This paper determines a class of exact solutions for plane steady motion of incompressible fluids of variable viscosity for finite Peclet number through von-Mises coordinates. The class is characterized by an equation involving a stream function and two differentiable functions f ( x ) and g ( x ) . Successive transformations technique is used on non-dimensional form of basic equations. The exact solutions are determined basing on two velocity profile cases. The first velocity profile case fixes the functions g ( x ) and demands f ( x ) to satisfy a second order variable coefficients differential equation whose trivial solution is opted. The second velocity profile case fixes only the function g ( x ) and leaves f ( x ) arbitrary. In both the cases, a large set of expressions for streamlines, viscosity function, generalized energy function and temperature distribution for finite Peclet number can be found.
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 Mushtaq Ahmed, Waseem Ahmed Khan : A Class of New Exact Solutions of the System of PDE for the plane motion of viscous incompressible fluids in the presence of body force,: International Journal of Applied Mathematical Research, 2018, 7 (2) , 42-48. www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/IJAMR, doi:10.14419 /ijamr.v7i2.9694
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In general, a moving fluid element experiences both the surface and body forces. The momentum of moving fluid element is given by the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). The non-linear terms in NSE offers a great difficulty for its exact solution show ever, some transformation techniques and dimension analysis methods are workable. A variety of techniques/methods and references given there are practical for some exact solutions of NSE without body force [1-6]. Moreover recently Mushtaq A. et. al., applied a new technique for exact solution of variable viscosity fluids without body force term [7, 10]. Body force term like coriolis force is considered by Giga, Y. et. al. in  and Gerbeau, J. et. al. gives a fundamental remark on NSE with body force in  where as Mushtaq A. et. al. has applied successive transformation technique for exact solution for flow of incompressible variable viscosity fluids in presence of body force in [11-14].
A class of exact solutions for plane steady motion of incompressible fluids of variable viscosity in the presence of body force with moderate Peclet number is obtained. The non-dimensional form of basic equations undergoes the successive transformations until equations in von-Mises coordinates. Two classes of streamline pattern
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Kamal and Hussain [27, 28] obtained the numerical results, using SOR method, for the micropolar fluid motion caused by the stretching of a surface in a rotating fluids and inside a stretching channel. Kamal, Ashraf and Syed  considered a two dimensional flow of a micropolar fluid driven by injection between two porous disks. Kamal and Siaft  investigated the stretching of a surface in a rotating micropolar fluid while Shafique and Rashid  obtained numerical solution of three dimensional micropolar flows due to a stretching flat surface.
In a dynamic light scattering experiment the intensity of scattered light is mea sured as a function of time for a fixed value of scattering vector Q. Time fluc tuation of the intensity is related to the molecular (Brownian) motion of the scattering particles. Specific detection method used in the experiment is a mat ter of technical convenience and depends on the time scale of molecular fluctu ations. The process of macromolecular diffusion is usually relatively slow (for instance, the observed diffusion coefficient for micelles of TTAB at cmc is about 1 x 10_6cm2/sec whereas for monomers Dejf = 7.5 x 10~6cm2/sec [84,85]). To investigate processes that occur on time scales slower than about 10~6sec the homodyne method  is used. The scattered light is detected by a photomul tiplier and the instantaneous current output is proportional to the square of the incident electric field. If the number of particles in the scattering volume is suf ficiently large to obey Gaussian distribution (which is usually the case) then the normalized homodyne intensity autocorrelation function defined in the following way :
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Fluid mechanics is the branch of science which deals with the behavior of the fluids (liquids or gases) at rest as well as in motion. Thus, this branch of science deals with the static, kinematics and dynamics aspects of fluids (Bansal, 2005). The inadequacy of the classical Navier-Stokes theory for describing rheological complex fluids has led to the development of several theories of non- Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian fluid flows play important role in several industrial manufacturing processes. Due to the prominent applications in the modern technology and industries, many researchers made attempt to study different non-Newtonian fluid flow problems (Devakar, 2014). The study of flows of non-Newtonian fluids with slip boundary condition has gained considerable attention in the recent past. Though many flow problems concerning Newtonian and several non-Newtonian fluids have been solved under the no-slip condition, the fluid slippage might occur at the solid boundary (Ashmawy, 2012; Thompson and Troian, 1997). Several investigations indicate the existence of slip at the solid boundary (Neill et al., 1986). As a matter of fact(Navier, 1823) proposed a general boundary condition that permits the possibility of fluid slip at a solid boundary. This boundary condition assumes that the tangential velocity of the fluid relative to the solid at a point on its surface is proportional to the tangential stress acting at that point.
