Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education

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Off-centered Butuan: A critical analysis of instructional materials and classroom interactions in the mother tongue-based multilingual education in Butuan City

Off-centered Butuan: A critical analysis of instructional materials and classroom interactions in the mother tongue-based multilingual education in Butuan City

Since June 2012 the Department of Education (DepEd) in Butuan City has implemented the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). The program promotes the teaching of Cebuano, Filipino, and English as language subjects particularly to grade one public elementary students in Butuan. The department believes that the teaching of Cebuano, students’ mother tongue in Butuan, will bring students close to their Butuan culture; Filipino will help them to communicate with other Filipinos who belong to various cultural groups; and English will connect them to the cultures of the world. To know whether there is a one-to-one correspondence between language subjects and cultures taught to students is the main objective of this study. More specifically, this study compares, contrasts, and evaluates the cultural discourses or schematic representations of cultures present in instructional materials (IMs) (i.e. word cards, images, and stories or big books) and classroom interactions in the three language subjects of five grade one sections of one school in Butuan. A word card normally contains one word with no clear cultural contents. Images produce mixed cultural messages. Stories or big books generally portray the Filipino culture. In general, classroom interactions using IMs center on students’ Butuan culture. The interactions suggest that the learning of second languages (i.e. Filipino and English) does not necessitate the learning of cultures unfamiliar to students. Thus far, incongruities exist between the MTB-MLE program on paper and the same program in action. More work, therefore, needs to be done to improve the program.
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Satisfaction on the Implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education:  Input to Program Enhancement

Satisfaction on the Implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education: Input to Program Enhancement

As noticed on the table, both pupils and parents have agreed that the most viable enhancement for Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Program is providing learners with instructional and reading materials such as dictionaries, modules, and textbooks with a percentage of 31.77. The next from their chosen enhancement is assessing other plausible and better approaches to encourage learners in participating during discussion inside the classroom (25.75%) and it is followed by promoting a deeper understanding about the benefits of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (22.56%). In addition, conducting activities that will make the discussion in mother tongue interesting and enjoyable (19.92%) have the least chosen enhancement that was proposed by some respondents of the study. Dutcher (2003) admitted that it is ultimately ineffective when there is a lack of materials, poor teacher training, and inadequate language development.
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MOTHER TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION IN CEBU PHILIPPINES, IN THE EYES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

MOTHER TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION IN CEBU PHILIPPINES, IN THE EYES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

As a linguistic nation, Philippines is represented by regional dialects bound together two languages taught in school: Tagalog and English as a medium of instruction. In July 14, 2009, the Department of Education released DO 74, S2009, institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in the Philippines. This implementation is a result of the different researches which proved positive result towards implementing the program. Before the program was implemented, there was a debate that showed the resistance of the stakeholders because of the lack of information regarding the implementation of the program. Despite the divided opinion of the public and the stakeholders, the Department of Education in the Philippines pushed through the implementation of MTB-MLE in all basic education schools whether private or public from kindergarten to grade 3 level. Those who created the policy at the national level undertake that regardless of their opinion and whether they agree or not, the stakeholders of the community will implement the policy.
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Literacy Instruction In The Mother Tongue:  The Case Of Pupils Using Mixed Vocabularies

Literacy Instruction In The Mother Tongue: The Case Of Pupils Using Mixed Vocabularies

In the institutionalization of the mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in the country, several trainings were conducted introducing its unique features such as the use of the two-track method in teaching reading based on the frequency of the sounds of the first language (L1). This study attempted to find out how the accuracy track method worked with Waray pupils using mixed vocabularies. This is a part of a developmental study that aims to improve Waray reading instruction in basic education. The researcher used a checklist of the 100 Most Common Words in Waray for pretest and posttest, interviews, survey questionnaires, and daily observations during the three-week implementation of the method. The averages of the pretest and posttest scores were compared. Themes and patterns in the responses were likewise analyzed. The results showed a big gap in the performance of pupils classified as readers and beginning readers. Several issues and challenges met were also identified. These imply that the method is less facilitative for effective teaching and learning in Waray of speakers using mixed vocabularies. This study recommends to modify the method or to develop an appropriate method for literacy instruction of speakers without a strong linguistic foundation in their mother tongue.
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Mother-Tongue Based Second Language Instruction In The Indian Rural Multilingual Context

