Methods: The English language MoodDisorderQuestionnaire (MDQ) was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpa- tients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were performed. Results: The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69). The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%), specificity (72.7%), positive predictive value (74.3%), and negative predictive value (75.0%). The ROC area under the curve (AUC) for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90).
Potential participants for this study were found by a study nurse (LKL) through reviewing the archive records and clinical outpatient files. The cases were included if they had been or would like to be followed up by the psy- chiatrists of our department. At the study entry, partici- pants were invited (by LKL) to fill in the Chinese version of MDQ. SCID-I was performed for each participant to establish an initial diagnosis meeting the criteria of DSM- IV-TR. Demographic and clinical characteristics and fea- tures of the current depressive episode were collected using the self-compiled questionnaire. The participants were then followed up for one year, being interviewed by one of the three senior psychiatrists for at least six times with a flexible interval of 1-2 months via telephone or face to face. At each interview, if suspected diagnostic change was detected, the patient’s relatives or friends were asked to provide additional information and the patient was asked whether they had similar experience before. All the data about the patient was then submitted to the commit- tee, who would decide whether the patient had experienced a change in diagnosis or had experienced an earlier unrec- ognized manic or hypomanic episode, according to the cri- teria of DSM-IV-TR. To insure the quality and objectivity of switch detection, those who did not complete the one year follow-up or who were not contacted for more than 6 times within the year were excluded. At the end of study, the committee reviewed the one year medical records and came up with a final diagnosis.
eight patients enrolled in the study, and all enrollees completed the study. Of the twelve patients that did not participate in the study, six deemed their psychiatric prob- lem minor and opted to cope with the difficulty, four were reluctant to undergo detailed psychiatric assessment, and two declined to participate for unknown reasons. As part of routine clinical care, patients received cognitive behav- ioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, or medication management depending on the results of their assessment, even when their provisional primary diagnosis (defined as the disorder most influencing their global functioning) was other than an eating disorder. All patients provided written informed consent before entering the study. This study was approved by the institutional review committee of the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine.
is a brief self history of bip sections. The screens man yes/no questi the clusterin measures the problem” to “ In the origin administered ing score of 7 (0.73) and a h MDQ has b development ed and used i Kong (31), A France (34), I and Turkey (3 other countrie ferent target p psychiatric ou been studied draw a concl merman’s cri had modest studies, shoul patients than disorder than
BD I patients followed motor suggestions more often, un- like cognitive suggestions, under hypnosis, while both bipo- lar disorder patients and healthy volunteers demonstrated an association between mania levels and certain hypnotic susceptibility features. Our findings contribute to the un- derstanding of emotional, cognitive and behavioral alter- ations in bipolar disorder patients, and encourage the incorporation of related psychotherapy in their treatment. Table 1 Scale scores (mean ± S.D.) of the MoodDisorderQuestionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory in healthy volunteers (controls, n = 120), and patients with bipolar I (BD I, n = 62) and II (BD II, n = 33) disorders
Birth order is considered one of the most influential environmental factors in child development, affecting cognitive abilities and behavioral traits. A recent study by Berger and Felsenthal-Berger (2009) describes birth order of 598 children aged 6 to 18 years diagnosed due to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The cohort contains relatively large size families because 47.1% of the participants were born in families of more than 4 children. However their results show no statistically significant differences in birth order of children among all families. They conclude that the chances of first, middle, or later born children, as well as single children, to suffer from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are almost equal. This is in contrast to the findings of our study which reveals that being the single child or the last child or the first child in a family increases significantly the chances of occurrence of ADHD 192 . There are other reports to suggest that birth order does have on impact on IQ which could indirectly reflect on an association with behavior. According to a recent study of nearly 250,000 males between 18 and 19 years old, the first- born had an average IQ score 2.3 points higher than their younger siblings 193 .
