a dictionary of hundreds of thousands of words, names and phrases, an offline computer tries essentially every name-password combination, and until the login information is decrypted. Once a name and password have been cracked, the attacker has access to the WLAN with all the rights and privileges of that user.
Due to the development of mobilecomputing and telecommunication technologies, there are a lot of researchers studied the privacy issues which are the major challenge raises in such technology in, since the applications in mobile environment have the capability to collect a lot of personal information and utilize this information to provide different benefits to both businesses and consumer in more flexible and convenient way (Beatrix, 2007; Gura˘u & Ranchhod, 2009; Geir & Vladimir, 2007). As mobile technologies enables to provide a great benefits to both consumers and businesses, at the same time it raises a number of privacy issues that threat the consumers and the growth of this technologies, many researchers studies discussed the privacy issues that are related to collection, usage, transmission, storage, retention and disclosures of consumer information as the main challenge that make consumers afraid from usage of services mobilecomputing applications, such Privacy issues represent new challenges to different parties participants in providing mobile services (ex. consumers, companies, service provider,…,etc), and if this issues are not addressed may lead to losing consumer trust and risk the business of companies that violate consumer privacy (Gadzheva, 2007). Businesses that try to benefit from the use of mobilecomputing technologies should consider the privacy issues which are the main challenge to the growth of mobilecomputing applications and services (Chen, Ross, and Huang, 2008). other topics relate to privacy in mobilecomputing is privacy regulations as critical aspects deals with protection of consumer privacy, there are a lot of researches about privacy regulations in mobilecomputing environment, existing literature focus on the importance
Mobilecomputing is a combination of mobile web and cloud computing which helps the mobile users to access applications and services on the internet. The goal of mobilecomputing is to enable high mobile application on mobile devices. The mobilecomputing is a process of computation on a mobile device. Nowadays, size of computing machines is being decreased with more power of computing, this leads to develop the concept of mobilecomputing like PDA, Laptop, cellphones, data storage devices and other mobile device. The security aspect brings most important role in mobilecomputing, it concerns the security of personal information and the other information of the users which is stored on smartphones. The usage of the mobile internet has changed the way where the users can reached the other users around the global instantly, from any resources over the internet. Security is a greater problem for wireless network, were radio signals are travel through the open atmosphere and they can intercepted by the individuals who are consistently on move and therefore difficult to track down. Security may provide a hardware approach to basic encryption and decryption capabilities. This approach is not applicable for all wireless resources. This paper deals with some of the threats that affect the mobile devices and also discuss about security issues, security techniques and requirements.
Smart devices. Smartphones. Smart cars. Smart homes. Smart cities. A smart world. These notions have been espoused for many years. Achieving these goals has been investigated, to date, by many diverse and often disjoint research communities. Five such prominent research communities are: Internet of Things (IoT), MobileComputing (MC), Pervasive Computing (PC), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), and most recently, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). However, as technology and solutions progress in each of these fields there is an increasing overlap and merger of principles and research questions. Narrow definitions of each of these fields are no longer appropriate. Further, research in IoT, PC, MC, WSN and CPS often relies on underlying technologies such as real-time computing, machine learning, security, privacy, signal processing, big data, and others. Consequently, the smart vision of the world involves much of computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering. Greater interactions among these communities will speed.
In  (2012) proposed a reliable topology design and provisioning approach for Wireless Body Area Networks (named RTDP-WBAN) that takes into account the mobility of the patient while guaranteeing a reliable data delivery required to support healthcare applications’ needs. To do so, they first proposed a 3D coordinate system able to calculate the coordinates of relay-sensor nodes in differ- ent body postures and movements. This system uses a 3D-model of a standard human body and a spe- cific set of node positions with stable communication links, forming a virtual backbone. Next, they investigated the optimal relay nodes positioning jointly with the reliable and cost-effective data routing for different body postures and movements. Therefore, they use an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model, that is able to find the optimal number and locations of relay nodes and calculate the optimal data routing from sensors and relays towards the sink, minimizing both the network setup cost and the energy consumption. They solved the model in dynamic WBAN (Stand, Sit and Walk) scenarios, and compare its performance to other relaying approaches.