Mother-Tongue Based Second Language Instruction In The Indian Rural Multilingual Context

Educational models for indigenous and minority children which use mainly dominant languages as languages of instruction can have extremely negative consequences because of the linguistic, pedagogical and psychological barriers they create. As has been pointed out, their languages are weakened by marginalisation and exclusion from education and other instrumentally significant domains and then stigmatised as weak and inadequate justifying further exclusion. This results in the achievement of their right to education chimerical by preventing access to education. The paper advocates mother tongue-based multilingual education in the primary grades, ending with a discussion of the findings vis-à-vis capability deprivation and incomprehensibility leading to high ‘push-out’ rates at the primary level and concludes with a call for using the mother tongue of learners as a resource for the teaching-learning of English in the primary grades, especially in rural areas.
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Mother Tongue Based (MTB) Classroom Instruction: The Attitudes and Perceptions of School Community in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia

Mother Tongue Based (MTB) Classroom Instruction: The Attitudes and Perceptions of School Community in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia

MTB education is instruction in a child‘s first language (L1), usually with a planned gradual transition to a second language (L2) or foreign language at a specified time in primary school. MTB instruction usually takes place exclusively in the language most familiar to children. In some cases, it may be provided as part of a bilingual or multilingual education program. In MTB programs, students have the opportunity to learn core concepts primarily in a familiar language, and, later, they learn the labels or vocabulary for those concepts in a new language. MTB education is especially beneficial in early childhood programs, preschool, and the early grades (up to grade 6), when children are learning to read and gaining new concepts (Benson, 2006). People have different vies concerning MTB classroom instructions. Some of them promote it, whereas, some of them are against by forwarding various justifications. However, recently, the dominant figure of the scholars and population is pro mother tongue based classroom instruction (Cummins, 1991; CSDE, 1991; Chumbow, 1990 and Fasold, 1984).
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Mother-Tongue Based (MTB) Schooling: A Key for Transforming Early Childhood Education for Future Generation in Nigeria

Mother-Tongue Based (MTB) Schooling: A Key for Transforming Early Childhood Education for Future Generation in Nigeria

The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2014) appreciate and recognize this trilingual policy and thus has English Language as the language of wider communication, Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba as the lingua franca and 415 indigenous languages as the mother tongues. As a means of promoting mother tongue, the Federal Republic of Nigeria advocates for Mother-tongue Based schooling for pupils in pre-primary and primary schools. According to FRN (2014), the medium of instruction will be principally the mother-tongue or the language of the immediate community. The language of education in multilingual societies has always been a matter of concern to educators and educational planners. Ouadraogo (2000) has pointed out that education and language issues are very complex in Africa because of her multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nature. The situation is even more severe when the official language of the nation is different from any of the indigenous languages as in the case of Nigeria. There is always controversy over which language to use in school especially at the lower primary level in multilingual societies. The controversy is anticipated because the lower basic class is the foundation stage of the education process. It must be noted that mother tongue education is a right as well as a need for every child (Pattanayak, 1986). Denying the child the use of his/her native language in education is not only committing the crime of linguistic genocide in education (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2000), but also bringing much confusion in the child as the child battles with which language to learn and use. The use of the child’s first language in education has been shown to enhance the academic, linguistic, and cognitive achievement of learners (Baker, 2001). Lewelling, (1991) is of the view that the level of first language proficiency has a direct influence on second language development as well as cognitive development and growth. According to Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle, (1978), the older the age of the learner, the better they learn the second language because they have achieved a high level of cognitive maturity in the L1.
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The impact of mother tongue education in preventing language shift with reference to Silt’e

The impact of mother tongue education in preventing language shift with reference to Silt’e

