Modern Islamic Political Thought

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Methodological Impediments to Innovation on Political Thought of Islam

Methodological Impediments to Innovation on Political Thought of Islam

rational problems and was not able to come up with new political and social theories and basically, did not consider that to be its duty. Attention to political issues in ethical works written by ibn Moskuyeh Razi; Khajeh Nassir-ed-din in his book, Akhlaq Nasseri; and Mohaqqeq Sabzevari in his book, Rozat-ol-Anwar Abbasi, could not achieve much. Therefore, the political thought of Islam was limited to jurisprudential issues which paid attention to reviving religious tenets, ordering good and prohibiting vice, apostasy… in domestic policy as well as preventing domination of foreigners, contracts for behaving with non-Muslims and… in foreign policy. Such issues, as we said before were based on quotes and were expressed in the simplest way. Although they could meet political and social needs of their time hundreds of years ago, they did not follow complexity of those needs in the course of time and it seems that if they continue on the same path, they will not be capable of meeting the needs of a modern society. Even jurisprudential books that have been written in recent years have attended to such important issues within the old jurisprudential frames. viii This trend has had four consequences. Firstly, issues of political thought have not been established in Islam within scientific and theoretical frames commensurate with advancement of political and social systems. Secondly, some came to believe that Islam basically lacks the capacity to give rise to political thought and theorization in this field. Thirdly, many researchers whose goal is to delineate the political thought of Islam pursue this goal within jurisprudential frame and their efforts, therefore, is not possible to prove fruitful. Fourthly, proponents of a dynamic political Islam in the modern world try to defend their viewpoints on the basis of political and jurisprudential bases and the opposite side does not consider their defense to be serious or convincing. Even jurists who pay attention to such modern issues as democracy, human rights, structure of the Islamic government, party politics, political participation, and so on; do not discuss such issues in depth. ix Apart from that, fiqh has become basically stagnant with respect to new topics and it seems that there is no way to infer solutions to new problems from old texts.x 4. Generalizing Sanctities
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The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

Abstract When perceived from circular perspective (not linier or parallel) based on three of the prior political epistemologies (bayani, burhani, and irfani), then reconstruction of ideal thought – as the fundamental philosophy –of Islamic Politics for contemporary Indonesia in the next era should be a balance between political trilogy ala al-Jabiry that is bayani (idealistic in the commitment to the Islamic values), burhani (ability to answer real challenge of the people and nation) and irfani (personal and communal wisdom of Muslim politicians). In textual-normative-bayani, the Islamic political vision for contemporary Indonesia still refers to the fundamental values found in the Holy Koran and Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad, such as deliberation, unity, welfare and justice values. As for the burhani (rational-empirical), application of the political values which is fundamental should be adjusted to plurality context of Indonesian society, and to answer some of the existing social problems. The actual case example: application of justice and economic values which is more intense now in the sharia economy system already gets more acceptances among the society as an alternative to conventional-capitalistic economy. In burhani, thinkers or activists of Islamic politics should always have the ability to accommodate aspiration and give appreciation and positive and constructive contributions to the political dynamic in Indonesia, for the sake of the people and nation‟s glory in the future, and at the same time providing successful model of Islamic political implementation in Indonesian context which is modern and democratic. This research employs a deductive approach and a library research as the methods. This research cocludes that the future of politics in Indonesia is a combination between bayani, burhani and ‘irfani (psycho-spiritual) approaches.
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A Brief Review of Classical and Modern Tafsir Trends and Role of Modern Tafasir in Contemporary Islamic Thought

A Brief Review of Classical and Modern Tafsir Trends and Role of Modern Tafasir in Contemporary Islamic Thought