Handling the data resources on cloud is difficult due to some problems such as low bandwidth, mobility and limitation of resource capacity of mobile devices. One easy solution to improve the efficiency of data access is a local storage cache . For example  addresses three issues: maintaining seamless communication among subscribers and cloud, handling cache consistency and supporting data privacy. Proposed scheme has two main functional blocks namely RFS client on the mobile device and RFS server on cloud. In proposed scheme authors using RESTful web service  for service provider and HTTP for communication protocol. Also it addresses issues such as wireless connectivity and data privacy.
Mobile cloud computing into university teaching methods, which integrates some new technologies in the IT field, such as wirelessmobile networks, cloud computing and multimedia technology, and they propose an innovative method to achieve mobile learning, by which cloud services can provide ample education information and resources, while students can access them through portable mobile devices (like Smartphone, PDA, laptop, etc.), and communicate with teachers and other students anytime and anywhere. This learning method gets rid of time and space limits, and makes students more active. Student also surely enjoying this method.
Wireless network uses wireless media to send and/or receive data over air. Wireless network provides the services for data transmission that may not be effective with wires. But sometimes the situation demands to cover across the regions that are beyond the capabilities of typical cabling system. However traditional TCP is a de facto standard for reliable transmission where congestion mechanism is itself a challenge. Many renovation protocols namely TCP Newreno, TCP Vegas are cited in the literature in order to overcome the shortcomings lies in the traditional TCP. On the other hand two popular routing protocols namely DSR and AODV are widely used during the movement of the node(s).This paper experiments by simulating an environment with TCP Newreno and TCP Vegas as a transport layer protocol and DSR and AODV as a routing protocol in order to get the better compatibility in Network Layer and Transport layer protocols.
E[D] ≤ Cramer-Rao bound ≤ RMSE , (15) then the square root of the Cramer-Rao bound can be used in place of the unknown RMSE in the relations above. The area of the probability regions deﬁned by (14) will be proportional to the Cramer-Rao bound on the MSE. A ﬁrst approximation to M is then to divide the area of S by the Cramer-Rao bound. A reasonable propagation model is assumed and the vari- ance of the location estimate is calculated. An urban LoS path loss model can be taken from  for micro-cell envi- ronments. (See the appendix for how the Cramer-Rao bound can be calculated from a path loss model.) The optimal value of M will be a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than the value cal- culated using the LoS path loss Cramer-Rao bound because of discontinuities in the propagation environment caused by buildings or geographic features which result in Non Line of Sight (NLoS) propagation. If NLoS propagation occurs be- tween a mobile terminal and a given base station, it indicates that a large geographic feature or building lies between the mobile and base stations which gives some information about the mobile’s location. Thus, NLoS propagation increases the information in the path loss measurements, increasing the optimal value of M .
Recently, the combination of cloud computing and mobilecomputing leads to a new research area called mobile cloud computing, in which resource-constrained mobile devices use cloud-based resources to enhance their computing capabili- ties , . For example, Satyanarayana  proposes a cyber foraging approach in which mobile devices upload tasks to some nearby resource-rich computing devices like traditional non-mobile computers. It has been implemented in many systems, such as Spectra , Chroma  and Scavenger . However, resource-rich computing devices do not always exist in vicinity, which restricts the deployment of such cyber foraging approach. With access to Internet, some other ap- proaches (e.g., MAUI  and CloneCloud ) upload tasks to the remote cloud infrastructure. In scenarios without Internet access, a group of mobile devices (connected by WiFi or Bluetooth) can form a mobile cloud to cooperatively run their tasks , , . However, these works do not consider and
'Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) is ainnovation that permits clients to download and run programming on cellular telephones . Outsider application designers utilize the BREW programming designer pack to grow new value added administrations. Middleware servers are given to empower the confirmation of affirmed applications, the administration of end-client download buys, et cetera. Brew application execution environment (AEE) is an item situated application improvement and execution environment, which sits on top of Qualcomm's portable station modem ASIC. Blend is required to empower third party application advancement for minimal effort mass-market gadgets, in this manner proficiency and RAM utilization have been key configuration criteria. There are arrangements to bolster sound, feature, email, and area based administrations over BREW-empowered construction modelling. A number of these obviously oblige DSP-sort reckoning. Be that as it may, from DSP programming advancement perspective BREW is a shut situation.