utilized for evaluation of the audio analysis methods that constitute the fundamental step of many other applica- tions. We thus performed a systematic evaluation of a range of state-of-the-art audio feature extraction algo- rithms. Support vector machines (SVM) and ensemble classiﬁers based on time decomposition are used to evaluate performance differences in various settings. Apart from the automatic categorization of music archives we also present an interface to access music collections, based on self-organizing maps (SOM), that facilitates visual exploration and intuitive interaction with music collections and evaluated it regarding its suitability to help in the analysis and usage of ethnic music collections. This article is organized as follows. Particular aspects to consider when working with ethnic music collections are described in Section 2. In Section 3, a review of the state-of-the-art in relevant ﬁelds of music information retrieval is given alongside previous related work on automatic analysis of ethnic and other non-Western music. Section 4 takes a detailed look on audio signal analysis and feature extraction methods that form the basis for the subsequent tasks. Section 5 then outlines the classiﬁcation approaches used, describes the three char- acteristically distinct music databases used in the experi- ments in detail and presents comprehensive evaluation results on various classiﬁcation strategies on the three databases. Section 6 presents the SOM-based access principles alongside a qualitative evaluation of music map interfaces based on the same three music collections. Conclusions are presented in Section 7, including remarks on issues to be addressed and an outlook on future work.
In contrast to this expressive movement, cuing consisted of added movement that did not relate directly to the qualities of the instrumental part. One musician would move in a way designed to signal the execution of a particular musical phrase or gesture, for example, giving an upbeat and downbeat. During the long unison phrase of measures thirty-one to thirty-eight cited above, the musicians all watched violinist Yvonne Lam for cues to perform. In my video of the Ithaca performance, the other musicians all position themselves so that they can see both their respective parts and Yvonne’s cuing. Their movement to these ends are very discrete and eye contact seemed to be crucial to the musicians’ coordination. Clarinettist Michael Maccaferri, for example, leans every so slightly forward and to the side. If you were not watching for their attention to Yvonne, it would be easy to miss. The musicians refrained from any extra movement in this section because the music here consisted of long sustained notes that gave the impression of stillness. Any added movement, besides the tolerated cuing, was not deemed to be a direct reflection of the quality of the musical work itself, and would therefore have been considered inappropriate.
Olókogbè music serves different functions in Ponyan community, ranging from social, moral, religious to political. It has functioned so much in entertainment as most members of the society were normally intrigued to watch the performances. Olókogbè songs, though they have historical facts connected to time, place, events, vice and effects, are not just narratives of detached facts that are functionally ephemeral. They are songs whose poetry focuses on, and employs nature and metaphysical imagery, and well as wise sayings and inveterates philosophical wisdom of common experiences to the Ponyan people in particular and other cultures that are capable of fixing congruous ideas into the minds of listeners. Laura (1998) comments on the functions of music in the society, arguing that performance as entertainment can make people happy. According to him, songs can make people forget about death and fighting and words of some songs remind people of past times and of other occasions for praise signing, because, praise singing occurs during parties, celebrations, or other events that call for entertainment.
The study involved three phases: familiarisation, exploration and perfor- mance measurement.Initially, users were allowed to become accustomed with the VE and to learn movement control.After this, they were asked to perform an exploration task.The exploration task within the virtual building lasts for approximately 25 minutes.After the completion of this task, during which par- ticipants acquired (implicitly) spatial knowledge related to the VE, they were tested.Users were placed on the third level and asked to ﬁnd a particular room located on the ground ﬂoor of the virtual building (the library).The time needed to accomplish this task acted as an indicator of the level of spatial knowledge ac- quired within the VE: the shorter the search time, the better the spatial knowl- edge .According to the time required for the search task, users have been identiﬁed as low spatial users, when they needed signiﬁcantly longer time to ﬁnd the library (Mean = 49 seconds), or high spatial users who found the library straight away (Mean = 7 seconds).Within this paper, the terms of low versus high spatial users are related to this particular outcome and they also capture the dichotomy between poor versus good or ineﬃcient versus eﬃcient navigators. The sample consisted of 32 students from the Department of Computer Sci- ence in University College Dublin and volunteers were paid for their participa- tion.
