113). Gatsby’s painful life begins with the physical loss of Daisy who for him is “the first nice girl he had ever known” (Gatsby 177). The life has no charm for him when she is lost and his perception of life and world changes with the separation of Daisy. Gatsby becomes morose and sullen and starts believing that there is only one powerful in this universe and that is power of money. No wonder, after his separation from Daisy he wholeheartedly devotes to earn money. For so many months he remains restless as he couldn’t believe “a nice girl” like Daisy would betray an army officer who fought for the nation. His faith in nationalism; war medals and army honor vanish as he is confronted by the reality of a money- driven world. Men like Tom Buchanan are the real winners and he is a loser. Since he is a soldier he cannot accept the defeat from Tom and recreates a world of romance and wonder to escape from the stark realities of the corrupt world of Daisy. His mythical journey begins with the loss of Daisy as he emerges a new man after the separation from Daisy.
The term “person with intellectual disability” has come to be more respected and used in both countries. Service standards – these are given the same amount and kind of attention in both countries. The only dif- ference is, that in Australia (Queensland), their Service Standards are represented by a legal document, unlike in the Czech Republic. According to the information avail- able to us about these standards, the issues of sexual education, the sexual lives or the relationships of people with intellectual disability is neglected. Social workers can ignore intellectual disabled people and their needs. As to the organizations and educational programs which are focused on the sexuality of people with in- tellectual disability, the current degree to which such organizations are focused on the support staﬀ , people with intellectual disability or educational programs is a favourable amount. In Australia and also in the Czech Republic the situation is comparable. The core diﬀ er- ences are in the ﬁ nancial foundation. Whilst almost all organisations in Australia they have their main ﬁ nancial foundation provided by the government, in the Czech Republic the organizations have serious problems with money and because of that a lot of projects can not be carried out. The situation is getting better due to the membership of the Czech Republic in the European Union, but development is slow.
human society is to ensure human dignity to all members. It is often argued that facilitating women’s access to money is not an effective means for achieving women’s empowerment unless it is linked to other kinds of activities like training on awareness of the impact of women’s subordination, concept of self-esteem and on the meaning and benefits of empowering women. The approach to gender equity is based on the recognition that all interventions in favor of women must ensure an environment free from all forms of violence against women and also ensure the participation and adequate representation of women at highest policy levels. For today’s women, fewer things are in the category of’ not done’, compared to the time of independence (Narasimhan, 2000). One of the recommendations of the National Policy on Education–1986 is to promote empowerment of women through the agency of education and it is considered as a landmark in the approach to women education. The National Literacy Mission is another step towards eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15-35 years by the year 1988. The universalization of elementary education, enrollment and retention of girls in the schools, promotion of ballades and crèches, increasing the number of girls’ hostel, women’s polytechnics and multi-purpose institutions, non-formal adult education and, open and distance education programmes were some of the other steps taken to boost women’s education leading to social empowerment (Khari, 2009). The vision of the Eleventh Plan (2007-2012) is to ensure that every woman and child in the country is able to develop their full potential and share the benefits of growth and prosperity through a participatory approach which empowers them and makes them partners in their own development (Paul, 2009). When women gain voice in decision making which is to be started within the family, they would be in a position to take decision for improving the poor socio- economic status .They begin to transform gender relations and so they are to be treated as equal partners in decision making and implementation rather than beneficiaries. However, women’s increased participation at the decision making level can only be said to lead to their increased development and empowerment if such participation enables them to achieve greater control over factors of production, access to resources and the distribution of benefits. Group or collective process always provide a support for empowerment as it exposes its members to local networks and this social interaction results in awareness about local realities which also helps them to overcome the barriers for accessing the resources.
Sexuality and relationships have an extensive impact on long-term health. It is imperative for health care professionals to recognize and address these issues. Adolescence is a critical period for sexual development and development of healthy sexuality is essential for successful navigation of the transition from childhood to adulthood (Chan, & John, 2012; Dewinter, Vermeiren, Vanwesenbeeck, & Van Nieuwenhuizen, 2013; World Health Organization, 2016). Like their peers, adolescents with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) experience the physical changes of puberty and express developmentally appropriate interest in sexuality and relationships (Fouquier, & Camune, 2015; Jones, Chatterjee, Anslow, Searle, & Blackhall, 2014; Kok, & Akyuz, 2015). Unique from their peers, adolescents with IDD confront additional challenges. Core features of IDD related to communication, behavior and learning can
Background: In general, sexuality is a taboo subject. It is more so in elderly people, as it is believed that they do not complain about sexual disorder. Ob- jective: To analyse the sexual activity of elderly men in Ouagadougou, Bur- kina Faso. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on the sexual activity of men aged at least 60 years old. The study was carried out in Oua- gadougou, Burkina Faso, from 1 st June to 31 st August 2014. All consenting
It is a qualitative research, through action research, which represents a form of research associated with numerous ways of collective actions, in order to promote solutions to a given problem or generate transformations in this reality (Thiollent, 2005). Therefore, the action research was based on the search for perceptions of the sexuality of the elderly woman, making possible reflections on health education, which is also very important for the elderly population. In this sense, the focal group technique was used, which was based on the interaction between the participants and the researcher, being executed from focused discussions, since this technique allows the exchange of experiences, concepts and opinions among the participants, as opposed to qualitative interviews, because what we want to explore are the details of individuals narratives (Flick, 2009). The study was located on the Association of Residents - ASMOC, in the Catalina complex, which is a private space for associates, opened on October 5, 1989. The study was conducted with the group "Star of the Sea", composed of 60 elderly women, which was founded on April 9, 2007, where activities such as dance, water aerobics, lectures and presentations at cultural events are held. The association has as physical structure, composed of: an external hall, an internal hall, a reception, two bathrooms, a canopy, three rooms, two swimming pools, being adult and childlike, a soccer field and a volleyball court. The site was chosen because it is an accessible place for the researchers and participants, in order to facilitate the trip to the research field. As inclusion criteria: women who are older than 60 years old, residents of Belém - Pará and who have been part of the Estrela do Mar group for more than six months; and considering the following exclusion criteria: individuals who have difficulty speaking, who have difficulty writing and those who are hospitalized during the period of the research.
