Despite how much flexibility and streamlining we strived for, this PAR project entailed a sus- tained process of planning, planting, monitoring, evaluating, and discussing cover crop plantings together. In our final evaluation session, 12 out of the 14 written comments related to participating in long-term research like ours were positive. Garden- ers particularly valued the learning that occurred through monitoring, the discovery and excitement of observing the cover crops, gains in practical skills for using cover crops, and the opportunity to build relationships with an academic researcher. However, such intensive participation was not a good fit for everyone in the FFS, even among those interested in cover cropping practices. For example, one gardener wrote, “I’m not so inter- ested in doing the research and completing the sheets [cover crop monitoring checklists]; More interested in results.” This challenge, however, also illustrates a strength of our PAR work: producing results that some community gardeners in Brook- lyn would like to have, even if not all gardeners wish to be part of generating them.
iNaturalist. Some funding has been acquired for monitoring equipment and the HOWL website. Interview participants suggest applying for grants to fund a part-time coordinator, or as the CLO model recommends a leadership team consisting of a data statistician, educator, coordinator, and webmaster. Bonney et al. (2009) believe a successful citizen science project requires the staff members to direct and manage project development, support and recruit participants, and analyze and curate data. Further, Bonney et al. (2009) convey that citizen science projects are “cost- effective over the long term,” as they produce high quantities and quality of data (p 983). Thus, HOWL should seek additional funding through grants or potential collaborators to sustain the project for the future.
The research also sought to establish the educational background of the respondents and the results indicated that 37.4 % of the respondents were secondary school leavers followed by primary school leavers 27.6% and tertiary 14.3%. These three categories form the bulk of the adult population structure in Kenya and therefore could form the larger portion of any community. Those with university level education were 9.5% while others who had other qualifications including professional courses like accountancy formed 12%. These findings also pointed at the fact that oversight tasks required some minimum level of knowledge and intellectual reasoning and the community was conscious of that. These findings also suggest PM&E could be improved since the players could make informed decisions and this could improve efficiency and quality of projects. The LASDAP program had prescribed guidelines for constituting the PMCs which had to be adhered to when electing the PMC members. The guidelines required that a member of the PMC had to know how to read and write. Members were also required to have experience in handling supervisory work. This finding showed reasonable degree of compliance with the LASDAP guidelines. These findings add and support the findings of the World Bank (2012) on PM&E which notes that education facilitates community groups to identify creative and sustainable ways to share assets to improve community welfare as well as nurture corporate relationships with diverse local leaders.
captured all criteria as described above, although several did have relevant sections. The PPEET tool was sug- gested by one of the researchers as this tool had been validated. However, after review by the evaluation team, it was noted the tool has not been developed for a health research context and does not offer the opportunity to easily compare responses of patients and researchers. Therefore, the evaluation team agreed that the PPEET tool was not the best fit for our evaluation study. The RAPPORT study tools had most relevant sections, how- ever a very limited quantitative component which was considered as important to easily compare responses of large groups and multiple POR projects over time. The tool (surveys) developed by patients and caregivers for Patients Canada, Patients as Partner in Research [30, 31], was chosen as the primary survey template as this tool met most of our criteria and offered the opportunity to compare the perspectives of researchers and patients. The option of using the tool for monitoring over time was also considered important. Furthermore, the tool was developed by patient advisors with a focus on and experience with involvement in research projects, which was considered another important advantage. Lastly, the survey method offered an opportunity to easily collect data of large groups over time while requiring limited resources.
Effective planning must take a holistic perspective, a wide view of how systems interact. However, this approach can preclude an understanding of individual perspectives and lived experiences. Participatoryresearch methods pioneered outside of the field of planning have been designed to document and address community needs and priorities at a localized level. Among these methods is photo elicitation, a mode of qualitative and visual data collection that involves having participants take photographs that portray a particular concern, and then using the images and a starting point for discussion around how to address those concerns. While photo elicitation and other CBPR methods are becoming increasingly common in fields such as sociology and public health, they are rare in the field of urban planning, despite their applicability and potential value.
determining dissemination and implementation strategies within their own stakeholder groups and to a broader audience . Integrating key stakeholders fosters a sense of ownership over the knowledge creation process, in- creasing the probability that research findings will be acted upon in the relevant settings . Project imple- mentation and results will be continually shared with all key stakeholders through community gatherings, presen- tations to Chief and Councils and at Steering Committee meetings. KT plans will be developed in collaboration with each community through their community advisory boards and across communities to evaluate barriers and optimize facilitators, knowledge sharing and discussion. Early investment in integrated KT to reach diverse stake- holders and audiences in community-based research to support diabetes QI in First Nations communities has enabled the integration of traditional and evidence- based knowledge in progressive projects. A mix of communication and social media, including a FORGE AHEAD website (www.tndms.ca/forgeahead/) that houses resources, program documents and support documents, a FORGE AHEAD Facebook page (www.facebook.com/ FAProgram), and quarterly newsletters have been a critical platform for updating all team members and building camaraderie.