It was in relation to the recent social and political responses to movements of people occurring locally, nationally and globally that prompted the establishment, in 2006, of what would be a key site of fieldwork, a choir of migrant and non-migrant women ‗singing songs from around the world‘. The choir‘s musical practices involve movement along a continuum between isolation and connection and autonomy and unity. As an exclusively women‘s choir, it formed with a view to bridging the social isolation of migrant women at the time the choir was established, with the unanticipated outcome of drawing many non- migrant members who also were experiencing social isolation. A Filipino member spoke of the ‗isolation‘ of living in a different country. The choir is a ‗chance‘ for her, through a shared ‗passion‘ for music to ‗share my culture, and also to learn other cultures‘ (2008, pers. comm., 29 May). She has also lived in Saudi Arabia where she worked as a nurse and met her English husband, and lived in England for six years prior to coming to Australia. For her, music has provided a way into ‗understanding other people‘s cultures...[and] I think we could always start from there‘ (2008, pers. comm., 29 May). She describes how the music of other cultures evokes a certain ‗feeling‘ through which you can come to know ‗the world is rich‘ instead of just ‗what you know‘ (2008, pers. comm., 29 May). The autonomy-unity relation, from knowing only ‗what you know‘ to knowing the world, arises from the emotional bonds to place forged through music, or the ‗feeling you experience when you listen to different kinds of music‘. For her, and other members of the choir, this feeling is linked to ‗the beat‘. For many members of the choir, ‗the beat‘ and ‗lively music‘ facilitates intercultural connection, linking choir members and also connecting the choir to the audience. This is something they know as it involves bodily practices of place through music, involving reflection on habitual being. Such practices involve inspecting the habits of self and others, as members of the choir can tell if the audience is enjoying the music by inspecting the affective bodily responses of audience members.
In total, there were fi ve meetings with the group. The fi rst meeting was a pilot session to see whether the participants were able to use the system and willing to take part in the study. Four supervisors and six elderly participants were present. An explanation of how the system worked was given before the system was demon- strated. Afterwards the participants were invited to try the system one by one, while the others watched. They were asked to move in a tempo that was comfort- able to them. Four participants tested the system using either the ‘conductor’ or the ‘arm swing’ movement pattern. All four were able to perform the necessary move- ments to control the tempo of the music, and to sustain a relatively stable tempo. Two participants (Per and Marie) played through the songs with only small and gradual tempo variations, while the other two were more explorative in their move- ments. Jens, who quickly got control of the music with fl uid and even arm swings, tried to challenge the system by suddenly doubling his movement frequency, which resulted in a rapid increase in the tempo of the music and ensuing laughter. When Jens returned to a normal tempo, the music followed shortly after and stabilised at his tempo. Peter also managed to get control of the system quite quickly. After a little while, his movements drifted over into dancing and spinning around, leading the system to misinterpret his movements, and the music started oscillating wildly. Similar to Jens, Peter was also able to stabilise the music by returning to the ‘cor- rect’ movement pattern. During the session the rest of the group were sitting or standing at one end of the small room. Some were clapping or humming and clearly enjoying the spectacle. Two participants seemed less interested and did not want to try.
Studies on MPA have been conducted mainly on adults. Nevertheless, studies concerning the anxiety conditions of children and adolescents at their development stage have been increasing in the respective literature in recent years. A particular focus is placed on studies concerning coping efforts and gender (Boucher & Ryan, 2011). Many scales used to measure MPA are available in the psychology literature. One study incorporated 22 measurement tools developed for measuring performance scales (Osborne & Kenny, 2005). Most of these scales are measurement tools developed for adults and university students. In addition, there are a limited number of studies in Turkey, while there is no scale for measuring MPA. In this context, the present study has two objectives. The first objective is to develop a valid and reliable MPAS for high school students. The second objective of the study is to reveal the MPA of the students going to fine arts high schools and to find the difference between the genders. In this respect, the aim was to prepare a measurement tool capable of measuring the cognitive, affective, somatic and behavioral dimensions of MPA especially for adolescents.