There are many explanations for the multiple oppressions of being female and disabled. Society does not expect disabled women to be mothers, wives, keep house, work for inferior pay, etc. – all the things that patriarchy has deemed as “appropriate” roles for able-bodied women. Women with disabilities are not, in these ways actually viewed as women; they are rendered child-like and helpless, seemingly unable to reproduce, have successful long-term relationships, contribute to a household, contribute to society, etc. To this end feminist theory does not address the needs of disabled women because they are socially infantilized. Women with disabilities do not assume that they will be able to be sexually active, that they will be seen or thought of as sexual to a partner of interest, or that they have any sexuality at all. This is far more pervasive than the ways in which able-bodied women sometimes doubt their sexual attractiveness; there are generally held assumptions that people with disabilities cannot and/or do not want to be sexual (Schriempf 2001).
Owing to the fact that my primary research area lies in the field of religion and sexuality, over the years, I have been paying particular attention to the articles in this area published in this journal, whether as a reader or a reviewer. This experience has offered me a much-valued perspective on not only the development of research on sexuality and religion as represented by this journal, but also on scholarly research in this area more broadly. When Ken examined my PhD thesis in 1995, he reassured me that the intersection of sexuality and religio n was so acutely under-researched that I should channel energy into developing this research avenue. I must have taken his advice rather seriously, because I have stayed with this field until now, strenuously bringing more layers and dimensions into this research endeavour as I go – and learn.
The capacity of the concept to find expression in many ways has been discussed. Conservative interpretations of the term imply that the heterosexist form of expression is the definitive one, and that other forms come, not under a definition of expressed sexuality, but under the heading of aberrant sexuality. An understanding of sexuality as an expressed concept is presented which encompasses many expressive forms of sexuality. Employing ‘sexual identity’ rather that ‘physical - gender’ as the basis for the definition enhances this.
pleasure, making the “paradoxical conjunction of pleasure and danger” in relation to female sexualities as relevant and urgent today as it was thirty years ago. While in 2015 there has emerged a transnational film culture of filmmakers, performers, and artists who are dedicated to changing the landscape of the pornographic imagination, as Ingrid Ryberg assesses, we have to be wary of too easily calling it utopia, for this figuration of “safe space” is as wrought with complexity, contradiction, and conflict as it is powerful to those involved (2013). Moreover, as Michael Warner argues in his book The Trouble with Normal (1999), Western culture is still deeply ingrained and affected by a “rhetoric of shame”, leading both producers and consumers of alternative pornography to continue to struggle with the same stigmatization and rejection which for a long time made any serious attempt to engage with pornography in a positive manner seem not only highly suspicious, but also inherently anti-feminist. Drawing on Gayle Rubin’s seminal essay “Thinking Sex”, which was originally published in Pleasure and Danger, and became a foundational text influencing generations of scholars interested in questions of sex and sexuality, Warner assesses how some people, identities, and practices more than others come to carry the burden of shame and stigmatization according to a series of hierarchies that sort the good sex from the bad (1999, 25). Needless to say, pornography is positioned firmly on the side of what is considered bad, abnormal, and unnatural. This stigmatization of pornography, and the subsequent measures and legislation that are taken in order to control and regulate the production, distribution, and consumption of pornography, is particularly harmful to those groups that do not depend on pornography solely as a way to get off, but for whom pornography also offers other pleasures; the pleasure of recognizing themselves and their desires; of exploring their sexuality; and of gaining and expanding knowledge of sex which cannot easily be found elsewhere. 1 Here, the camera constitutes “a witness”,
The whole volume is, as already mentioned, acutely aware of issues around definitions and categories and the problems these raise. Alison Oram's concluding chapter discusses the questions raised by cross-dressing and transgender. This reveals the complexities that arise when discussing this topic in historical perspective. Cross-dressing took a variety of forms and could be undertaken for a range of personal and social reasons. Cases of cross-dressing individuals have been analysed from various angles, both by contemporaries and by historians. They provide a rich resource for examining specific historical concepts about gender, sexuality and transgression. Oram distinguishes between the choice to live as the opposite gender and the more self- conscious masquerade of drag, and emphasises the 'very diverse sets of meanings' that can be ascribed to cross-dressing at any given historical moment, and indeed to the significance of transgender following mid- twentieth century developments in gender reassignment through hormones and surgery. One area not explored in this otherwise excellent chapter is that of cross-dressing as erotic fetish and the phenomenon of the 'straight' male transvestite: but this would perhaps take us into rather different areas.