This study in particular followed a mixed method concurrent design as both the quantitative and qualitative approaches in order to identify the impact of mother tongue education on preventing language shift. It was conducted in Silt’e zone which has nine administrative districts. It was selected four districts. The main participants in this study were officers, parents, students and teachers. They were asked to complete survey questionnaires, respond interviews and focus group discussion. It was hoping that it could help to produce large amounts of data for analysis. The results from the questionnaires were recorded, tallied, and converted in to percentage. The interview method helped me to focus on inadequate answers from the questionnaire. I conducted 4 semi-structured interviews and 4 FGDs from April 2019. A list of questions was designed to guide the interview. The interviewees were asked to evaluate the impact of MTE on language shift. During the data collection, notes were taken down in a field journey. With granted permission from the participants, almost all the interviews were recorded. These research tools were very useful to obtain detailed information in connection to language related problems, dilemmas and prospects of using Silt’e in education. Interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders for the purpose of capturing information on their views and perceptions regarding the concept of multilingual education as well as their understanding of the current policy and its implementation. Discussions carried out during the interviews also focus on the impact of the language practice of the imperial and socialist governments on the present language situation of Silt’e. Data analysis refers to shifting, organizing, summarizing and synthesizing the data to arrive at certain results and conclusions. I used descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) to analyze the questionnaires and represent the data in tables. FGD and interviews were processed qualitatively. The interviews and FGDs were recorded and then transcribed. The transcripts were used to identify key issues that emerged from participants’ statements in relation to the objectives of this study. These key issues were codified and categorized. The findings from individual interviews with officers, teachers, parents and students, and from the FGDs were treated together since the reflections were categorized based on the themes. Some responses were presented under different themes when appropriate.
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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MOTHER-TONGUE OR THE
LANGUAGE OF THE IMMEDIATE COMMUNITY AT THE PRE-PRIMARY
EDUCATION LEVEL IN THE NORTH- WESTERN NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MOTHER-TONGUE OR THE LANGUAGE OF THE IMMEDIATE COMMUNITY AT THE PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION LEVEL IN THE NORTH- WESTERN NIGERIA

http://ijessr.com Page 11 community’s heritage. The present study derives relevance from the above explication; the preservation of the minority languages in Nigeria by ensuring that the NPE policy document on the aforementioned is fully implemented, hence teaching the child in his/her mother-tongue will enhance the preservation of his/her folklore and culture; which are an integral part of his/her child’s folk literature. The implementation of this policy will further enhance the development of the child’s Language Acquisition Device (LAD) and his/her ability to learn other languages very fast, especially the English language. This study is geared towards the revitalization and preservation of the minority languages in Nigeria for effective national development in line with the government’s effort in relating education to the overall community needs (NPE, 3). This is consequent upon the fact that we are a product of European hegemony and imperialism; so if our mother-tongues die, then our orature dies with the languages. That means, virtually everything about the people’s culture, myth, legends and world-view, especially the childlore will be lost. Therefore, an urgent pragmatic and sustainable action should be taken to revitalize, document and preserve our mother-tongues.
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The Materials Mode in the Local Context of Muğla and the Role of Mother Tongue

