Modern Day Slavery

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Eliminating Modern Day Slavery

Eliminating Modern Day Slavery

Texas is a leader among the states in its effort to end human trafficking. Texas was one of the first states to criminalize human trafficking and has continued to make great strides towards ending this heinous crime. But so much more needs to be done. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Texas accounts for 25 percent of all human trafficking victims. 3 In 2008, 38 percent of all calls to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline were from Texas. 4 It is particularly children who desperately need our help to protect them from this modern-day slavery and why this issue of the Journal of Applied Research on Children is so vital. During this 82 nd Texas Legislative Session we must again put human trafficking at the top of our list of priorities, focusing specifically on minor victims of trafficking in Texas.
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Museum of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay

Museum of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay

Activities at the U.S. - Mexico border are politically charged issues. Whether you consider the immigrants to be “illegal aliens” or “undocumented newcomers,” the fact remains that the most exploited people are the women border crossers on their way to work off smuggling debts and pay second ransoms in cantinas all over Houston. In the Museum of Modern-Day Slavery we have an exhibit which depicts a first hand experience on the border, where we found evidence of a “rape tree” and sophisticated smuggling routes where girls are moved on moonless nights across vast acres of Texas brush land.
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Human Trafficking: The Modern Day Slavery Of The 21st Century

Human Trafficking: The Modern Day Slavery Of The 21st Century

Again, while the developed countries profess and promote free trade, they have adamantly refused to allow for the free movement of labor as a necessary follow up of the free economic ideology. The free trade makes it possible for the developing countries to export the raw materials the industrialized countries need, but does not afford them the opportunity to export their surplus labor too. The inefficient economy created by the forgoing conditions breeds corruption in the governments of the developing countries. Corruption undermines government policies and above all affects the morale of the people because it contributes to the widening of the gap between the rich and the poor. Democracy and the rule of law are also not compatible with massive poverty, illiteracy, and general discontent. To maintain order, the elite who dominate the government with the monopoly over the use of instrument of violence unleash that to maintain order. As Bales and Cornell (2008) note, “slavery grows quickly when the rule of law breaks down. Conflict and disaster open the door to criminals who use violence and trickery to enslave people (p.14)”. The global economic inequality further raises the stakes for people from the developing worlds who are made to believe that their chances of economic survival is higher in the developed economies of America and Europe. Furthermore, colonialism imposed foreign languages, religion, law, values, educational and political systems on the colonized countries. This has further added to the trauma and challenges of development and administration of the places. Again, colonialism was autocratic, and those who inherited power from the colonial authorities have continued with the same policies and governance approach.
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Modern-Day Slavery: An Overview of International, Federal, and State Policy Regarding Human Trafficking

Modern-Day Slavery: An Overview of International, Federal, and State Policy Regarding Human Trafficking

The call for action has been heard by many people who work internationally and domestically to educate people about human trafficking and try to prevent it. The last two decades have shown great improvement in the world’s ability to rec- ognize human trafficking for what it is – a form of slavery. Much progress has been made in considering the rights of vic- tims, providing proper help and services to victims, and pros- ecuting perpetrators of trafficking crimes. Ultimately, howev- er, human trafficking exists because of supply and demand, and global inequalities that make it so profitable. In order to reduce and prevent human trafficking in the future, more attention must be placed on reducing these factors.
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Modern-day Slavery in our Health Care System: An Advocacy Journey

Modern-day Slavery in our Health Care System: An Advocacy Journey

Although we know it will take time before we see the lasting impact of our intervention, we are beginning to see how important our training was for both the residents and our partners. Our coresidents are now thinking more critically about the patients they see with potential red fl ags, and a few have contacted us to discuss cases that raised suspicion for human traf fi cking. Additionally, our survivor leader ’ s reaction after our fi rst training session has humbled us and is 1 that we will never forget. When we sought her feedback that day, she smiled with genuine happiness and stated, “That feeling was amazing...a room full of educated doctors were looking to me for my input and advice. I felt so proud of the progress I have made and how far I have come.” After being stripped of the right to control her own life for many years, she was taken aback by the respect she received as an expert and was fi nally able to see the rewards of her years in recovery. These short-term impacts have empowered us to continue our work. Our hope is that 1 day, all health care providers will understand the impact of human traf fi cking on the health of children and will be trained to recognize red fl ags when they are present. As pediatricians, we are all advocates for the children we treat,
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Human Trafficking And Sex Slavery: A Curse Of Modern-Day Civilization