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60 Fig. 7. End-member plots for Cl vs. Na (a), Cl vs Ca (b) concentrations, and end-member element rations for Na/Cl vs. Ca/Cl (c), and Na/Cl vs. Sr/Cl (d). (e) shows 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios for selected vent fluids from this study, plotted along with ratios for surrounding rock samples (Ash layer and * from Calanchi et al. (2002); ** from INGV database). Data trend towards subsurface rocks with a ―Stromboli affinity‖. (note : the precision and accuracy of the data used for the mixing end-members is much smaller than the size of the symbols used, and so even the most conservative deviations from the considered mixing end-member are largely ignorable as they will bear no impact on the discussion or have minimal, if any, impact on the calculations). Symbols in 7a the same for 7b-7d. MOR = mid-ocean ridge systems; R-HS = ridge – hot spot intersections; Sed. = sedimented; IBABs = intraoceanic back-arc basins; IHS = intraplate hot spot; UM = ultramafic; Arc – BAB = transitional arc and back-arc. Other vent data from Hannington et al. (2005).
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The MotionPod is a patented hardware solution for motion sensing that features a state-of-the-art miniaturized motion-sensing microelectromechanical system. It contains three-axis accelerometers, three-axis magnetometers, and three-axis gyroscopes in a compelling form factor the size of a standard wristwatch (33 × 21 × 15 mm [1.3 × 0.8 × 0.6 ″ ]) and weighs 14 g (0.5 oz). The battery was a 150 mAh Li-ion polymer technology battery with a battery life of 6 hours and a charging duration of 2–3 hours (500 charging cycles). The device is worn by a patient by way of a bracelet attached to the mechanical interface. The sampling rate for accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers was adjustable between 25 and 200 Hz with 12-bit resolution. The information from the MotionPod was transferred via radio waves to the Motion- Pod controller, which was linked to a computer with a USB cable. The wireless band ranged from 10 m (30 feet) to 30 m (100 feet), depending on the environment, with a frequency band of 2.4 Ghz. The measurement range was a full 360 ° . The fusion of data from accelerometers, magnetometers, and gyroscopes was done with an application programming
The 1/10 diluted muscle fluids from wild boar and con- trol pigs were first tested for the presence of anti- Trichi- nella IgG by ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens (ESA). An in-house ELISA was used in accordance with a previously published validated protocol [17,18]. Since raw optical density (OD) values are absolute measure- ments that are influenced by ambient temperature, test parameters, and photometric instruments, the results were expressed as a function of the reactivity of the
Fig-3.1 KD2 Pro instrument with water bath Viscosity is the property of a fluid that determines its resistance to flow. It is an indicator of flow ability of a lubricating oil; the lowest the viscosity, greater the flow ability. It is mainly due to the forces of cohesion between the molecules of lubricating oil. In present work, viscosity of Nano fluids for the four samples and base fluid are studied by using Redwood viscometer- I. Redwood viscometer – I consists of a metal cup with an axially placed orifice in the base The metal cup can be heated and the oil stirred to ensure uniform temperature throughout the oil. When the ball is removed, a thin stream of oil runs into a small graduated glass flask and the time to fill the flask is recorded. This time in seconds is called “seconds Redwood I” and is a measure of viscosity. These seconds Redwood I are converted into stokes of kinematic viscosity using the empirical formula