The Materials Mode in the Local Context of Muğla and the Role of Mother Tongue

The issue of code switching has also been studied very extensively in Turkey. Most of these studies are focused on the functions of code switching and emphasized the inevitability of using Turkish in the ELT classroom. To my knowledge, the oldest study in this line was Elridge [4] where code switching was not only described as “natural and purposeful phenomenon” (p. 310), but also it is argued that trying to decrease L1 use would not address the problem of lack of target language use since “decreasing mother tongue use in the classroom does not automatically increase the quality and quantity of target language use” (p. 311). Üstünel’s [25] investigation of the organization of the code switching in EFL classrooms using conversation analytic method of sequential analysis revealed that code switching serves 12 different pedagogical functions. Her study “supports the claim that L1 is difficult for teachers to avoid, and perhaps more difficult for learners to ignore in the EFL context.” Similarly, Sarıçoban [22] found that learners of English think that using Turkish in English lessons is an appropriate and useful academic tool. They expressed their preference for using Turkish rather than having all-English lessons. In Yatağanbaba and Yıldırım’s study, [30] code switching is found to be serving for the purposes of translation, metalanguage, asking equivalence, giving instruction and classroom management. Sali [20] found that mother tongue is used for a multiplicity of reasons. In another study which was directed to finding out the problems encountered during the practicum, Sarıçoban [21] presented the finding that reported that teacher trainees criticized the books for not having any translation exercises and this was presented as a problem. So, we can say that in Turkish context it is well established that L1 is inevitable and even desirable. However, the textbooks which are commonly used in Turkey do not incorporate methodologies that address the native language in a systematic way.
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“Englishing” the L1: Reconsidering the use of the mother tongue EFL classroom

“Englishing” the L1: Reconsidering the use of the mother tongue EFL classroom

It is undeniable that the above position enjoyed — and in some countries still does — some considerable reputation to the point of shaping teaching and learning practices and setting important precedents for pre- and in-service teachers’ (dis- )beliefs and attitudes. At some point in my professional development, as it was the status quo of the time, I followed the theoretical perspectives of the audio-lingual method to the letter. This included banning my students from using their L1 whilst insisting, time and time again, on the exclusive use of English in the classroom. This was even the case when my common sense would indicate that this insistence was pointless as the students at that time in their learning experience were not able to utter a word in English. In fact, my continuous insistence on “English only” often resulted in students’ feeling frustrated and disengaged, contributing to long- term absences whilst increasing their apprehension of speaking publicly for fear of making mistakes and being ridiculed by their peers. It was very clear to me that the “English only” policy did not contribute to create a positive learning atmosphere but, on the contrary, it promoted high levels of anxiety, trepidation and disengagement. With some years of experience upon my shoulders, I can now see that should I have taken a more lenient approach in relation to the use of the L1, I would have been able to capitalize on my learners’ existing linguistic knowledge and skills in their mother tongues as a tool to scaffold their learning of English. The theoretical framework underpinning this study, therefore, is based on the role of the mother tongue in the learning of an additional language, in particular English as a foreign language (EFL). One of the purposes guiding this small-scale project is to explore the role of the language learning strategies, fundamentally those involving the L1 within instructed L2.
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MOTHER TONGUE LEARNING IN THE ESTONIAN NEW HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM

MOTHER TONGUE LEARNING IN THE ESTONIAN NEW HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM

The main objective of teaching and education in high schools is that students are to find a field of activity of their interest and ability, which will be included in their further training. They are formative assessment and feedback that are of great attention in the new curriculum, as well as the need for conducting researches is emphasized, including mother tongue. Under the requirements of the new curriculum, studies in every subject are student-centred, i.e. they are brought in accord with students’ interests and everyday needs, e.g. in mother tongue courses the need of text-centred approach is highlighted. The The number of required courses is reduced; there are more opportunities for options. In comparison with the previous curriculum, the courses on mother tongues (Estonian and Russian) are unified. Before, only 3 courses on Russian as a mother tongue were set-out, now 6 compulsory courses and 1 elective course are scheduled (like Estonian). While developing curriculum for the Russian (native) language, cross-cutting topics were taken into account.
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Sustainable Development Goals: Reaching People through Their Mother Tongue

Sustainable Development Goals: Reaching People through Their Mother Tongue

Girls and women are among the most vulnerable groups and they normally suffer structural discrimination. Structural discrimination is defined as a situation experienced when certain communities and societies have discriminatory views about certain people and other societies. They tend to pass on the discriminatory views down through their generations. Human Rights Commission [39]. They have certain sets of beliefs that they follow and have pre-conceived ideas that are mostly highly rigid and retrogressive. Majority of the world’s illiterate population are women. According to UNESCO [40] of the world’s 774 million illiterate adults, 2/3 are women. The share of illiterate women has not changed for the past 20 years. Among the world’s 123 million illiterate youth, 76 million are female. These gender disparities remain persistent, with little change over time. Cultural practices, prejudices and stereotypes are used to put the woman in her place. To empower woman especially in rural areas, MT literacy can open avenues that can lead to the achievement of this SDG. Once the woman is educated all the other SDGs will be easy to achieve. UNESCO (ibid) asserts that: Study after study demonstrates the positive impact of gender equality in education. For example, it gives the following facts:
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Mother Tongue Teaching at School Comparison of French and Turkish Models