A reoccurring theme in research based on healthcare and medical practitioner attitudes towards CAM is the need for increased education around alternative treatments. A Kentucky based study concluded that medical practitioners would be more motivated to use CAM to appropriately advise patients if they were provided with clinically relevant education (Flannery, Love, Pearce, Luan & Elder, 2006). A study conducted in 1988 concluded that 54% of Wellington GPs expressed an interest in training in CAM therapies (Hadley, 1988). Aditionally, it was found in 1998 that the best predictors of United States primary care physicians’ use of CAM were attitude of physicians towards CAM and their training around usage (Berman, Singh, Hartnoll, Singh & Reilly, 1998). These conclusions were reflected in a 2001 questionnaire that 32% of GP respondents either personally or within their clinical team were involved with CAM treatments despite the fact that only 5.2% of GPs had had some form of CAM training in one or more CAM therapies (Lewith, Hyland & Gray, 2001).
The key outcomes of interest pertain to the indirect costs of mood disorders, namely the lost work produc- tivity and personal limitations associated with a diagno- sis of bipolar disorder or a depressive disorder. Both types of costs can be thought of as morbidity or produc- tivity costs, i.e., the “ lost or impaired ability to work or engage in leisure time activities due to morbidity ” . Lost work productivity was the more conventional among cost of illness studies [27,28], and pertained to workforce participation and absenteeism. This was assessed with three related items. The first concerned whether individuals were employed (full- or part-time) or were full-time students. The second, for individuals who were employed, concerning whether an individual had missed at least 10 days of work (i.e., two work weeks) in a year due to illness. Third, to further assess the extent of lost productivity, we also employed an item regarding whether the individual had spent at least 10 days of missed work in bed. Personal limitations were more unique among extant literature, and con- cerned the impact of mood disorders on individual func- tioning and self-sufficiency. This was measured via self reports of: 1) physical limitations (defined as “ difficulty in walking, climbing stairs, grasping objects, reaching overhead, lifting, bending or stooping, or standing for long periods”); 2) social limitations (on “participation in social, recreational, or family activities”); 3) cognitive functioning (confusion, memory loss, or problems in decision-making that interfered with daily activities); or 4) being “limited, in any way, in the ability to work at a job, do housework, or go to school. ” We recognize that distinctions between productivity and personal limita- tions are somewhat arbitrary, as personal functioning is certain to affect one ’ s ability to work. The measures of lost productivity and self-reported limitations, moreover, are in some cases very similar. However, we do not claim that these domains are unrelated; rather, we use this approach in order to explore the pervasive disable- ment among the populations with bipolar disorder and depression.
Despite these limitations, there was general agreement that hyperthyroid patients tend to show a high rate of anxiety. The later studies, using standard psychiatric diagnostic criteria, confirmed earlier findings. Trzepacz et al.  studied 13 patients with untreated Graves’ disease, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and applying Research Diagnostic Criteria. They found that every patient met Research Diagnostic Criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis, most often anxiety. Placidi et al.  studied 93 hyperthyroid patients, using a version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition criteria (SCID). They found that one third of patients suffered from panic disorder and nearly as many from generalized anxiety disorder. Brownlie et al.  studied 18 patients who, over the course of 20 years, had been considered to be thyrotoxic and, at some time, psychotic.
The complexity of distinguishing emotion from mood should not be under- estimated, especially given the volume of research interest in the topic. Beedie, Terry, and Lane (2005) addressed this issue by firstly conducting a content analysis of 65 published works that offered distinctions between emotion and mood. They also used qualitative methods to investigate emotion-mood distinctions among a sample of 106 non-academic participants, arguing for the utility of folk theory (see Colman, 2001) in conceptual development. The authors reported a high level of agreement between academic and non-academic opinions in both the nature and direction of potential distinguishing criteria. They identified eight distinguishing themes, with duration, intentionality, cause, consequences, and function cited most frequently, and intensity, physiology, and awareness of cause cited less frequently. In summarising, the authors proposed that emotion and mood can be distinguished empirically if the subjective context of the affective responses (i.e., the individual‟s awareness of the antecedents, focus, and likely consequences) is also assessed in line with theoretical distinctions.