From a health viewpoint, early sexual activity among US adolescents is a potential problem because of the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. New evidence points to the media adolescents use frequently (television, music, movies, magazines, and the Internet) as important factors in the initiation of sexual intercourse. There is a major disconnect between what mainstream media portray— casual sex and sexuality with no consequences—and what children and teen- agers need—straightforward information about human sexuality and the need for contraception when having sex. Television, ﬁlm, music, and the Internet are all becoming increasingly sexually explicit, yet information on abstinence, sexual responsibility, and birth control re- mains rare. It is unwise to promote “abstinence-only” sex education when it has been shown to be ineffective and when the media have become such an important source of information about “nonabsti- nence.” Recommendations are presented to help pediatricians ad- dress this important issue. Pediatrics 2010;126:576–582
Coping with the emotional and physical effects of a breast cancer diagnosis can be very difficult. Naturally, you and your partner will need time to accept any changes arising from your diagnosis. There is also professional support available from counsellors, psychologists and sex therapists. Ask your medical team for further information. Because everyone’s sexuality is unique, your reaction to your diagnosis is individual to you. Before your diagnosis, you may not have given your sexuality much thought, but now you may know exactly what it means to you. As a result, you may be more able to enjoy and be fulfilled in your sexual relationship.
VOLUME 21, NUMBER 3 Gender, Sexuali B Y K Y L A B R E M N E R Cetarticle est une r&ction sur la nature et les object$ du sport chez les athktes et lesspectateurs, femmes et hommes L 'auteure soutient[.]
emotions that are associated with sexual experiences, have been achieved in some research with adults, for example in personal interviews (Dowsett 1988) and memory-work (Haug 1987, Kippax & Crawford 1988) where considerable rapport and confidence had been established between the researchers and the research participants. There was less information available on the details of practice and specific contexts of encounters and sexual relationships in research with teenagers. Personal interviews with teenage women about puberty (Thompson 1992), pregnancy (Scott 1983), high school romances (Lees 1986) and sex education (Fine 1988) have identified aspects of adventure, love, harassment and exploitation in early sexual experiences. The participants in these studies of teenage sexuality had the opportunity to voice their experience, but not to reflect on or to rework the processes in sexual encounters and relationships. These studies offered details that the researchers could conceptualise in terms of feminist ideologies, for example hegemony of heterosexuality in sex education (Lees 1986, Fine 1988) and possibilities for the retrieval of feminine desire (Fine 1988, Thompson 1992), but not in terms of the discourses in which sexuality is spoken of and experienced by those who are researched nor the specificity of processes in encounters or relationships.
For many women, the postpartum period is understood to be a time of abstinence. In Tardy’s interviews with mothers, sex (meaning sex with a male partner) was only referred to jokingly or critically, devoid of any sense that a new mother actually enjoys or seeks it (Tardy, 2000, p. 463). This cultural norm also acts more generally to limit the range of sexual contact through which women gain visceral and emotional satisfaction. Iris Young suggests that this is a result of sexuality being male- centred and male-defined: ‘Active sexuality is the erect penis … Intercourse is the true sex act, and nonphallic pleasures are either deviant or preparatory. Touching and kissing the breasts is ‘foreplay,’ a pleasant prelude after which the couple goes on to the Real Thing’ (Young, 1998, p. 194). In an effort to denaturalize this model of sexuality, Young suggests we ‘Imagine constructing the model of sexual power in breasts rather than penises. Men’s nipples would have to be constructed as puny copies, just as men have constructed women’s clitorides as puny copies of the penis’ (p. 194). She agrees with French psychoanalyst Luce Irigaray who claims that a ‘woman has sex organs more or less everywhere’ (Irigaray, 1985,
puritanical-patriarchal moral code that preached respect toward women in the context of their subordination to men. Women were segregated at meetings, enjoined to dress modestly, and forbidden from dancing except with their husband. Nation adherents abstained from pork, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, gambling, profanity, and “fornication,” including extramarital sexuality and homosexuality. If this mandated a sharp behavioral turnaround for Malcolm, its gender conservatism was continuous with his past sexism, its heterosexism with his statements of contempt for the homosexuals he hustled. Malcolm X’s forceful rhetoric and advocacy of armed self-defense, which so excited white journalistic sensationalism, bear comparison with the performative “potential for violence” and “possibility of sudden death” in rough trade, which one New York hustler recalled provided patrons with “intensity” and “excitement” to “animate the eroticism.”