Sons and Lovers is considered to be one of the most significant works of D.H. Lawrence which is being taught in many universities of Pakistan for several years. As a piece of art, undoubtedly, this novel transmits some moral values and an exact picture of life, but the central theme about the phenomenon of Mother Fixation exerts some undesirable impact on students’ perception for its being a taboo in our society. Thus the present study tries to explore the effective teaching approach of the Theme of Mother Fixation to Pakistani students. The approach is based on the notion that Freud’s Theory of Mother Fixation is in utter contrast with the family values of Pakistani society exercising a pernicious impact on students’ perception. Thus the present study aims at investigating the attitudes and opinions of teachers of the novel Sons and Lovers. It has adopted phenomenology as a research paradigm. Data were collected from all the universities of Quetta teaching this novel. The study examined some of the impediments that teachers face in literature class, while dealing with this theme as well as how they tend to overcome these hurdles. There is some evidence from the data that majority of the respondents expressed feelings of embarrassment and hesitation while discussing the Theme of Mother Fixation, especially in the presence of the opposite sex and preferred to avoid the sensitive aspect of incestuous relationships in the novel . The result has shown that the Theme of Mother Fixation, if handled properly while observing the ethical limitations of Pakistani society, would not harm the perception of the students about their family values. In addition to this, teachers cited valid concerns about giving a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the psychological aspect of the theme, taking into consideration the cultural restraints of Pakistani society.
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In a study by Furr (1998), a sample of 231 students from two urban universities in the Midwest were administered a questionnaire to investigate the impact of fathers’ behavior on their children’s performance on college entrance examinations (CEE). About 21% were African American. Slightly less than 60% of the students came from intact families, which were defined as families in which the heads of the household were married to each other and were the parents of the children in the household. The remainder of the students came from divorced families, in which the biological parents were divorced and the children lived either with their mother only or with their mother and stepfather. Students whose parents had joint custody or whose fathers were awarded custody following the divorce were excluded from the sample. The study utilized several independent variables, which included fathers’ education, ethnicity, income, fathers’ encouragement, and fathers’ involvement. Results indicated that non-custodial fathers’ post- divorce behavior can greatly offset educational disadvantages. In intact families, fathers’ ethnicity and income were related to CEE scores. In addition, when these students perceived their fathers as encouraging and involved in their education, their scores were higher.
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Schausberger, 2014) and low maternal food supply (Amano and Chant, 1978; Momen, 1996; Toyoshima and Amano, 1998). In our study and in all three species, severe maternal food stress resulted in fewer female but not male eggs and a balanced sex ratio. The production costs are higher for large female than small male eggs (Toyoshima and Amano, 1998; Sabelis et al., 2002), thus, decreasing female rather than male egg production saves more energy for the mother ’ s own survival. Ultimately, food-stressed females may also gain in fitness by shifting the sex ratio in favor of the less susceptible sex. For example, parrot finches produce more sons under food stress because sons are more likely to survive with limited food than are daughters (Pryke and Rollins, 2012). Similarly, in phytoseiid mites, daughters need more prey for development than the smaller and more quickly developing sons (Walzer and Schausberger, 2011a) and are thus more susceptible to food stress. Egg size, a pivotal life history trait, commonly correlates with other fitness components of juvenile development such as hatching success and survival (reviewed by Roff, 1992). Consequently, selection should favor females, which increase the
Son preference is deeply ingrained in Indian culture. For example, in Tamil Nadu, it is not uncommon to name daughters Venda, meaning “don’t want”, and Podum Pennu, meaning “enough of daughters” (George 1997) and a common blessing to brides is “May you be the mother of a hundred sons” (Iyer 2002), to take only two examples. Many factors behind this son preference have been identified by the literature: the dowry system, practice of exogamy, cultural rules limiting married daughters’ support to their natal family, caste system penalizing the brides’ natal castes, inheritance rules, importance of having a son for securing a good afterlife and higher status given to mothers of sons than to mothers of daughters (see, for example, Das Gupta (1987), Das Gupta et al. (2003) and Dyson and Moore (1983)). 1
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which he replies: “You make me so spiritual”. Paul, whose mother is his best love looking for a “baptism of fire in passion”, and the girl he is in love with is too spiritually absorbing to allow him any warm physical contact, not to speak of the fulfillment in flesh. Rather he feels the stifling and crippling impact of her too much spirituality on himself. He feels that Miriam wants the soul out of his body, and not him. All his strength and energy she draws into herself through some channel which unites them, she does not want to meet him, so that there were two of them, man and woman together. She wants to draw all of him into her. Thus Miriam wants to have a complete hold over Paul which he resists.