There is little reason why educational research in Australia should be progressive and highly developed given that its history and direction are subject to the economic and political determinants of an increasingly globalised and uncertain world. Whether or not educational research is an entirely derivative field or a semi-distinctive social science, is essentially qualitative or quantitative in character, desires knowledge that is vaguely accurate or accurately vague, seeks epistemological or ontological explanation, remains to be seen as history works itself out. It cannot be considered a neutral endeavour and demands that researchers identify a political perspective or worldview from which new knowledge is described and interpreted. Such fundamental questions have confronted the design and implementation of Nyerna Studies, a Bachelor of Education program being conducted in partnership between Victoria University of Technology and the Indigenous peoples of the Echuca region of Australia. In developing an approach to participatory action research, a number of challenges and knowledges have emerged from Nyerna Studies involving community partnership, two-way enquiry learning and the educational public sphere. Participatory action research as outlined here may be the only framework appropriate for democratic community research although it is not as yet legitimated within the pantheon of available methodologies and philosophies.
We investigated whether serum D-dimer, fibrinogen, and CA19-9 are reliable biomarkers for postoperative monitoring and prediction of survival in patients with resectable PC. We found that plasma D-dimer values could predict OS and PFS of PC and CA19-9 correlated with OS and PFS but only when the threshold value exceeded normal values and there was no correlation be- tween fibrinogen and OS or PFS. Also, D-dimer, fibrino- gen, and CA19-9 were significantly higher with active disease than when the cancer is at a relapse-free stage. D-dimer and CA19-9 were abnormally high in some pa- tients who were considered to be at a relapse-free stage according to CT or MRI scan. Furthermore, patients with abnormally high D-dimer had shorter OS than those with normal D-dimer. Likely, rising D-dimer and CA19-9 values may predict early postoperative tumor re- currence or progression of PC, but more work is re- quired to confirm this.
In combining both programmatic and research docu- ments, and by including academic articles from a range of databases, we believe this scoping review provides broader insight into the terminology used in monitoring and evaluation frameworks and the focus of these frameworks within the MHPSS field. Despite these strengths, this review has several limitations. Program documents were drawn from within the IASC reference group and only represent a small proportion of all MHPSS program documents that exist, introducing selection bias as those agencies more confident in their programming may have been more likely to respond, may have only submitted logframes of the highest quality, and may have submitted more than one logframe. Our review of published academic literature may also have resulted in selection bias since published studies may have been more likely to use a more restricted range of means of verification or those quantitative means of verification with particular psychometric properties compared to studies that were not published in peer reviewed journals. In addition, the search of the academic literature used English keywords and only articles written in five languages were included for review. Database searches were also limited to the fields of medicine, psychology, social work, public health, and nursing. All data was extracted to fit within a logical framework format, however our results should be interpreted with an understanding that academic articles are not typically written to fit such a format. No compre- hensive search of the grey literature was performed as part of this scoping review, representing an important limita- tion. In order to gain rapid insight into monitoring and evaluation in practice, organizations were asked directly
The scenario starts from the input block. It invokes encryption service through interface 8 to encrypt the message. According to the open structure of the system, the encryption algorithm can be produced through any single algorithm, or even another encryption SOA as an outsourcing process. The cover medium may be presented by the user or may be selected by the cover finder. Suppose there is no input covers, a request query triggers the cover finder to find an appropriate cover. It invokes evaluation service for the required details about the needed cover medium. Evaluation service makes use of network monitor and steganography services to form a cover attribute query (which may contain information about size, type, resolution, entropy, etc.) for media store to retrieve (the media store may search this cover in media store, or load it from the network). On the other hand, steganography services use converter services in a parallel process to accomplish the needed modifications on the secret or the selected cover. The last station of the scenario process would be the steganography algorithm services which apply the final manipulations and embedding processes to export the results to the external network.