Human Trafficking And Sex Slavery: A Curse Of Modern-Day Civilization

The key reason for the human trafficking, among others, is to gain profits by the force labour and sexual exploitation of the victims. The most notorious business that benefits from human trafficking is the sexual slavery industry. Nearly eighty percent of transnational human trafficking victims are women. This high percentage can be attributed to sexual slavery‘s position as the most prominent form of slavery in the world. Sexual slavery—trafficking by means of violence, of fraud, or of coercion—causes women to provide commercial sexual services or entices children younger than eighteen years old to provide commercial sexual services. The methods of violence, fraud, or coercive recruitment are used for harbouring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person targeted for involuntary servitude, bonded labour, debt bondage, or modern day slavery. The victims of sex slavery enjoy no freedom, and ―are forced into any number of commercial sex industries [.].‖The women or girls involved are strictly restricted and controlled by a number of mechanisms. The victims are regarded as slaves, living in constant fear of threats, providing endless sexual service, which results heavily in their physical injuries and mental illnesses.
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Managers' perceptions of modern slavery risk in a UK health care supply network

Managers' perceptions of modern slavery risk in a UK health care supply network

First the implications for Government policy with respect to the extension of the Modern Slavery Act explicitly to include public services; the removal of the structural vulnerabilities (Allain et al., 2013) affecting the protection of migrant workers and the regulation of ‘introductory’ recruitment agents needs further attention. Second, since perceptions precede action, there are opportunities for educators and LA commissioning bodies to develop practitioners’ understanding of modern slavery risk across the sector and to develop remedial strategies through multi-stakeholder initiatives, community engagement and supplier development activities (Gold et al., 2015). Third, though evidence of the introduction of ‘soft law’ ethical standards has been mixed (Roberts, 2003) various compliance-based labour recruiter and provider employment standards are emerging for sectors such as agriculture, food manufacture and consumer goods protection. Evaluation of these schemes may offer the potential to strengthen the systems of worker recruitment within fragmented sectors such as adult social care. Further research into how the success of such initiatives might be evaluated, particularly with respect to their implementation for smaller, localised agencies would be instructive. Finally, the risk implications of the various direct payment employment relationship types identified here warrants further investigation.
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THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN MODERN-DAY POLITICS

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN MODERN-DAY POLITICS

He encouraged policy-makers, political parties and MPs to use the new media to better understand the views and needs of the people, and to use it to reach the people with more informat[r]

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A Modern-Day Journey in Byron’s Footsteps in Albania

A Modern-Day Journey in Byron’s Footsteps in Albania

Although I opened this session stating that modern literary pilgrims no longer have to belong to the upper-class as in the old days, still it is to be noted that those following Byron’s[r]

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Review of Revisiting the law and governance of trafficking, forced labor and modern slavery by Kotiswaran, P

Review of Revisiting the law and governance of trafficking, forced labor and modern slavery by Kotiswaran, P

particularly in terms of limiting health services to sex workers (by Aziza Ahmed) and controlling migration (by Chantal Thomas). Sally Engle Merry shows in her chapter, ‘Counting the Uncountable: Constructing Trafficking Through Measurement’, how each of the most widely cited sources addressing the prevalence of human trafficking, i.e. the US State Department, Global Slavery Index, ILO and International Organization for Migration (IOM), defines terms such as trafficking differently. Therefore, each source provides statistics for different phenomena despite all of them using the terms ‘trafficking’ or ‘forced labour’ in the titles of their reports. By showing the different terminology and definitions the organisations use and the widespread methodological issues with their measurements, Merry unpicks the reliability of these reports and any estimates as to the prevalence of trafficking.
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'I thought I am Modern Slavery': Giving a Voice to Trafficked Women