While DSM has been the cornerstone of substantial progress in reliability, it has been well recognized by both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the broad scientific com munity working on mental disorders that past science was not mature enough to yield fully validated diagnoses—that is, to provide consistent, strong, and objective scientific validators of individual DSM disorders. The science of mental disorders continues to evolve. However, the last two decades since DSM-IV was released have seen real and durable progress in such areas as cognitive neuroscience, brain imaging, epidemiology, and genetics. The DSM-5 Task Force overseeing the new edition recognized that research advances will require careful, iter ative changes if DSM is to maintain its place as the touchstone classification of mental disor ders. Finding the right balance is critical. Speculative results do not belong in an official nosology, but at the same time, DSM must evolve in the context of other clinical research ini tiatives in the field. One important aspect of this transition derives from the broad recognition that a too-rigid categorical system does not capture clinical experience or important scientific observations. The results of numerous studies of comorbidity and disease transmission in fam ilies, including twin studies and molecular genetic studies, make strong arguments for what many astute clinicians have long observed: the boundaries between many disorder "catego ries" are more fluid over the life course than DSM-IV recognized, and many symptoms as signed to a single disorder may occur, at varying levels of severity, in many other disorders. These findings mean that DSM, like other medical disease classifications, should accommo date ways to introduce dimensional approaches to mental disorders, including dimensions that cut across current categories. Such an approach should permit a more accurate description of patient presentations and increase the validity of a diagnosis (i.e., the degree to which diag nostic criteria reflect the comprehensive manifestation of an underlying psychopathological disorder). DSM-5 is designed to better fill the need of clinicians, patients, families, and re searchers for a clear and concise description of each mental disorder organized by explicit di agnostic criteria, supplemented, when appropriate, by dimensional measures that cross diagnostic boundaries, and a brief digest of information about the diagnosis, risk factors, as sociated features, research advances, and various expressions of the disorder.
A common example of the way distress is medicalised is when an individual who is distressed by an everyday event (for example, a cheating lover) reports that he/she feels “depressed”, and this is taken to indicate “depression” in the mental disorder sense, even though the other diagnostic criteria have not been satisfied. Accordingly, the sick role is granted (paid leave from work and psychotropic medication become options). The individual may not claim the sick role; it may be that well-meaning others who observe the distress, with good intentions, thrust the sick role on the individual. There may be some initial
The Body Dysmorphic DisorderQuestionnaire-Aesthetic Surgery (BDDQ-AS) is a validated questionnaire that is used as a screening tool for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in aesthetic rhinoplasty patients. The BDDQ-AS questionnaire was translated from English to French according to international guidelines. Ten French-speaking rhinoplasty patients were interviewed in order to evaluate the understandability and acceptability of the translation and produce a final version. It was then administered to 165 consecutive patients. Psychometric properties were evaluated using item-reponse theory (IRT). Internal consistency was high, with Cronbach ’ s alpha of 0.90 (95% lower CL 0.88). While the discrimination abilities of all the items were good (over 2.0), their difficulty parameters were shifted towards greater severity of symptoms. That shift could also be observed in information function graph for the entire scale. In other words, the BDDQ-AS performed better in patients with more severe body dysmorphic symptoms. In conclusion, the BDDQ-AS was translated, adapted, and psychometrically validated for use in a French-speaking population.