In Vietnam, there were two studies on IM. Firstly, Hertz et al. (2008) employed a dataset of father and son in 42 countries including Vietnam, to estimate correlation coefficient and elasticity of education. For Vietnam particularly, data from Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) 1997/1998 provided the elasticity of education is 0.58 for a pair of parent and child, in which age is from 20 to 69. In addition, Emran and Shilpi (2011) compared occupational mobility of Nepal and Vietnam, used the VLSS 1992/1993. High correlation coefficients of occupation between fathers and sons, mothers and daughters are found in both Vietnam and Nepal. In case of Vietnam, there is robust evidence between fathers and daughters, mothers and sons. Furthermore, the probability of daughter getting non-farm occupation when her mother takes part in non- farm sectors is higher than that in the pair of father and son.
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Methods: In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records. Mailed questionnaires (1994, 1997, 2001) asked about specified abnormalities of the urogenital tract. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated by Cox regression with constant time at risk and control for year of birth.
Of the many reasons fathers stayed common ones were sticking together through adversity and putting the child first. „May and myself are very alike, we wanted what was best for Ned‟ (Patrick: 22). A shared vision and ongoing communication were crucial. „I think what‟s helped is, Anna and I we have quite a strong bond to use. We talk through everything, I just think we‟re very alike in many respects (pause) and we want the best for Len‟ (James: 28). James mentioned several times how Anna almost walked out, ‘ that‟s an example of where it‟s just, it‟s too much for her. And, you know, you‟re there trying, trying to support her as well. It‟s a strain for both of us‟ (James: 98) . Despite a long marriage this single event had stayed with James. He had relied totally upon her and seen her pushed to the edge. This frightened him and possibly re-activated thoughts of abandonment as a child. There was often an implication that some wives played a joint maternal nurturing role for both their husbands and sons.
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Lawrence’s subtle use of morel image is powerful as it suggests the victimization and alienation process caused by industrialism. There is a similarity between the victimization of Morel family and nature by industrialism and Lawrence extends his critical attitude with further use of vivid imagery in Sons and Lovers. For example, Mrs. Morel has an intense argument with her husband, and she is forced to leave home. Then, she goes to the garden and tries to console herself there. In the garden, flowers shine with moonlight and Gertrude feels peaceful from then on: “She passed along the path, hesitating at the white rosebush. It smelled sweet and simple … their fresh scent and cool, soft leaves reminded her of the morning-time and sunshine” (33). Mrs. Morel becomes happy only when she aligns herself with nature. In another instance, she enjoys serene, quiet and restful environment when she goes out and finds herself in nature since she is unable to endure her husband indoors:
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Let us first start by analyzing the frequency distribution of households according to their discrimination pattern. Although three possibilities may occur – households discriminate against girls, households treat both genders equally, and households discriminate against boys – we would expect a priori that the second and, particularly, the third category will not have a high frequency. Our analysis yields the surprising result that as many as 70 per cent of sample households educate both sons and daughters equally. Moreover, only about a fifth of the households discriminate against girls while one of every ten households actually educate daughters more than sons. In urban areas, the corresponding figures are 77, 13 and 11 per cent, respectively, indicating that gender disparity in educational attainments are lower in urban areas. If we consider differences in maximum educational score, we find an even lower level of disparity (households who do not discriminate comprise 75 and 83 per cent of households in rural and urban areas, respectively), while in only 17 and 9 percent of households discriminate against daughters. 4
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AUC: Area under the curve; Cmax: Maximum concentration; CV: Coefficient of variation as a percentage. AUC: Area under the curve; CL/F: Clearance; Cmax: Maximum concentration; hr: Hours; Tmax: Time of maximum concentration; T½ = half-life. * Tmax is described by median and range. Adapted with permission from [John Wiley & Sons]: [John Wiley & Sons] [Clinical Translational Science] [REFERENCE 31 (Pharmacokinetics of RP5063 Following Single Doses to Normal Healthy Volunteers and Multiple Doses Over 10 Days to Stable Schizophrenic Patients; Cantillon M, Ings R, Prakash A, and Bhat L), [COPYRIGHT] (2017).