'I thought I am Modern Slavery': Giving a Voice to Trafficked Women

In this study, women’s experience of acute destitution resonates with those of asylum seekers and refugees in two distinctive ways. Firstly, several trafficking accounts reflect a relationship between poverty and mental ill-health, noted in asylum experience (McColl et al., 2008; Lewis, 2009). Secondly, other slavery-related narratives portray how limited welfare and working rights in the asylum process (Aspinall and Watters, 2010; Burnett and Whyte, 2010) also push trafficked people back into highly exploitative working situations. Granted, the relationship of trafficking to slavery is a contested one (Bales et al., 2009; O’Connell Davidson, 2010) and trafficked women’s experience cannot escape the imagery of sex slaves or the rhetoric of modern slavery. Nonetheless, by applying the language of slavery to lives post-trafficking, women emphasise how ‘no recourse’ to money (whether through welfare or via legal/documented employment) increases their vulnerability to economic exploitation.
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Modern Slavery in Supply Chains:A Secondary Data Analysis of Detection, Remediation, and Disclosure

Modern Slavery in Supply Chains:A Secondary Data Analysis of Detection, Remediation, and Disclosure

The most widespread detection practice reported in the statements is a supplier audit against a code of conduct, either directly or via a third party. In some instances, it is not clear whether or how this practice has been adapted to incorporate modern slavery concerns. But firms such as Marks & Spencer Group Plc have acknowledged: "the limitation[s] of mainstream ethical audits to identify Modern Slavery issues […] to have effective Modern Slavery due diligence, we need to undertake a range of other methodologies, as appropriate for the nature of the supply chain." Firms have augmented codes and tailored audit procedures, e.g. to include on and off-site worker interviews, to demand the presence of any third party labour agents, and to include forensic analysis of documents on age, identity, right to work, payment of recruitment fees, etc. Of course, these records can be fabricated, but firms start to build up a triangulated picture using multiple sources of evidence. Yet this is a very resource-intensive approach, which may rely on maintaining a local presence in key sourcing regions and having teams of auditors. It is therefore difficult to extend to all supply chain actors. Thus, many firms have used risk assessments, e.g. informed by the global slavery index or other tools, to prioritise their detection efforts and have the maximum impact. This might include identifying high risk regions, such as where government action is weak, and the types of work where migrant, child or refugee labour are common. ASOS, for example, refer to focusing on migrant labour in Mauritius, refugee labour in Turkey, child labour in India, and agency workers in the UK. Firms have also chosen to prioritise the supply chains of stock items that reach the end customer, often with an emphasis on high-risk non-EU suppliers. The legislation however relates to all aspects of a firm’s
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Release from the Slavery of Debt:  The Jubilee Year for Ancient Israel and the Modern Global Economy

Release from the Slavery of Debt: The Jubilee Year for Ancient Israel and the Modern Global Economy

The holiness of the jubilee year laws is evident through the Levitical text. First and foremost, Isra- el’s belief in the divinely ordained nature of the laws is revealed in the description of their origin as given by the Lord to Moses on Mount Sinai (Lev 25:1). Second, the computation of the calendar by which the jubilee year is determined is itself of holy sig- nificance. Given the sacredness of the number seven in ancient Israelite culture, a cycle of “seven weeks of years,” or forty-nine years, would have indicated a heightened sense of holiness for the jubilee year (25:8). Third, the sacred nature of the jubilee year is intensified by the fact that its proclamation takes place on Israel’s Day of Atonement, the most sol- emn day of the year on which the high priest atones for the sins of the community (25:9). The jubilee year is therefore established as an unmistakably holy moment within the Israelite calendar.
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Modern Day Psychological Sensation Form

Modern Day Psychological Sensation Form

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Slavery Counted, Slavery Defined and Slavery Online

Slavery Counted, Slavery Defined and Slavery Online

Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice compliments Voyages well. It is broader in scope and concept but more limited in its contribution to original research. Whereas the assembling of the Voyages dataset was a massive research undertaking in its own right and enables to scholars to conduct new data inquiries on their own, Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice contributes to slave studies by supplying sources. It employs a loose definition of slavery, including forms of extra-legal or illegal bondage. It is a massive and growing

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Combating Modern Slavery: An Examination of Legal Frameworks and Enforcement Mechanisms on Non-State Actors.

Combating Modern Slavery: An Examination of Legal Frameworks and Enforcement Mechanisms on Non-State Actors.