Canadian geographers engaging in CBPR with Indigenous communities have sought to both produce rigorous research while simultaneously focussing upon community goals. In collaboration with Arctic communities, Furgal and Seguin’s (2006) work documents how observed environmental changes are impacting community health, notably food security and nutrition. This research enabled potential pathways through which communities could begin to proactively adapt to the health issues associated with climate change (Furgal, Martin, & Gosselin, 2002). Pearce et al. (2009) similarly advocate for the active involvement of community members and stakeholders in the study of climate change research in the Arctic, and a series of related studies have examined the geographies of sea ice freeze and thaw in Nunavut (Laidler, Dialla, & Joamie, 2008; Laidler & Elee, 2008). These studies present detailed community understandings of the changing patterns of sea ice conditions, the goal being to preserve local knowledge and increasing hunter safety. Castleden, Garvin, and Huu-ay-aht First Nation (2009) explores a community
introductory and end of summer schools, which also limited the budget for the project. Only two researchers (J. Tobias and I) were present in the study communities, and acted as mentors to the youth; any more than two or three youth may have become unmanageable for us (i.e. we may not have been able to attend all of the interviews with more youth conducting them). The fact that only five youth were hired places limitations on my results. Five youth is a small sample size, which means that my research may not be reliably transferred to other communities or study areas. Though only five youth were involved, their individual viewpoints are still valuable and provide representation for their communities. As well, the small sample size allowed me to get to know the youth well, which helped with rapport and relationship building. For example, the youth were much more comfortable speaking with me during their second interviews in contrast to their first interviews. As well, the purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth view of knowledge transfer, in which case five participants is a suitable sample size (Sandelowski, 1995). This project did not aim to provide general information that could be transferred to other communities. The five youth involved also have become empowered through the research process, and may take on leadership roles within their communities, as well as motivate other youth to become involved with Elders.
A CRT involving informal settlements (slums) in Mumbai, India, presented us with an opportunity to consider some of these issues specifically in relation to cluster trials. Our objective was to examine the uncer- tainties in defining communities (by taking into account that there is a variety of definitions of community) in re- lation to the notion of the scientific cluster (taking into account that clusters are defined by methodological and practical concerns of the research proposal). We aimed to inform the idea of community in CRTs by developing an understanding of participants’ definition of commu- nity and the factors that help shape their views. We in- vestigated whether residents’ sense of community matched the scientific notion of the cluster, defined by the investigators as a geographic area. We considered whether the possibility of mismatch was likely to have methodological implications for the study (beyond a simple statistical adjustment traditionally called the intra-cluster correlation coefficient, ICC), as well as present ethical challenges such as stigmatization of vul- nerable groups, potential social disharmony because of the interventions in the study and political difficulties for any cluster representative. If there were differences between scientific and lay views, a cluster trial might create social and political conflicts by artificially dividing pre-existing communities or by forcing together different factions in the same cluster and offering interventions and shared re- sources only through coerced collaboration.
There appear to be network-wide implications of this approach to supporting action research with the aspiration from Participant 1, a co-leader in the network, that their job would become redundant as the role of action research spread throughout the network and the network participants started taking ownership of the network itself. This would mark a transition from the structural features of the network, which were necessary in its inception, and which ensured certain collaborative practices, towards a network of action research embedded in member schools, and which would be more associated with the cultural aspects of those institutions, individually and collectively. The cultural features of this work also provide a different way of perceiving the compulsion aspects of the network. This was a particular feature of Network 3, which differs from both the previous case studies and from the literature around networking, all of which emphasised the importance of voluntarism. The aspired transition of Network 3 from directed collaboration, to become embedded cultural feature of local schools, changes this perception of voluntarism. In the early stages, many teachers were instructed to participate, in the aspirations of the later stages the network is owned by the participants and is voluntary in the sense that those participants then control the direction that the development of the network takes through their actions and the choices that they make.
However many antecedents demonstrate that marginalisation such as separation and isolation from others, experiences of powerlessness and meaningless as a result of seeing only limited purposefulness are evident (Brown 1991). For example Brown’s (1991) “structural dimension”, argues that “… marginalisation has at least three stages. At the first stage the marginal do not reap the benefits of economic progress. At the second stage they are deprived of productive power. At the third stage they are deprived of the power of decision” (Brown 1991:43). Alternatively this third stage could be seen as “… exclusionary agenda setting” (Hendey and Muller 1998:347). 29 Nonetheless, a post modern response to this argument, which is pertinent to this actual study, is that it “… can also be very depressing to focus on problem areas, such as unemployment, where there are no clear answers” (Sanguinetti 1992:10). In other words, for some, this research ends here … For example to demonstrate how foolhardy it is sometimes seen to entertain the notion of discussing the issue of “unemployment” with unemployed people from a teaching perspective is that there tends to be resistance by both teachers and students to the idea of exploring the issue of unemployment during class time (Brewer 1975; Winefield 1993; Patton 1990). Furthermore it has been found that many teachers do not discuss unemployment with students as they perceive their aim as teaching for work (ie. success), not unemployment (ie. failure) (Patton 1990; Winefield 1993). To discuss unemployment would therefore be seen as defeatist, yet it could be argued that unemployment affects a significant proportion of people either directly or indirectly and is often a key political issue during the election of governments.