A generative theory of tonal music (GTTM)  is a cognitive theory of tonal music that analyzes music by some strong hypotheses and structural rules of music which introduces hierarchical musical structures. Tonal pitch space (TPS)  is succession of it introducing structures of pitch, tone, chord, etc. Each theory models hypothetical experienced listeners who are supposed to listen music structurally and hierarchically. These theories introduce the harmonic tension structures of music scores, by the notions harmonic distances, prolongational reduction structures, etc., the latter of which express hierarchical relationship, called the prolongational tree, between each harmonic and melodic event from a musical score, and they represent the repetition of tension, relaxation, continuity and progression. From them, the tonal tension structure of chord progression is proposed, by which the tension value is defined.
The experiential way of learning and transmitting dance from one generation to the other, is characterized as “the first existence” of dance. Changes in modern social, political and economic conditions have influenced the Greek traditional dance, which has acquired a more entertaining and tourist-commercial character, while its educational character has transformed going through teacher-centered educational processes. Having undergone this change, the traditional dance is now defined as “the second existence” of folk dance. The conversion of the traditional dance from its "first existence" into its "second existence" is supported and interpreted by the three components of the dancing process, the so-called “communication triangle”: the dancer, the dance and the viewer. The adoption of the particular approach of Music - Movement Education and Creative Dance in teaching Greek traditional dances can preserve and convey a large part of our cultural heritage to the new generation.
Although it is simple to compile a list of play activities, it is much more difficult to define play. Scales called play “that absorbing activity in which healthy young children participate with enthusiasm and abandon” (Scales, 1991). Csikszentmihalyi (1981) describes play as “subset of life and arrangement in which one can practice behaviour without dreading its consequences (Csikszentmihalyi ,1981).Garvey (1977) gave a useful description of play for teachers when she defined play as an activity which is positively valued by the player, self-motivated , freely chosen , engaging and ,which has certain systematic relations to what is not play (Garvey 1977).These characteristics are important for teachers to remember because imposing adult values , requirements, or motivations on children’s activities may change the very nature of play. According to Waithaka (2002) In terms of young children, play means changing movement ;to act or imitate part of a person or character ;to employ a piece of equipment ;exercise or activity for amusement or recreation ; fun or just as opposed to seriousness or even the action of a game.
If, as Rosita Boland points out in her article, the seat by the fire is customarily given to the honoured guest, why should a plaque have been necessary? The answer lies partly in the conjunction of the ‘public house’, the tourism industry and the musicians. Pepper’s pub is situated at a crossroads half a mile outside the village of Feakle. Compared to the village pubs, its clientele at that time was eclectic and included a greater proportion of the tourists who came for the fishing, walking and music, as well as the blow‐ins. At Pepper’s, the regular influx of new customers often included musicians keen to play in the session, who might arrive early and take a musician’s seat, 9 rather than waiting to be asked (in which case, they might wait all night). By
In wireless communication system, the design, orientation and performance of the antenna decides the quality of the wireless services. And so, the performance of the antenna systems deployed for such purposes is of prime importance. Hence the Omni-directional were replaced by the smart antenna array systems  to reduce multipath and co-channel interference and to offer preferential gain for the signals of served users by rejecting the signals that interfere with those of desired ones. This enables a higher capacity, in addition to spectral efficiency and frequency reuse . This is achieved by focusing the radiation only in the desired direction and adjusting itself to changing traffic conditions or signal environments. Smart antennas employ a set of radiating elements arranged in the form of an array (ULA, in this case). The signals from these elements are combined to form a movable or switchable beam pattern that follows the desired user.
Owen Wang is a Taiwanese composer best known for his musicals and film scores. He has written for many local feature films, documentaries, and short films. His score for the short film My Grandma (2009) received the Golden Bell Award (the Taiwanese Emmy Award). He's interested in the history of cinema including Chinese silent film, ancient Chinese chivalry drama and Chinese musicals and is keen to learn about rescoring films and live performance.
