Mpeg-21

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MPEG-21 standard that formalizes multimedia

MPEG-21 standard that formalizes multimedia

They create mapping rules between XML and OWL constructs and propose OWL documents corresponding to RELs of MPEG-21 REL, ODRL REL, and Creative Commons REL[11]. However, these ontology models are not appropriate for rights expression and management of UGC because they don’t consider the semantic relationships identifiable in creating, editing, selling, sharing, distributing, and consuming UGC.

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MPEG 21 Integrated Cross Layer QoS Adaptation Architecture for Multimedia Applications in Future MANETs to Support Heterogeneous Network Environment

MPEG 21 Integrated Cross Layer QoS Adaptation Architecture for Multimedia Applications in Future MANETs to Support Heterogeneous Network Environment

To assure the guarantee of QoS support at different layers as perceived by the user, the new MPEG-21 multimedia frame work defines several parts to facilitate Digital item consumption. This work proposes to design a novel architecture which integrates MPEG-21 with existing RTSP extended for future computing and adapt a suitable cross layer architecture which shares the bandwidth, connectivity and user information across physical, MAC, Link, Network, Transport and application layer. The cross layer adaptation and MPEG-21 integration with RTSP are to ensure quality of routing and streaming. Further, this proposed comprehensive design of the multimedia player is a complex system involving networking, media and user interactions management, Cyber law enforcement to ensure the legal issues, etc.
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Content on demand video adaptation based on MPEG 21 digital item adaptation

Content on demand video adaptation based on MPEG 21 digital item adaptation

and user characteristic as the fundamental unit of distri- bution and transaction called the Digital Item (DI). MPEG-21 DIA specifies the syntax and semantics of tools that may be used to assist the adaptation of DI. Different from other adaptation methods, XML file plays an important role in MPEG-21 DIA. In order to provide a generic adaptation for all media types rather than a single format for a specific media type, various network environments, different user characteristics and so on, media data and other information including AQoS, network constraints and users ’ characteristics are represented by standardized XML files with defined attributes. By parsing these XML files, information which affect adaptation is conveyed between adaptation engine and the media server or media receiver instead of processing the video itself. For XML is a simple expli- cit language, using XML file ensures the language inde- pendence in describing information with different function in adaptation. It also provides freedom in designing adaptation engine to parse and process infor- mation from the description in XML files.
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CAIN-21: Automatic adaptation decisions and extensibility in an MPEG-21 adaptation engine

CAIN-21: Automatic adaptation decisions and extensibility in an MPEG-21 adaptation engine

In particular, this new publication describes the delivery and adaptation methods used in CAIN-21 as well as the binding modes. The publication also describes and provides usage examples of the ConversionCapabilities and ConversionCapabilities description tools, incorporates the properties relationships, the KISS principle behind this design, the use of composed properties to address complicated relationships, and proposes new ideas, such as the distinction between implied and explicit ontologies and the advantages of considering MPEG-21 as a simple (pseudo)-ontology. The updated multimedia adaptation engines comparison in Section VI adds ConversionLink to the comparison, adds new aspects to the comparison (i.e., multistep, extensibility and semantic adaptation), discusses the reasoning behind the different approaches taken over the years and the pros and cons of the different decision methods. Finally, this publication appends several tests that illustrate the multimedia adaptation method proposed in this paper, and justifies the need for the proposed extensions to the MPEG-21 standard.
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Team Spirit Model Using MPEG Standards for Video Delivery

Team Spirit Model Using MPEG Standards for Video Delivery

Figure 5 depicts a possible configuration of a multi- media customization chain using all MPEG standards Basically adaptation engine require three inputs, i.e., firstly, MPEG-4 AVC and file format for audio and video processing so that whatever the audio and video require- ment like formatting, compression, coding and other es- sentials regarding both. Secondly, content description web Edition is a database-grounded web content man- agement system. Web edition stores all “content informa- tion”. Additionally, the content stored in the database can be rapidly searched or used in other ways. Lastly, at the end user side, the MPEG-21 UED describes the environ- ment (terminal, network, natural environment, and user preferences) where the content is to be consumed.
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Frames and Overflows in Rights Expression Languages