Abstract: This article briefly reviews traditional and modern tafsir (interpretation) trends and how modern tafasir have shaped contemporary Islamic thought. Classical tafsir trends, tafsir bi al- ma’thur (tradition-based interpretation) and tafsir bi al-ra’y (reason- based interpretation) are well-documented in historical norms of Qur’ānic exegesis. However, modernity, with its complex socioeconomic, religious, political and cultural developments, presents unique challenges to muffassirun (authors of Qur’ānic interpretations) to contextualise the Qur’ānic message and provide guidance to modern- day Muslims and their worldview. Complex modern Islamic thought is a selection of ideologies and philosophies that resulted from the prevailing diverse geopolitical, sociocultural and economic environment. These dynamic elements of modernity have conceptualised tafsir trends into the textualist, contextualist, modernist, socio-political, scientific, thematic and feminist approaches. These trends have not only transformed contemporary Islamic thought, and vice versa, but also continue to collectively evolve to meet the challenges of modernity.
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Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

As it was mentioned before, if we could use a counter argument to explain realism in Machiavel- li‟s political thinking, actualism, which is concep- tually related to welfare in the thought in the idea of some of the contemporary Islamic thinkers (4), because of the lack of theoretical basis, will be led toward actions which are being conducted regard- less of theoretical foundations of the Modern polit- ical thought. It seems that the concept of expe- dience, as was mentioned, compared with the ac- tualist‟s thinking, is a theory, which because of the lack of thinking foundations, except some tradi- tional theoretical ones, tries to take the world of action and theory together; the two identities, which are left devoid of their origin. As an exam- ple, if, by talking about ethics in political thinking, the objective is its understanding in the logical framework of politics, in traditional theories the discussion would end to the issue that ethical ne- cessities are after imposing themselves on the do- main of politics and gaining independence from the political affairs. It should be emphasized that there can be no relation between these two con- cepts (Actualism, expediency, and realism), and if there is any relation or combination, it is no more than eclecticism, because in the interest oriented traditional theory, the more we approach the more we get unfounded, because expedience is just acci- dental and not instinctive in thinking. Stated diffe- rently, the interest or expediency oriented theory or that of the actualist, since is based on the old think- ing, can accept the Modern political thought as the secondary one, because the Modern political thought is no more than expedience, itself. On the contrary there are people who believe that the ex- pedience emanated from the traditional thinking, which is in one way or another, similar to realism! In Machiavelli‟s thinking, which conforms to the changes in time and situation of the external world and, is to explore its own problems, it should be
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The development of Islamic political thought in relation to the West during the mid twentieth century

The development of Islamic political thought in relation to the West during the mid twentieth century

In these lines, Foucault has made an argument for the strength of ideology. The ‘union of ideas’ is much more important a bond than any material substance in that an idea appeals to ones abstract sense. One can put forth an ideology that verbalizes a series of tangible realities, and in doing so transforms them into entities that explain a reality in a manner that makes sense to an individual. In many ways, this was the challenge that faced Qutb, Shariati, and Al-e Ahmad: they needed to depict the situation they believed Islam was facing at the hands of the West, and inscribe that situation on the minds of their fellow Muslims in order to begin enacting an indigenous movement for change. Foucault rightly points out that the development of an ideology is not a sudden occurrence. In that regard, he writes, “it is rather a multiplicity of often minor processes, of different origin and scattered location, which overlap, repeat, or imitate one another, support one another, distinguish themselves from one another according to their domain of application, converge, and gradually produce the blueprint of a general method.” 30 This certainly was the case with Jamal al-din al-Afghani, the Iranian thinker who set down the initial roots of modern Islamism. All of these elements are the circumstances of an encounter with something. Personal situations, political situations, religious
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A Set of New Interpretations in Political Thought

A Set of New Interpretations in Political Thought

Now, one may argue that moralism entails indeterminism—Ought implies Can [14], whereas naturalism implies determinism. But let us look at some ma- jor political philosophers from this 2 × 2 Table with four possible combinations: The key problem for research into political ideas is, of course, if some of these combinations present logical types, i.e. type I and Type IV are the coherent ones. Perhaps not, i.e. also types II and III could be coherent combinations of themes. We discuss this, when we place scholars like Spinoza, Helvetius, Holbach, Kierkegaard, Nietsche, and modern liberal egalitarians into this basic 2 × 2 Ta- ble.
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The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