12-year-old Adam has just arrived with his mother. His assistant is accompanying them and has been helpful in getting Adam and his wheelchair out of the car. He is placed in a section of the room where the fl oor has been cleared – elsewhere there are chairs, equipment and persons with and without disabilities. He is facing a table with a shoe-box sized device on it a few metres away. ‘It’s on!’ the woman controlling the system says. Adam, who due to his cer- ebral palsy has diffi culty holding still, immediately begins to generate sounds. Hectic piano music is pouring out of the loudspeakers – the arpeggios fl ow up and down without pause, and although they harmonically make sense, the music seems to be in overdrive. ‘Is this him?’ the assistant asks, clearly not fully convinced. Adam waves his hands incessantly, while his torso sways back and forth in the wheelchair, which due to the excessive energy of its user threat- ens to loosen its breaks. ‘Try to be still for a moment’, the woman suggests, but because of the intense music, she has to repeat her suggestion several times before Adam responds: his torso reclining to the back of his chair, with arms directed forwards above his lap. He is still moving, but a lot less than before. The music is much sparser now. Single notes here and there, forming occasional notes and short melodic motifs.
Single-file experiments, in which pedestrians are only influenced by the purely longitudinal interactions, are commonly used to study pedestrian dynamics. Seyfried et al.studied the fundamental diagram and explained the linear relation between headway and velocityin the view of stepping. Jelic et al.carried out a single-file experiment in a circle corridor and found there are three different regimes in the relation between headway and velocity. Cao et al. found three different regimes of the relation in mixed age group, but only two in young group by analyzing pedestrian movement.
The choice of algorithm for detecting sonic events is evidently dependent on the both source type of the technical requirements of a given application. When studying synchronisation in musical performance, the measurement of player timing must be sufficiently accurate to reflect the tempo of the piece and capture salient asynchronies between the note onsets of each player and those of an external auditory stimulus such as a metronome and/or the note played by respective partners. For example, capturing small asynchronies in timing is imperative when studying how performers correct for deviations from an external beat (Vorberg & Wing, 1996) or from fellow musicians (Rasch, 1979, Wing et al., 2014), or how players utilise asynchrony for expressive pur- poses (Palmer, 1996). In general, methods based on amplitude envelope follow- ing provide the highest temporal resolution and are computationally efficient compared to frequency-domain and especially ml approaches. The latter are more suitable for acoustic sources with soft attacks and complex modulations following the onset, such as those produced by bowed string instruments, flute or the singing voice. When using frequency-domain methods, it is important to consider the parameters used to configure the time-frequency decomposition, such as window length and window hop size in the case of the stft. For ex- ample, reducing the window hop size improves temporal precision at the cost of increasing the workload and smoothing variations in the resulting detection function. The choice of window size, which defines the temporal resolution, is signal-dependent and therefore multi-resolution analysis is more favourable in the case of complex signals.
mathematical ideas from probability and other fields, musicians back to the Baroque period employed mathematical principles when manipulating melodies and harmonies. Understanding the probability and group theory behind their methods—many details of which were not written down by mathematicians until long after they were used in music—will help us understand the mathematical structures hidden in the music we hear every day. After a composer completes a piece and an ensemble performs it, the final product is most often delivered to our ears digitally, via an MP3 file or a CD. In either case, mathematics plays a crucial role behind the scenes to make the listening experience an enjoyable one. In the case of MP3 (and similar technologies), the harmonic analysis of overtones helps in the compression of files that would otherwise require more lengthy downloads or larger drives. In the case of CDs and DVDs, error-correcting codes and other mathematical techniques are used not only to detect the errors that are unavoidable in the disc-writing process but actually to correct those errors! Incredibly, these mathematical algorithms ensure that the more than 50,000 errors that occur on a typical audio CD will be corrected before sound comes out of your stereo system! In fact, the digitization of music (and musical scores) allows us to accomplish tasks hardly imaginable a generation ago, including fixing out-of- tune notes on the fly and finding a composition knowing only a short melody. In the final stop on our tour of the musical experience, we will delve into the available evidence for how the brain processes both mathematics and music. By examining similarities between the two subjects on many different levels, from infant development, to how the brain works with patterns, to the level of abstraction, to creativity and beauty, we will arrive at the ultimate connection between the subjects: that similar patterns of thought underlie both mathematics and music.