Frames and Overflows in Rights Expression Languages

Choice of a metadata vocabulary is, in part, a choice of a vision of reality. Or, in the sociological terminology of Callon’s theory of markets, one must frame certain aspects of reality while framing out others. But, as Callon makes clear, things tend to overflow from inside the frame to the outside world, and vice versa. For the various rights expression languages of the Creative Commons, METSRights, ODRL, and MPEG-21 I have attempted to indicate what aspects of society and culture are left out as well as those that are expressed in the respective vocabularies for these schemas. For sophisticated vocabularies such as MPEG-21, XML allows ready extensions to metadata vocabularies. For future drafts of such rights expression languages, it is a useful exercise to construct models for sociological and cultural entities in tandem with the usual
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Indexing and Retrieval of Multimedia Metadata on a Secure DHT 

Indexing and Retrieval of Multimedia Metadata on a Secure DHT 

Let’s consider a generic audiovisual content R that is associated with a set of metadata. Such metadata are ex- tracted during the indexing phase from the MPEG-7 and/or MPEG-21 documents related to R. As described in Sec- tion 2.3 both MPEG-7 and MPEG-21 standards contain a large spectrum of data describing multimedia contents and digital rights. Therefore, it is evident that to index the com- plete metadata knowledge could represent a very expensive computational and spatial cost. To lighten the load of each node, we decided to not index all the metadata: we chose a subset of the overall tags, used for a first step of the query process. To refine the result set it is possible to query lo- cally the retrieved resources against the complete schema through well-established approaches. This hybrid strategy can lead to a good trade-off between efficiency, scalability and query expressiveness.
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Biodegradable polymeric micelles coencapsulating  paclitaxel and honokiol: a strategy for breast cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

Biodegradable polymeric micelles coencapsulating paclitaxel and honokiol: a strategy for breast cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

In this study, we designed P–H/M combination drug delivery system for breast cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The encapsulation of PTX and HK simultaneously in polymeric micelles could enhance cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and apoptosis of 4T1 cells in vitro. P–H/M could block tumor growth and reduced tumor volume in vivo. In addition, P–H/M prepared in our study inhibited angiogenesis and induced more apoptosis in vivo. Furthermore, bioimaging analysis showed that drug-loaded polymeric micelles could accumulate more in tumor tissues compared with free drug, suggesting that the MPEG–PCL polymeric micelles had good target ability because of the EPR effect in the tumor. In conclusion, we have shown that P–H/M may have excel- lent potential applications clinically for breast cancer.
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Curcumin-loaded redox response  of self-assembled micelles for enhanced antitumor and anti-inflammation efficacy

Curcumin-loaded redox response of self-assembled micelles for enhanced antitumor and anti-inflammation efficacy

C 16 -SS-CS-mPEG was synthesized by a series of reactions. First, under argon atmosphere 3,3 ′ -dithiodipropionic acid (4.2 g, 10 mM) and EDC (4.6 g, 11 mM) were dissolved in 60 mL of anhydrous DMF. Then, DMAP (0.48 g, 1 mM) and hexadecanol (9.6 g, 10 mM) were added to the solution and stirred at 0 ° C–5 ° C for 2 h, followed by stirring for another 4 h at 25 ° C. Second, 1.0 g of CS was dissolved in 100 mL of 1% acetic acid solution, and then 0.32 g C 16 -SS-COOH, 0.62 g EDC, and 0.12 g NHS were added to another beaker, activated for half an hour with 200 mL of methanol, and then CS acetic acid solution was added dropwise, which was magnetically stirred at 25 ° C for 72 h, and at the end of the reaction, to the reaction flask was added 60 mL aqueous ammonia, and the product was centrifuged for 5 min (speed 8,000 rpm); the resultant product was washed 3–5 times by methanol, and then the final product was transferred to a dialysis bag for 7 days and freeze-dried. Third, under a nitrogen atmosphere, C 16 -SS- CS-mPEG polymer was synthesized. Compound (0.261 g, 0.6 mM), EDC (0.136 g, 0.66 mM), and DMAP (0.015 g, 0.13 mM) were added to an mPEG solution (0.2 g, 0.1 mM) in 7 mL of anhydrous dichloromethane. The product was centrifuged for 5 min (speed 8,000 rpm), and the resultant product was washed 3–5 times by methanol, and then the final product was transferred to a dialysis bag for 7 days and freeze-dried. The synthesis procedure of C 16 -CC-CS- mPEG polymer was similar to that of C 16 -SS-CS-mPEG polymer but 3,3-dithiodipropionic acid was replaced with octanedioic acid.
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THE NEW IMMERGING TECHNOLOGY 4K UHD TV

THE NEW IMMERGING TECHNOLOGY 4K UHD TV

Video decoder block diagram The H.264 Advantage The H.264 coding standard incorporates innovations and techniques developed over decades of worldwide research into video compression. The algorithm Produces results far superior to the preceding MPEG standards. H.264 derives much of its performance gain from complex motion estimation techniques, Integration of an in-loop deblocking filter, and brand-new spatial prediction operations.