In previous studies, it was shown that age and gender affect some temperament and character dimensions (5, 7, 26, 27, 33-36). Our results that indicated a reverse correlation between novelty seeking and age and a positive correlation between novelty seeking and cooperativeness are in line with results of previous studies (5, 7, 13, 25, 27, 33, 35 and 37). However, unlike previous studies in which females received higher scores in harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness (17, 21-24, 26, 27, 38, 39), in the current study, the only significant difference was in higher scores of novelty seeking by males, while no significant difference was found in other dimensions. It seems that as most of the studies were done to validate and standardize the questionnaire and were different from other studies in sample size and type, this difference was also seen in their results. The results of comparison among the 3 groups showed that patients with bipolar and depressive disorders were significantly different from the control group in self- directedness. Our results were consistent with those of previous research (9-11, 17, 18, 26, 40-45). Unlike
Abstract: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and pos- sibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed. Although ODD was found to be highly heritable, no genetic polymorphism has been identified with confidence. There has been a definite genetic overlap with other externalizing disorders. Studies have begun to explore its epigenetics and gene–environment interaction. Neuroimaging findings converge to implicate various parts of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. Alteration in cortisol levels has also been demonstrated consistently. Although a range of environmental factors, both familial and extrafamilial, have been studied in the past, current research has combined these with other biological parameters. Psychosocial treatment continues to be time-tested and effective. These include parental management training, school-based training, functional family therapy/ brief strategic family therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Management of severe aggression and treatment of co-morbid disorders are indications for pharmacotherapy. In line with previous conceptualization of chronic irritability as a bipolar spectrum abnormality, most studies have explored antipsychotics and mood stabilizers in the management of aggression, with limited effects. Keywords: externalizing disorders, nosology, genetics
A repeat search in PubMed and Cochrane Library was conducted in March 2016, using the same methodology, to check for any new papers that should be included in the discussion section, for comparison. Fifty-eight papers were found in PubMed in this second search and no pa- pers in the Cochrane Library. Four new papers [51–54] were found to be topical for this review. Logsdon et al. 2015  described maternal-infant interaction at 12 months postpartum in women with BD compared to women with unipolar depression and a control group without a major mooddisorder. Marengo et al. 2015  looked at how women with BD made reproductive decisions. Both of these papers are included in the dis- cussion section only, for noting, as they were published too late to be included in the review. Taylor et al. 2015  was excluded, as their description of the character- istics of pregnant women and their use of psychotropic medication was not relevant for this review. The fourth
Results: Of our 64 participants, 36 were allocated to Li/VPA and 28 to Li/CBZ. Our sample was composed predominantly of females (66.6%) and the average age was 27.8 years. A total of 27 (45.0%) participants had depression, 17 (28.3%) had mania/hypomania, and 16 (26.7%) had a mixed state. We found no between-group differences in CGI-BP (Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for use in bipolar disorder) scores (P = 0.326) or in any other outcome. Side effects differed significantly between groups only in the first week of treatment (P = 0.021), and there were more side effects in the Li/VPA group. Also, the Li/VPA group gained weight (+2.1 kg) whereas the Li/CBZ group presented slight weight loss ( − 0.2 kg).
Body checking is a central feature of AN, assumed to contribute to the maintenance of the disorder. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the underlying factors contributing to this behaviour. Body checking resembles the checking behaviour seen in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . Both types of checking seem to involve difficulties deflecting from an established course of thoughts or action (persever- ation) . That is, when a patient with AN repeatedly checks her stomach in response to worries about be- coming fat, the assumption made by Harvey  is that she repeats the checking because she is unable to shift her mindset about being fat despite the information she gets from the checking. It has been suggested that this type of perseveration is a result of impaired set-shifting abilities [26,32]. Several studies have confirmed this link between compulsive checking and set-shifting diffi- culties among patients with OCD [32-34] and in non- clinical samples . However, no studies to our knowledge have explored the association between set- shifting difficulties and compulsive body checking in patients with AN.
This is a cross- sectional, comparative study in clinical setting with use of normal control group. The study was carried out in outpatient department (OPD) of tertiary teaching institute. Patients suffering from bipolar mooddisorder attending psychiatry OPD were taken for study. We used simple random sampling method with fraction of 15. Totally 100 patients were studied. Additional two patients, after initial screening were dropped due to their