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Our research findings are in line with previous research showing that caregivers of people with dementia have substantial needs for professional support [14,19,20]. But, the results of our large-scale study also provide insight into differences in needs between various types of infor- mal caregivers. This study indicates that in order to achieve customized support for informal caregivers, the difference in needs of various types of central informal caregivers (e.g. spouses versus sons/daughters (in-law)) and the living situation of the people with dementia (liv- ing at home versus residential elderly care) must be taken into account.
2008 saw the 25th anniversary of the E-MRS and an ESF–EUROCORES–SONS II sympo- sium was organised as part of the E-MRS 2008 Spring Meeting in Strasbourg. Mario Ruben, Paolo Samori (project leaders of SUPRAMATES and FUNSMART II, respectively) and Franco Cacialli (principal investigator, SUPRAMATES) co-chaired the symposium entitled “Functional Supramolecular Architectures for Organic Electronics and Nanotechnology”, together with Giovanni Marletta (University of Catania, Italy) and Roberto Faria (University of São Paulo, Brazil). A crowded lecture hall warmly welcomed Professor Jean-Marie Lehn, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1987, who gave the opening talk. Throughout the meeting, the most challenging aspects of the field were discussed in 17 sessions, with a total of 47 contributed talks covering synthetic chem- istry, molecular self-assembly, interface studies, advanced imaging and processing at the nanoscale, and spectroscopy of supramolecular assemblies. A strongly multidisciplinary symposium took place with world-class speakers, to a great extent from SONS II CRPs, including Richard Friend (SUPRAMATES), Klaus Müllen (SUPRAMATES), Alessandro De Vita (FunSMARTs II) and Johannes Barth (FunSMARTs II), who reviewed the current state of their respective areas of speciality and sug- gested guidelines for the development of scientific research in supramolecular science and nano- technology. Looking to the future, a significant amount of time was dedicated to the next genera- tion of material scientists with two poster sessions that saw the participation of more than 250 young investigators, a large number of whom were asso- ciated with SONS II projects. The high quality of the projects and timeliness of the symposium was reflected in the support secured from the top-class journals Nature Materials and Advanced Materials,
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Web exercises. The Sons et lettres website address is https://sons-et- lettres.com/ . The exercises on the site are primarily listening exercises, designed to first ensure that you can hear the difference between the target sounds for each lesson. (This is important, because if you cannot distinguish between different sounds you will not be able to pronounce them accurately.) First, you will hear pairs of words and determine whether the words have the same or contrasting sounds [Écoute 1]. Some pairs will have the same sound (for example, fou and tout, which rhyme) and some will have contrasting sounds (for example, fou and faux, which don’t rhyme). Next, in Écoute 2, you will hear groups of three words, one of which differs from the other two in terms of its pronunciation, and you will indicate which two words have the same sound (for example, in the series fou/faux/tout, fou and tout form a pair because they have the same vowel sound). You will not see any of these words initially, only hear them, but you will have the option of seeing the words displayed after giving your answer. After completing the listening exercises, the rule will be shown which describes how the two sounds are represented in spelling. The rule is followed by an exercise [Écoute 3] in which you both hear and see pairs of contrasting words and you will indicate which of the two written words you hear (or hear first). This exercise requires you to match the words you hear with the graphemes you see. Finally, in À vous de parler, you will have an opportunity to pronounce the target sounds, reading and saying familiar and unfamiliar words and comparing your pronunciation with that of model speakers.
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A goal of this study has been to enhance the extant literature suggesting that while daughters presently continue to emerge as the principle primary care provider of ADL care, there is a significant trend as evidenced in these data for older patients to depend upon sons for a variety of IADLS, particularly when there are no daughters or close female relatives available. As the baby-boomers age, there is more of a cohort trend for families to be smaller, adult daughters to be employed, and for adult children to be more geographically mobile. These factors may combine to make caregivers and health care sup- port networks more limited for the current aging population. It is incumbent upon nurse practitioners, physicians, social workers, and all community health care providers to suggest possibilities for adult sons to participate in the continuing care and improved quality of life outcomes for older parents. While such a broader perspective of resources strengthens the ability of the elderly to live longer in the community, dis- seminating knowledge of these outcomes might potentially prevent burnout in daughters who may currently assume sole responsibility for the health maintenance and the successful aging of older parents.