Perhaps the main aim of this present article has been to develop the somewhat novel spectral technique for solving the non-linear problem described in Section 3, and to assess the extent to which the simple asymptotic analysis of section 2 can represent the solution behaviour. There is an initially circular interface between the two fluids, and the asymptotic analysis shows that large curvatures can develop, even when the initial disturbance to the interface is quite smooth. The straightforward analysis of section 2 is sufficient to reveal this effect, and the accuracy of this asymptotic formula (2.2) has indeed been confirmed by the numerical solution of section 3. Nevertheless, there is an important difference between the spectral numerical solutions of section 3 and the analysis of section 2. The former is based on Boussinesq theory, in which the exact mathematical interface is replaced by a narrow zone of finite width, over which density changes rapidly, but smoothly. Thus, although there is close agreement with the asymptotic solutions in Fig. 3, the numerical results can nevertheless not produce the same near-singular behaviour of the asymptotic solutions. The important conclusion, then, is that the Moore singularity for inviscid fluids and the curvature spikes that develop with viscous fluids are both consequences of the assumption of an infinitessimally thin interface; the success of ‘vortex blob’ methods (3), (5) for numerical solution of the inviscid problem is not that they mimic viscosity, but rather that they create a diffuse interface of finite width, which prevents the Moore singularity from developing. Furthermore, as the curvature spikes discussed in this article are able to be predicted using quite simple arguments, it seems likely that they could occur quite generally at narrow interfaces between flowing viscous fluids. The phenomenon therefore appears worthy of further study. In addition, it may be possible to use simple results of the type presented in Section 2 as the basis of more complete asymptotic analyses.
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The field of application of Magnetorheological fluids (MRF) is widening. The carrier fluids being used now are synthetic, expensive and non-biodegradable. Hence, there is a need for looking for better and inexpensive alternatives. This study was intended to uncloak alternatives to the synthetic carrier fluids by taking four natural oils and conducting various tests. The four natural oils, viz, Simarouba Oil, Mahua Oil, Groundnut oil, Flaxseed oil and synthetic Silicone oil were taken and tests concerning Magnetorheological fluids like density, kinematic viscosity, flash and fire point, pour point, etc., were conducted according to standards in a licensed laboratory. Based on the various tests conducted, the four natural oils have shown remarkable potential compared with commonly used silicone oil to be used as carrier fluids.
from another body which is in relative motion in relation to the reference body has different frequency from the emitted frequency (the Doppler shift) and different energy, and since the mass of the emitted photon (as the quantity of the substance) is unchangeable, and due to the fact that the photon’s energy is in the function of its frequency and its speed, it means that the received photon has the speed different from the emitted photon, and it is in the function of changing the frequency (the Doppler shift), i.e. in the function of the relative velocity of the two bodies (emitter and receiver) and the relationship between their masses.