But only one chapter in the book, Parry’s on Christian Socialism, places religion at the centre of its analysis. Few of the other contributors offers any sustained treatment of religious issues, either as an element in their protagonists’ intellectual formation, or as a subject in the schemes of politics with which they were busy elaborating. Even Waszek’s chapter on Strauss’s ‘Theologicopolitical speeches’ treats the theological dimension only in passing. The index includes only two references for ‘Protestantism’ and three for ‘Catholicism’; Church institutions come up a little more often, but in a desultory fashion. The result is that we end up with an overwhelmingly secular vision of how political thought worked in this era. Such a model is surely just as problematic for the modern period as for the early modern era, on which recent revisionist work emphasising the centrality of religious thinking has focused.
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Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French is a convincing and readable volume that will be invaluable for scholars and postgraduate students. The significant cogency of this monograph stems from two important theoretical premises. Firstly, Varouxakis does not slip into shallow, one-dimensional explanations: rather he succeeds in maintaining a subtle balancing act between a number of interesting antitheses throughout the entire narrative. Accordingly, he has an eye for relevant life experiences of the various writers, as well as for integrating crucial general factors, such as the British feeling of superiority (which was based upon the idea of moderate liberty above all else); and the intricate relationship between the Irish problem and the belief in the Celtic roots of French culture. In addition, he strikes a balance between short-term responses to actual political events, such as regime changes on the one hand, and the recording of more settled long-term visions regarding the national character of the French on the other.
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Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

The above analysis and interpretation of Qanun shows clearly how this newspaper involved in the construction of political thought and modernization of Iranian society during the 19 th century. If other newspapers published for instance during the Nasir al-Din Shah such as Roznameh Vaqay‘ Ittefaqeyyeh did not involve itself in social and political discourse, merely reporting on state activities, Qanun by contrast not only tried to bring these kind of debates to the surface, but actively encouraged people to become critically involved in discussion and argument. Qanun also used a different language, not only in the style of writing, which was more Persian than Arabic, and was simple, fluent and easy to understand, but also in terms of a new language of interpretation based on a combination of religious phrases with secular elements. This newspaper is indeed the pioneer paper in introducing the modern and Western thoughts and ideologies to Iranian society. The method of introducing the modern concept of ‘law’, for instance, shows clearly Malkum Khan’s ability to use various forms of interpretation in order to make a complex idea understandable and acceptable to the majority within society. This method of interpretation is in itself a pioneering step and forms a part of the wider contribution of press to the process of modernization and political development in Iran.
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Moderationology - An Islamic Introduction to Reassurance the Curriculum of Moderation in Contemporary Islamic Thought and Behavior

Moderationology - An Islamic Introduction to Reassurance the Curriculum of Moderation in Contemporary Islamic Thought and Behavior

The main difference between the systems of love in Islamic thought and Mo-tse’s is that love, according to Islamic thought, is love of God which guides us to love his creatures, while universal love of Mo-tse could be named as love by itself, i.e. love does not receive its teachings from the supremacy of God. This difference is quite clear when Islamic thought believes that creation is the result of lighting the wick of the candle of love, the wick of “being known and seen.” If the Lord did not love creation, there would be neither moons, nor suns nor stars. The heavens are all poems of love, with the Earth being the rhyme. In nature, the heavy blow of love is felt, and in relationships between people, the flag of love can be seen to wave. In society, if there is a currency that maintains its value, it is love, and again the value of love is found in itself. It is not possible that any value on this Earth can overcome or even compete with love. The cartels of gold, silver, coin, or any other object of value, are almost always conquered in this marathon by the devotees of affection and love. Up to this very moment, only those who are immersed in hatred, wrath and enmity plan to resist and struggle against love. Ironically, the only cure that will calm these brutal souls is love. Beyond the effect of worldly treasures there are other problems that only the mystical keys of love can solve. When the day comes, despite all the splendid, pompous life styles of the owners of material wealth, their coffers are empty, their fires have burned out; yet the candle of love always burns, giving light and diffusing this into our hearts and souls. Love weighs more if weighed against the purest gold. Both gold and silver can lose their value in different markets and places, but the doors of love are closed to any kind of pessimism and nothing can alter its inner stability and harmony. 24
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Scrutinizing Surfaces in Early Modern Thought