may only further complicate the pan-European research infrastructure, organisation and funding arenas. However, European Commission funding constitutes only a minor part of total investment in behavioural nutrition and physical activity research across Europe . The recent negotiations on and the adoption of the multi-annual financial framework for the European Union for 2014– 2020 shows that, at present, European Member States are not willing or able to substantially increase spending on European Commission-funded research. In addition to the European Commission-funded research programmes, European Union (EU) Member States have their own re- search programmes and funding schemes. This approach includes research on healthy eating and physical activity and, to date, these funding schemes lack true coordination, despite the fact that research priorities in the European countries in this field are very similar or in fact overlap. Additionally, Europe lags behind the United States and Japan in the percentage of gross domestic product invested in research and development. This combination of lower, less coordinated and more scattered research spending will set Europe back in the field of behavioural nutrition and physical activity research. Better alignment and coordin- ation of research funds between Member States can thus make a significant difference. DEDIPAC is a first experi- ment to see if this can indeed work in practice.
Because PAR happens in cycles, with much reflection and adaptation based on what has gone before, the next stage of our research will likely draw on much of the above-described community-building work. But before doing so and following the “completion” of the TSP with Public Allies in June 2013, we shifted into our own reflection mode, the partial result of which is the completion of this Article. The next phase of our work involves (re-)connecting with a small handful of Powershift team members who have expressed interest in continuing to work together on the project, as well as reaching out to community members that Powershift met during the course of the TSP who likewise expressed interest in participating in more long-term community- based research on the problems associated with payday lending and other increasingly popular AFS products such as car title loans. Additionally, we plan on reaching out to organizations like Policy Matters Ohio, discussed supra, about possible community collaborations and outreach in our local and statewide communities, as well as to the CFPB to see if they might be interested in learning about how we too are trying to “get out of [the ivory tower]” by doing legal PAR about consumer finance. To close the loop on why this type of work should matter to law teachers, scholars, and students, we elaborate in the next Part of this Article on why we, as critical race/feminist scholars, see so much promise in legal PAR, and what we legal scholars can bring to the PAR table.
One of the fields of application arises from the need for capacity of distributed computing, applied to the understand- ing of tropical diseases. One of this examples is the Universitat Rovira i Virgil (URV) in which 12 universities and research centers of nine countries are involved. The work is based on analyzes of samples taken of the breath, easy to obtain and minimally invasive. According to Radu Ionescu , during the first year of the project samples in Colombia (dengue) will be taken in Tunisia (hydatid disease and leishmaniasis) and Poland (as an example of European country where they are not usual). So when factors such as the location of populations are analyzed and the transmission of high volumes of data in real time is needed, a reliable connection across Europe using capabilities and computing services distributed over the NREN services of those countries is justified. One of the ini- tiatives which aimed to meet this need was the project E- science grid facility for Europe and Latin America - EELA, which ended in 2008. The continuity should be given through the EELA 2 project, approved by the 7th Framework Program of the European Union and completed in 2010. This should provide users of infrastructure grid stable and well support, based on 16 Resource Centers (RCs) totaling more than 730 CPU cores and 60 terabytes of storage, according to publica- tion on the website of RedClara .
In volcanically threatened areas, where hazards are often persistent regardless of volcanic activity, community-based monitoring has the potential to reduce risk by providing useful data, fostering collaboration between scientists and communities, and providing a way in which citizens are empowered to take actions to preserve lives and livelihoods. The vigía network around Tungurahua provides collabora- tive risk reduction that has had substantial effects for more than fourteen years. The network was formed in response to a need to improve the communication of risk and the coordination of evacuations for communities around the volcano. Of particular relevance is that it was initiated as a compromise following citizens’ decisions to forcibly return to hazardous areas following an enforced evacuation. This pattern of reoccupation following a period of heightened activity is common in other volcanic settings. The network provides a pragmatic solution to the situation created by the reoccupation of hazardous areas, by enhancing commu- nity capacity for taking protective action, as demonstrated by the auto-evacuations, thus enabling risk reduction. The research shows that the network benefitted from key indi- viduals who pushed the idea forward, and grew as a re- sult of a demand from communities, scientists and authorities simultaneously. It is characterised by how information is shared across the network between vig- ías, between vigías and community members, and be- tween the vigías and scientists.