This review focuses on the recent literature on miRNA secre- tion through exosomes and its implications in the process of tumorigenesis. It has been established that exosomes are efficient transporters of multiple signals in intercellular com- munication, as they allow for delivery of messages regardless of the distance between donor and recipient cells. Several studies have found that exosomes are present in a variety of body fluids and blood. There is growing evidence that these vesicles are particularly enriched in miRNAs. Based on the multiple functions that these miRNA molecules can exert, it seems likely that they may be involved in altering the behavior of recipient cells. Although several studies have shown that cancer cells make use of this mechanism to alter their surrounding microenvironment to promote tumor growth and invasiveness and prepare potential distant sites for metastasis, further research is needed. Firstly, we need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of sorting, secretion, and uptake of miRNAs contained in exosomes. Secondly, it is important to acquire an understanding of the function of exosome miRNAs in physiological conditions, including but not limited to embryogenesis, organogenesis,
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Programmed retinal picture investigation is a significant screening device for simple identification of eye infections like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma. Hemorrhage (HE) identification is one of the significant strides in programmed extraction in Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) ailment. The manual strategy evaluated by clinicians is a tedious and asset concentrated procedure. Programmed retinal picture examination gives a prompt recognition and portrayal of retinal highlights preceding a pro investigation. Current HE detection techniques suffer from impractically-high computation time. In this research work, presented a technique to automatically detect HE. This paper proposes an efficient motion pattern generation algorithm to detect HE. The novelty of this method is to reduce the dimensional space based on image resolutions thus, enhances to speedup of the HE detection. The proposed strategy was executed in MATLAB and assessed both ordinary and unusual retinal pictures utilizing openly accessible MESSIDOR dataset. The proposed strategy accomplished better execution estimates when contrast with other cutting edge strategies. This automated method helps ophthalmologists in the screening process of DR.
When the magnetic field is applied the interaction between magnetic particles becomes significant because of the formation of large chains and the strength of those will determine the viscous behaviour of Smart fluids. Yield stress values of fluids ranging from 10 to 60 kPa at a magnetic field of B= 0, 0.2 and 0.6 T. Due to the rheological behaviour of Smart fluid or magnetorheological fluid vary with the shear stress (Pa) and shear rate (s -1 ), there are classified as thixotropic fluids which means that the shear stress decrease with increasing the shear rate (figure 4 b) and c)). Although the highest Shear stress (60kPa) reported was obtained for FMR1M based with R1470 grade of carbonyl iron, when a magnetic field of 0.2 T was applied, it can be observed that the chain structure will break down and recovery rate probably because of the adsorbed surfactant layer, which can cause slow down the movement of particles in the oil medium (figure b). In figure 4c), can be observed that while shear stress and shear rate decrease also, for other hand the FMR1M fluid at a B=0.6 T got an equilibrium value around 37.4 kPa. The high apparent yield strength of fluids was attributed to the high saturation magnetization of these particles (191 emu/g).
If we look to the figures 23 and 24 we will see difference in pressure values and the reason for this is the properties of two fluids, first is Gear oil and the second is Intercooler bio- Green, especially the difference in density. By checking figure 23 we will see the pressure increase along its length and until it reach to the rotor, (in case of gear oil). And the reason is the fluid temperature. As we know the relation of density with the temperature, by increasing fluid temperature the density will decrease and the pressure will increase.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this Paper is to furnish some results in very different areas that are linked by the common scope of giving new insight in the field of fluid dynamics. Thus, already by the time of the Roman Empire enough practical information had been accumulated to permit quite sophisticated applications of ﬂuid dynamics.The study of these flows has been attached with a wide range of mathematical techniques and, to day, this is a stimulating part of both pure an applied mathematics. Fluid is a material that is infinitely deformable or malleable. A fluid may resist moving from one shape to another but resists the same amount in all directions and in all shapes. The basic characteristic of the fluid is that it can flow. Fluids are divided in two categories, incomp ressible fluids (fluids that move at far subsonic speeds and do not change their density) and compressible fluids.
Abstract - In this paper an attempt has been made to study the flow of two immiscible visco-elastic fluids of higher order bounded by a rectilinear pipe of uniform cross section in presence of transverse magnetic field under transient pressure gradient. Towards solving the problem variable separation technique has been applied. The analytical solution of the problem has been utilised to find out the solution of the corresponding problems in the cases of visco-elastic fluids: (i) Maxwell fluids of first and second order, (ii) Oldroyd fluids of first and second order, (iii) Rivlin-Ericksen fluids of first and second order, (iv) Walters fluids and finally in case of ordinary viscous fluids also. Numerical computation of the velocity profiles have also been derived in the investigation. Clearly, these analytical solutions are very useful and it will create a new horizon in the field of fluid dynamics.
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