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Feasibility Analysis of MPEG decoding on reconfigurable hardware

Feasibility Analysis of MPEG decoding on reconfigurable hardware

There are many different types of algorithms, each with their own properties. Algo- rithms can be computational intensive, memory intensive, control intensive, etc. For a good performance it is important to map an algorithm on a processor that is capable of executing an algorithm efficient. With efficient executing we mean that the proces- sor is able to execute the algorithm in a energy-efficient way. For example, mapping an memory intensive algorithm on an architecture that has a high memory access time and/or a small memory gives a miserable performance [13]. One property that many algorithms have in common in mobile applications is that they are streaming DSP applications. Examples of streaming algorithms are HiperLAN/2, WiMaX, DAB, DRM, DVB, UMTS and multimedia processing like MPEG [14].
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Using MPEG 
 at the Consumer Terminal in Broadcasting

Using MPEG at the Consumer Terminal in Broadcasting

The European Union IST research programme SAMBITS (System for Advanced Multimedia Broadcast and IT Services) project is using Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), the DVB Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) standard, MPEG-4 and MPEG-7 in a studio production and multimedia terminal system to integrate broadcast data and Internet data. This involves using data delivery over multiple paths and the use of a back channel for interaction. MPEG-7 is being used to identify programme content and to construct queries to allow users to identify and retrieve interesting related content. Searching for content is being carried out using the HySpirit search engine. The paper deals with terminal design issues, the use of MPEG-7 for broadcasting applications and using a consumer broadcasting terminal for searching for material related to a broadcast.
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Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

MPEG-2 encoders compress video by dividing each frame into blocks of size 16 × 16 called macroblocks (MB) [14]. An MB contains information about the type of temporal pre- diction and corresponding vectors used for motion compen- sation. The character of the MB prediction is defined in an MPEG variable called MBType. It can be intra coded, forward referenced, backward referenced, or interpolated. Within a video sequence, a continuously strong interframe reference will be present as long as no significant changes occur in the

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Biodegradable nanoparticles of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) b poly( d, l lactide)/methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)  b poly(ϵ caprolactone) blends for drug delivery

Biodegradable nanoparticles of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) b poly( d, l lactide)/methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) b poly(ϵ caprolactone) blends for drug delivery

The effects of blend weight ratio and polyester block length of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (MPEG-b-PDLL)/methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly( E -caprolactone) (MPEG-b-PCL) blends on nanoparticle characteristics and drug release behaviors were evaluated. The blend nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method for controlled release of a poorly water-soluble model drug, indomethacin. The drug-loaded nanoparticles were nearly spherical in shape. The particle size and drug loading efficiency slightly decreased with increasing MPEG-b-PCL blend weight ratio. Two distinct thermal decomposition steps from thermogravimetric analysis suggested different blend weight ratios. Thermal transition changes from differential scanning calorimetry revealed miscible blending between MPEG-b-PDLL and MPEG-b-PCL in an amorphous phase. An in vitro drug release study demonstrated that the drug release behaviors depended upon the PDLL block length and the blend weight ratios but not on PCL block length.
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Idarubicin-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-<em>b</em>-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for enhancing cellular uptake and promoting antileukemia activity

Idarubicin-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-<em>b</em>-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for enhancing cellular uptake and promoting antileukemia activity