A number of international Conventions which criminalise slave labour and imposes duties on state actors are in force in several states. These include International Labour Organisation Conventions, Slavery Convention (1926), The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery (1956); and The Palermo Protocols (2000) - three Protocols adopted by the UN to supplement the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (the Palermo Convention). With regard to the accurate terminology and nomenclature, the following words have been used synonymously with slavery – serfdom, debt, bondage, peonage, servitude, indentured servitude and primarily forced labour. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) “slavery is one form of forced labour”, it noted that some national laws treat the two as different instances and work on the assumption that forced labour is the least serious of these offences. The ILO estimates that about 21 million men, women and children are in forced labour around the world – trafficked, held in debt bondage or working in slavery-like conditions. Ninety per cent of these are exploited in the private economy, and almost half of all victims have migrated internally or across borders. Forced labour generates an estimated US$150 billion in illicit profits, causing industries and businesses to face unfair competition and States to lose billions in tax income and social security contributions. 8
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A modern day requirement for co ordinated covert action

A modern day requirement for co ordinated covert action

These issues are relevant in the twenty-first century too. The importance of impartial intelligence was strongly highlighted by Lord Butler in his review of the Iraqi WMD fiasco. 30 Despite various attempts at improving intelligence assessment and dissemination since then, problems remain regarding covert action today – the boundaries between intelligence and policy execution are arguably more blurred than ever before. In a sense this is no bad thing: at the point where intelligence and policy merge there is bound to be a convergence of roles. Yet a modern-day JAC would provide instant relief of another kind. It would provide a forum for the discussion of the specific issue at hand, based on the ideal of collective decision- making, of turning intelligence assessments and policy planning into action. As noted earlier, this is difficult in the current system because of the absence of such a subject-specific forum, the NSC and its official machinery being relatively broad actors.
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Hell On Earth: A Modern Day Inferno in Cormac McCarthy's The Road

Hell On Earth: A Modern Day Inferno in Cormac McCarthy's The Road

The most obvious similarity between the settings of The Road and the Inferno occurs in their sheer desolation. Dante‟s depiction of hell has prompted widespread influence on literature, largely due to the fantastical, haunting setting, laced with wind, ice, and beasts. For example, when Dante and Virgil enter the First Ring of the Seventh Circle of Hell, they are forced to flee the Minotaur, who lunges at them “like the bull that breaks loose the moment it has received its mortal stroke and cannot go on but plunges this way and that” through a valley of shattered rock. As the rocks began to fall under their feet, they land at the foot at river of blood “near in which are boiling those that by violence do injury to others” (12.19-21, 41-42). Again, although McCarthy‟s setting may not require a supernatural imagination, the stark realism of his barren landscape is just as chilling in this aforementioned quote: “The city was mostly burned. No sign of life. Cars I the street caked with ash, everything covered with ask and dust. Fossil tracks in the dried sludge. A corpse in a doorway dried to leather. Grimacing at the day” (12). Dante‟s
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Slavery and manumission

Slavery and manumission

We must acknowledge at the outset that the Iliad and Odyssey do not provide us with a straightforward description of slave-master relations in the early archaic period. This is for two reasons. First, as a high genre, epic generally does not present the seamier side of slavery, such as whippings and sexual abuse, which is visible in later, more ribald genres such as comedy (Harris 2012: 356). Second, we must bear in mind the audience at which the epics are aimed. Homeric epic is largely peopled by the elite elements of society; common folk are generally pushed to the background of the narrative. This elite was heavily involved in slaveholding (Harris 2012: 358-62) and thus wished to be presented with a flattering and self-justifying picture of their treatment of slaves; it is for this reason that Homeric slave-master relations seem to take on a ‘paternalistic’ and somewhat benevolent glow (Thalmann 1998: 13-107). But to trust this picture of ‘paternalistic’ slavery would be a mistake, and there is fact evidence of violence against slaves not dissimilar from that of other periods (Ndoye 2010: 239 and 242-7). From an historian’s perspective, then, we can hope to extract the basic institutional outlines of slavery from this epic material; but we should be less sanguine about rescuing an historical picture of slave- master social relations, distorted as it is for reasons of genre and ideology.
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Increasing Efficiency and Productivity in the Modern Day Medical Practice:

Increasing Efficiency and Productivity in the Modern Day Medical Practice:

The combination of discrete data elements and free flow text create unprecedented levels of power and flexibility in an EMR that allows doctors to drastically increase levels of prod[r]

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