Mother Tongue Teaching at School Comparison of French and Turkish Models

Team-work is considered preliminary in freshman students’ socialization, exchange of information among them. Discussions, meeting to exchange information enrich group dynamism, develop individual potential and help students solve complicated network of knowledge (Giordan, 2002). By tradition approach, groups are comprised generally heterogeneous or homogeneous. Fijalkow (1999; 36-41) points out that groupings in mother tongue teaching contribute to the increase in rate of learning since they are based on contemporary quality and social relations. This approach rests not on students’ academic abilities but on their social relations. Students decide on their own with whom they make teams while groupings. Student is free to select his peer. Based on their choices, teacher composes groups in four or five and he coordinates groups and keeps timing by joining the groups when in need. One group studies on its own while others wih teacher and such a system functions by turns. Contrary to Turkey, in France, teaching in groups has become a tradition. Team-word is strongly encouraged. Even the whole classroom could be regarded as big team. This is a social teaching method. This shows us that students learn to be adoptive to the community when they are older. They become more integrative rather than exclusionist. They never exclude other but rather accept their presence. In a sense, foundations of modern and democratic society are laid by teaching systems. They can solve problems independently in a reconciliatory manner. They gradually become autonomous.
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Speak your mother tongue at home Why? ...because if children know their first language well it will help them learn English. So try to…. Use simple mother tongue language Share stories and songs in mother tongue language

Speak your mother tongue at home Why? ...because if children know their first language well it will help them learn English. So try to…. Use simple mother tongue language Share stories and songs in mother tongue language

Usethe simple •• Use wordmother or phrase over tongue and over language again to help your child understand and learn • how Share to stories use it.. and songs in mother tongue language.[r]

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Scaffolding Singaporean Students to Write Vividly in the ‘Mother Tongue’, Mandarin

Scaffolding Singaporean Students to Write Vividly in the ‘Mother Tongue’, Mandarin

This paper details results from a three-year study investigating how to help students in Singapore write vivid compositions in Mandarin, the Chinese ‘mother tongue’. Mastery of the mother tongue by Singaporean students has become an important government priority in recent years. The strategies employed by this study included the use of information and communications technologies (ICT) mediated scaffolds such as collaborative mind maps and online peer editing to help students learn micro-writing strategies. This paper outlines the process of using various scaffolds to support students to learn and apply the action chain micro-writing strategy. A class of 31 Primary 4 from a neighbourhood school participated in this study. Findings indicated that students were very enthusiastic about writing in the ICT- mediated environment. Contrary to the teacher’s initial belief, students could be scaffolded to write action chains quickly. Findings highlighted the potential of scaffolding students in learning small chunks of writing strategy in an ICT-mediated environment that enabled them to practice these strategies in their composition writing until they could master and apply them. These micro-writing strategies gradually built up to a complex set of skills, including expressive writing. Moreover, students enjoyed working in groups and editing their peers’ work online. This showed that peers could be engaged as scaffolders in the classroom to free up the teacher’ time, allowing the teacher more time to spend with students who were not performing well.
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The Mother Tongue and the Foreign Language Correlation in the Primary School in Croatia

The Mother Tongue and the Foreign Language Correlation in the Primary School in Croatia