Results: NPs with an average diameter of 84 nm was assembled from a methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly( l -lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA). After loading of IDA, IDA-loaded mPEG-PLGA NPs (IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs) were formed. The in vitro release data showed that the IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs have excellent sustained release property. IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs had exhibited the lower IC 50 than pure IDA. Moreover, IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs in the same concentration substantially induced apoptosis than did pure IDA. Most importantly, IDA/MPEG- PLGA NPs significantly decreased the infiltration of leukemia blasts and improved the overall survival of MLL-AF9-induced murine leukemia compared with free IDA. However, the blank NPs were nontoxic to normal cultured cells in vitro, suggesting that NPs were the safe carrier. Conclusion: Our data suggest that IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs might be a suitable carrier to encapsulate IDA. Low dose of IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs can be used as a conventional dosage for antileukemia therapy to reduce side effect and improve survival.
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Preparation and characterization of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(&epsilon;-caprolactone) micelles for the solubilization and in vivo delivery of luteolin

Preparation and characterization of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(&epsilon;-caprolactone) micelles for the solubilization and in vivo delivery of luteolin

Abstract: Luteolin (Lu) is one of the flavonoids with anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its use clinically. In this work, we used monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles to encapsulate Lu by a self-assembly method, creating a water-soluble Lu/MPEG-PCL micelle. These micelles had a mean par- ticle size of 38.6 ± 0.6 nm (polydispersity index = 0.16 ± 0.02), encapsulation efficiency of 98.32% ± 1.12%, and drug loading of 3.93% ± 0.25%. Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles could slowly release Lu in vitro. Encapsulation of Lu in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the half-life (t ½ ; 152.25 ± 49.92 versus [vs] 7.16 ± 1.23 minutes, P = 0.007), area under the curve (0–t) (2914.05 ± 445.17 vs 502.65 ± 140.12 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001), area under the curve (0–∞) (2989.03 ± 433.22 vs 503.81 ± 141.41 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001), and peak concentra- tion (92.70 ± 11.61 vs 38.98 ± 7.73 mg/L, P = 0.003) of Lu when the drug was intravenously administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Also, Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles maintained the cyto- toxicity of Lu on 4T1 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 6.4 ± 2.30 µg/mL) and C-26 colon carcinoma cells (IC50 = 12.62 ± 2.17 µg/mL) in vitro. These data suggested that encapsulation of Lu into MPEG-PCL micelles created an aqueous formulation of Lu with potential anticancer effect. Keywords: luteolin, micelle, MPEG-PCL, cancer therapy
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Semantic Concept Detection in Videousing MPEG Features

Semantic Concept Detection in Videousing MPEG Features

B frames are inter frame coded for forward motion prediction, backward motion prediction and bi-directional motion prediction. Every macro block of 16*16 pixels in P and B frames search for the optimal matching macro block in reference frame then reduce predictive error of motion compensation with DCT coding. One or two motion vectors are transferred at the same time. After a shot segmentation, Key frames are extracted using features of I,P and B frames in MPEG video stream. If scene cuts occurs then first I frame will be chosen as a key frame. [1]

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Apple MPEG Media System Installation Guide

Apple MPEG Media System Installation Guide

The Apple Video Player application program lets you watch video on your computer. Your computer probably already has a version of this program installed, but it may be less recent than the version supplied with the MPEG card. You can determine this for yourself, if you like, as follows:

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90 0500 001 C Cube Product Catalog Spring 1994 pdf

90 0500 001 C Cube Product Catalog Spring 1994 pdf

o Accepts stereo analog audio or AESIEBU digital audio as input o Encodes audio into MPEG Layer 1 or 2 format at compressed data rates of from 32 to 384 Kbits per second as per the MPEG [r]

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Both FA  and mPEG conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted cellular uptake and enhanced tumor tissue distribution

Both FA and mPEG conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted cellular uptake and enhanced tumor tissue distribution

This novel method to prepare the chitosan NPs was advantageous in terms of a narrow and controllable size distribution. The mPEG-FA-NPs were shown to be taken up by target cells at higher levels than mPEG-NPs and NPs alone. This confirmed that FA retained its tar- geting ability after conjugation onto NPs and that mPEG-FA-NPs can effectively target the cells overex- pressing FA receptors. By combining the biocompatibil- ity and dispersivity of PEG with the specific cell targeting capability of FA, we take advantage of a syner- gistic effect that results in greatly increased nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells and prolonged blood circulatory time due to reducing the clearance of NPs by the reticu- loendothelial system. These results suggest that the synthesized mPEG-FA-NPs can be used as a potentially prolonged anticancer drug carrier for tumor cell-selec- tive targeting treatments.
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