Scrutinizing Surfaces in Early Modern Thought

[9] Claire Canavan notes how early modern book production was not only lavish, but produced a large number of elaborately well-dressed books, embellished with covers that proved in turn irresistibly and emblematically attractive to painters, who regularly included them in their compositions. Books’ outer surfaces produced their own orchestration of symbolic meaning. The embroidered, the textile and the stitched were not mere ornamentation, but could work as their own hermeneutically challenging addition to the text itself. The textile cover, folded, pleated and embellished, was a rich interpretative resource, complementing and complicating the text, particularly the biblical text, in a culture with a ready sense of the emblematic, and which augmented the text and the reading experience with bookmarks and book-bags, whose ribboned, knotted and shredded fabric, the essay shows, were accorded exegetical as much as decorative weight.
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The State and the authority in Contemporary Arab Islamic Thought

The State and the authority in Contemporary Arab Islamic Thought

The follower of the Arab Islamic thought texts until the end of the twentieth century, find the absence of any coherent intellectual construction in the question of the state and authority theory, but finds the dimensions of political ideology, linked to the intellectual background of the thinker, since the Islamic reform used concepts such as freedom, constitution, parliament, public opinion, and concepts used to express the system of legitimate policy, which led to different intellectual results.

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Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought

Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought

Cook concludes his study with some comparative notes, which should widen its appeal to readers interested in moral philosophy in other cultures or in general. Without trying to be exhaustive, he suggests that the notion of intervention in support of moral right is probably universal, but that Islam is unique in terms of the depth and breath of attention given to this particular issue. He convincingly shows that both pre-Islamic Arabia as well as the Jewish and Christian faith contain elements similar to those found in Muslim thought. To his credit, he is extremely circumspect when it comes to the question - very popular among Islamicists of earlier generations - whether or not Islam was influenced in particular by Judaism and Christianity. While he admits that it is difficult to prove separate developments, he suggests that the opposite assumption - of Islam influencing the other two monotheistic faiths - is equally possible, and that both types of influence are difficult to ascertain. Possibly, Cook suggests, the special Islamic attention to the issue was the result of pre- Islamic tribal egalitarian activism coupled with monotheism. In a brief discussion of other world religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism, he argues that his survey of the literature shows that ideas similar to Commanding Right were expressed in passing, but did not receive the kind of systematic elaboration which he has shown for the Muslim authors.
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The Social and Political Thought of Yen Fu

The Social and Political Thought of Yen Fu

Behind Yen Fu's impassioned defense of Spencer's idea of progressive evolution and his criticism of various ideas of retrogression and cyclical change lay his ultimate political concerns. He was interested in the idea of progressive evolution primarily because he found its normative implications could be used to argue for change and reform in China. Yen Fu was surely fascinated by grandiose schemes of universal change and evolution which Spencer and other evolutionists described. He was apparently even more fascinated by its normative implications for human actions. Based on the idea of evolution, Yen Fu advanced a formula which reversed the doctrine of Tung Chung-shu: heaven changes, earth changes, and therefore the way of man {tao), which should follow heaven and earth, must also change.^* No single set of political institutions, social customs and legal systems can apply to all societies and all ages. Vaiious social and political systems, including those developed by the Chinese sages, were designed only to cope with certain concrete situations. When the situation changed, the systems had to be changed accordingly. The problem of China, Yen Fu wrote, lay in people not understanding the necessity of changing outdated systems.^’ If this mentality did not change, he warned, China would never be able to make progress.^ Chinese people had to understand. Yen Fu argued, that change was not only a necessity required by the universal law, but also the instrument for attaining progress. So long as China followed the universal law of evolution to change its traditional system. Yen stated, it would definitely move towards perfection. He often quoted a Han historian, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, to express his belief: 'When difficulties are faced, change is the way to solve them; change will lead to permanent
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Islamic thoughts and individuals' actions in the built environment

Islamic thoughts and individuals' actions in the built environment

freedom of thought can be achieved away from blind imitation. Traditions, principles, and dominant discourses presented to people as superior ideas or real knowledge can be the main obstacle for contemplation fulfillment. Many people blindly follow an old accepted idea or thought, without any thinking. However, the holy Quran reminds us not to accept old beliefs while they are not evaluated by mind criteria. The Quran advises us to be mentally independent from these old beliefs. “When it is said to them: Follow what Allah has sent down. They say: Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following. (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided?” (The Noble Qur’an, Al-Baqarah2: 170).
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Aspects of modern Scottish literature and ecological thought