Self-Organized NanoStructures (SONS) are complex supramolecular structures that build up through competing interactions between their components. By exploiting the hierarchy of these interactions, SONS researchers can actually design materials that assemble themselves into complex, finished structures, thus leading to a great range of potential breakthroughs in multiple scientific and technological areas.
With respect to the gender division of intergenerational support for older people in rural families, the division between sons and daughters is a reflection of two interre- lated social-cultural features (see Song et al. 2012; Cong and Silverstein 2012). In ac- cordance with overarching filial norms, male heirs and their wives should be the primary providers of support for parents in old age while married daughters are obli- gated to provide support to their in-laws rather than their own parents (Lee and Xiao 1998). A gendered pattern of migration has complicated this model; that is, while both single women and men migrate to cities for work, after marriage, a man will generally return to migration labour while a woman will not (Fan 2003). Where migration is more established, however, a trend is emerging in some regions that once childbearing has been completed, mothers also migrate leaving the children behind with their grand- parents. Studies of this group found that in the absence of sons, stay-behind daughters in rural areas are playing an increased role supporting their own parents (Xu 2001; Ye and He 2008; Song et al. 2012; Cong and Silverstein 2012). Nevertheless, while daugh- ters play a more active role in their parents ’ support network, parents still name sons to be the preferred support providers (Cong and Silverstein 2014; Luo and Zhan 2012).
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the Russian Orthodox Church made up the largest group that did not support the emancipation of the serfs. Not all nobles were against this reform. Many understood the necessity for the change, not just from the side of economy, but also for the moral philosophy against owning another human being. While some noble families did not object, there had been many who were not keen on losing such a large portion of their income, land, and labor. Emancipation was not the only change that society had been going through; many had a hard time parting from long standing and deep rooted traditions about social classes. In the novel Fathers and Sons, we were introduced to the character Pavel Petrovich Kirsanov. He was the epitome of Russian nobility. Pavel was the elder brother to Nikolai Petrovich Kirsanov and the uncle to Arkady Kirsanov. He was a very proud and elegant aristocrat who took impeccable care of his appearance, being described as “so elegant and well bred” that he had been able to “preserve a youthfulness of figure and an upward striving”, and had “beautiful hands with long pink fingernails.” 3 He held to strict principles and had a hard time giving favor outside of
And yet, evidence from the ground, from the workplace rather than the Young Communist League, reveals a different scenario. Shop-floor evidence suggests that young workers themselves did not necessarily respond positively to their putative mobilization at the end of the decade, perhaps due to the treatment they had endured through the conflict of generations on the factory floor. The stagnant economy of the 1920s, with massive unemployment in many urban industries, encouraged the working-class rank and file consistently to favor seniority over honoring the promise of youth, incurring the enmity and rebellion of youth against the older generation. This article will explore the question of the mobilization of the new generation by examining relations between old and young—fathers and sons—on the shop floor in the printing industry, a highly skilled and articulate segment of the Russian workforce. In identifying a clear pattern of generational hostility among these urban workers, it will offer some alternative explanations for the phenomenon of perceived Komsomol activism in the midst of the first five-year plan and will aim to enrich our understanding of the relationship between youth, socialism, and social change in the first decades of Soviet power.
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Our findings suggest that ultrasonographic evaluation of both the 1 st MTPJs is sufficient to detect all individuals with MSU crystal deposition. Thus, men at a high risk of gout, e.g. those with a positive family history could undergo SU measurement and ultrasonography of both the 1 st MTPJs to screen for MSU crystal deposition. While ultrasonographic examination of multiple peripheral joints is time consuming, assessment of both the 1 st MTPJs takes 10-15 minutes, and may make it possible for people with asymptomatic MSU crystal deposits to be diagnosed and to consider lifestyle changes to prevent development of symptomatic gout and associated consequences. Consideration of pre-emptive pharmacologic urate lowering treatment at this early stage would be considered controversial given the absence of symptoms and the possibility that many people with asymptomatic MSU crystal deposition may not develop gout flares. Such a screening strategy would require ultrasonography of three individuals with a SUA ≥ 5 mg/dl to detect one person with asymptomatic MSU crystal deposition (number needed to screen = 3). However, in the absence of prospective studies evaluating the relationship between asymptomatic MSU crystal deposition and symptomatic gout, the benefit from such a strategy remains unproven. Our data also suggest that parents with young onset gout are more likely to pass on the trait to their sons, although this association was not statistically significant and needs a study with a larger sample size.
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