Some early findings according to Brown claim that there is an interaction between the mother tongue and the foreign language and that the mother tongue language competence encourages learning the foreign language (Brown, 2000, 208) [2]. Contemporary research conducted within the ELLiE project (2007-2011) and professor Mihaljević Djigunović research (2011) point to inter-linguistic connection between competences at listening, reading and writing levels in the mother tongue and the foreign language (Mihaljević Djigunović, 2011, 269) [3]. This research made significant results important for acquiring the foreign language and interaction between two languages, but still there are not sufficient data about their mutual relation in the class. Therefore, the paper is written in effort to enlighten the relation between the mother tongue and the foreign language learning in the primary school.
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The practices and challenges of mother tongue as a medium of instruction: The case of Sidaamu Afoo

The practices and challenges of mother tongue as a medium of instruction: The case of Sidaamu Afoo

educational system to multilingual education (McNab, 1989; fter the Italian invading force was driven out in 1941 with the help of the British army, according to Tesfaye and Taylor (1976), the British influence in Ethiopia began to grow and thus a shift was made from French domination to English became a medium of instruction, whereas Amharic was taught as a subject in all government schools. Gradually, however, the growing number of primary schools and students which caused provision of teachers very expensive in the absence of well trained Ethiopian teachers enforced switching medium of primary education into Amharic while English was limited to secondary schools (McNab, 1974-1991) language policy in education is similar with the preceding regimes’ language cies in many ways, but it gave charade status to the nationality languages (Bowen & Horn, 1976). The main aim of the language policy in education during the Derge regime was creating unified nationhood by using Amharic as a national instruction in primary schools. In 1976, the state declared the realization of equality of all nationalities to develop and promote their languages, whereas practically only Amharic became the medium of instruction in primary schools in such a large multilingual nation (Gordan, 2005 cited in Teshome, 2007; McNab, 1989). Derg made a language reform by way of formulating and implementing INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
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Managing transitions from mother tongue instruction to English as the medium of instruction

Managing transitions from mother tongue instruction to English as the medium of instruction

language is an effective way of learning it, a finding consistent with many other studies in the literature, though evidence says otherwise (James, forthcoming, see also Milligan et al., 2016). It is well established in literature that those who learn through English Medium Instruction (EMI) struggle to learn effectively across SSA (Alidou, 2003; Clegg 2005; Clegg & Simpson, 2016; Milligan et al., 2016). In addition to challenges in their development of English, children “face considerable cognitive and linguistic challenges in acquiring conceptual understanding” across the curriculum (Rea-Dickins & Yu, 2013, p. 190 cited in Milligan et al., 2016). Significant evidence suggests that learner ability in the medium of instruction (MOI) is often too low for learners to achieve acceptable levels of subject knowledge, and that many teachers are not confident enough in the MOI to teach to expected standards (Clegg, 2005; Brock-Utne et al., 2010). Some authors partly attribute this to the sudden switch from one language to another. Clegg & Simpson (2016) highlight that whilst the term ‘transition’ is widely used to refer to the move from teaching and learning in mother tongue to EMI, it is somewhat of a contradiction, as in many cases the change is often an abrupt switch from one language to another, rather than by a carefully planned and supported change process that seeks to prevent loss of learning. Despite the significant evidence base on this issue, language and its relation to learning processes and outcomes is poorly articulated in the wider development literature (Brock-Utne, 2015; Milligan et al., 2016).
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The forbidden fruit: using the mother tongue in a Bogota university EFL programme

The forbidden fruit: using the mother tongue in a Bogota university EFL programme

The current debate on the use of the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom has led to a wide array of literature being written on the subject. While this can be enlightening, it can also cause confusion and anxiety among teachers when faced with the question of whether or not it is acceptable to use the L1 in class. This paper analyses current perceptions and practices in terms of L1 use among teachers and students in the EFL and ESL settings, based on the hypothesis that the use of the L1 to some degree could be beneficial to EFL learners. Teacher and student activity and opinions are analysed through surveys and interviews before being compared and contrasted with classroom reality through live observation. The findings confirm that L1 use could indeed be beneficial to EFL learners, particularly at the lower levels of language proficiency, but that teachers may need to revisit their reasons for using the L1, as well as their repertoire of pro-L2-use strategies.
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