Aspects of modern Scottish literature and ecological thought

Geddes viewed tiie region as a discrete geographical and a temporal entity. Any section of a region, Geddes proposed, represented a specific way in which human beings had related to and lived off the land, since the dawn of civilisation, in a series of livelihoods which related to specific primordial environments, and had evolved into increasingly more sophisticated occupations (See Figure 2, 'Hie Valley Plan of Civilisation').^^ So, hunter eventually becomes soldier, peasant evolves into banker, and m each modern occupation lies the germ of a primitive functional relation' between the human organism and its environment. Similar concepts appear in the work of regional novelists such as Neil Gunn, for whom 'A person's true personality is the archetypal primitive - that of hunter or fisher, maker, searcher, or gazer on bright water' Certainly, Geddes' view of the region as locus of both history and geography is in tune with certain literary manifestations of tlie Jungian collective unconsciousness, or the idea that folk memory is held within the land itself - a feature of work by Lewis Grassic Gibbon and Neil Gunn.32 These perspectives are in fact aligned with early discourses of environmentalism, which are essentially the study of how tlie
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The Coming of a Post-Islamist Society, Critique

The Coming of a Post-Islamist Society, Critique

Surprisingly, while Islamic discourse permeates politics in most Muslim societies, in Iran, the first modern Islamic state, people seem preoccupied with secular concerns; Islamic languag[r]

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Wisdom (hikma) and philosophy (falsafa) in Islamic thought (as a framework for inquiry)

Wisdom (hikma) and philosophy (falsafa) in Islamic thought (as a framework for inquiry)

and theosophical study in Islamic thought. In other words, by the time Muslim scholars assimilated Hellenistic philosophy into Islamic teachings and the Eastern way of life, th[r]

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Epistemological Foundations of Natural Sciences in Islam

Epistemological Foundations of Natural Sciences in Islam

Another existing thought is that Islamic science is a science which is based on Islamic epistemology and its subject, purpose, and method are influenced by re- ligious propositions. In this view, religious teachings and non-religious meta- physics are both contained within the context of empirical sciences. The advo- cates of Islamic science in this sense believe that science is not formed in a va- cuum, and any science is influenced by a particular worldview (Golshani, 2005; Nasr, 1981). They assert that Islamic science is a science that forms within the framework of Islamic monotheistic worldview and is the antithesis of secular science (Golshani, 1998). Whether a science or knowledge is Islamic or not can be realized only by proper methodology and revelation-cited logic. For a science to be Islamic, only conceptual and epistemic communication is not sufficient; rather, this relationship must be methodical and logical. That is, if a scientific system was reasonably cited to revelation, it can be called Islamic. It is not true to say that the circle of sensational sciences is cut off from the circle of authority (validity), and each of them has its own method; instead, their authority origi- nates from their harmony with revelation, so this orientation should become the logic and principle.
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The political and social thought of Jean Paul Marat

The political and social thought of Jean Paul Marat

Wilkes by his actions and by his legal battles had confirmed important liberties? but his influence was more profound than this. Hebrought Parliament into great disrepute. He demonstrated by his actions its unrepresentative nature; its dependence on the Crown; its corruption and prejudice— facts known for decades? but never so amply demonstrated ; nor had the danger to personal liberty? so inherent in such a system? been so clearly proved. And the Wilkes agitation produced new political methods. The public meeting was born and stayed alive. The Supporters of the Bill of Rights Society was founded? the first political society which used modern methods of agitationpaid agents were sent round the country to make spee­ ches and the Press was deliberately and carefully exploited. Politi­ cal dissatisfaction was given strength? and coherence? by deliberate organization. Politics were ceasing to be a part of the social life of a gentleman. Organized public opinion had become a factor in politics? and its strength increased? as the government of George III was overwhelmed by problems too vast for its comprehension. ^
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