Aiming to make the LC scheme applicable in a GMPLS context, we should define a distributed algorithm that blends well with GMPLS protocols. In GMPLS, each node has a database and exchanges link state information via update messages based on the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)  or Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocols . For connection reservation, GMPLS uses the Resource Reservation Protocol with Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)  or the Constraint-Based Routing Label Distribution Protocol (CR-LDP) . Both reservation protocols require two phases: label request phase issued by the source node and label response phase issued by the destination.
technology that provides benefits to enterprises and carriers alike. Enterprises benefit from MPLS directly without having to run it in their own networks; MPLS enables the creation of secure, reliable VPNs which are simple to manage, easy to deploy and which provide Class of Service/Quality of Service support. AT&T has taken a leadership position in exploiting MPLS’ capabilities to create MPLS-based services and is regarded as a market leader for its IP VPN portfolio. AT&T is using MPLS as a strategic convergence platform that enables the integration of its disparate networks into a seamless global MPLS network, supported by an intelligent optical infrastructure. AT&T will continue to create and offer innovative services that meet the enterprise networking needs of its business customers, now and in the future.
The main goal of our scheme is to dynamically balance the utilization of network resources in an MPLS network through a local search algorithm. We consider algorithms that are based on a sequence of small steps (i.e., on local search from a given configuration) because global changes of the routing scheme can be disruptive to the network. A similar approach has been proposed in papers about logical topology design and routing algorithms in opticalnetworks , . The idea is to increase the available capacity of the network by performing local modifications. For each tentative move, the most congested links are located and one of its crossing LSPs is rerouted along an alternate path. The scheme is similar to the congestion control mechanism introduced in , , that considered connections routed through a destination-based routing. In , a previous version of the algorithm called DYLBA (Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm) is proposed. In DYLBA, the search for an alternate route is performed for all of the LSPs crossing the most congested links. Despite its encouraging results, this algorithm is computationally de- manding due to the extensive search performed to find the best LSP to reroute.
In this paper we present the design of a survivable MPLS over Optical Transport Network (OTN) as an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem. Our objective is to minimize the amount of network resources used with a given network configuration. There are implemented different methods for spare capacity allocation (SCA) with the single- and multilayer survivability to reroute disrupted traffic. The planning process for SCA is based on two approaches to the MPLS over OTN configuration: the sequential one, where the MPLS layer and the optical layer are planned separately and the integrated one, where the whole network is designed in one step. The aspects of spare capacity planning and sequential/integrated approaches to network configuration are related to the design of multilayer network architectures and contribute to efficient network configuration in terms of resources usage. The objective of this work is to consider both these aspects in the context of a network optimization problem and to investigate their impact on network resource savings. A set of MPLS over OTN configurations is implemented, where a particular SCA method is combined with a particular configuration approach demonstrating their relative importance to the overall network design in terms of network resource consumption and configuration cost.
cost of spare capacity point of view. Instead, a design that aims to minimize the congestion level during restoration is more acceptable under these circumstances. When applied to MPLS, the situation becomes quite different due to the application of the tunnelling mechanism. MPLSnetworks provide transport services through end-to-end tunnels for each demand node pair (O-D pairs for short). Note that these tunnels are also referred to as primary tunnels and set up as label switched paths. Meanwhile, backup tunnels coexist for survivability consideration. Unlike in pure IP networks where there is no means to separate the working and backup capacity, MPLS does have the capability to distinguish them by defining working and backup tunnels and designating corresponding capacity for each of them. The exploitation of the exact cost of spare or total capacity is allowed to be carried out. It is more beneficial to apply p-cycle based protection schemes for MPLSnetworks than for opticalnetworks to some extent. MPLS functions over both the forwarding and control plane. It fundamentally is a Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism because reservations are carried out on the control plane and take effect on the data plane only when traffic occurs. Therefore, it is instinctive to utilize the reserved but idle capacity, whereas in SONET or WDM networks, special operations are required in order to make use of idle spare capacity.
A possible way to achieve this integration of streaming and elastic flows is to use Cross-protect router. A Cross- protect router consists of two traffic control components. A Priority Fair Queuing (PFQ) scheduler, which is a sim- ple adjustment of a fair queuing scheduler, that implicitly differentiates between streaming and elastic flows and an admission control mechanism that guarantees a minimum QoS to accepted (or protected) flows, as well as the scalability of the scheduler by limiting the number of flows that need to be handled by the scheduler at any given time . Paper  propose Flow-aware TE ap- proach for carrier class Ethernet networks providing ser- vices like those defined by the Metro Ethernet Forum by using Cross-protect. The packets entering the router are fed to the implicit classification to decide whether to be served by priority queue or fair queue. They next extend the ingress TE scheme with a simple flow aware load ba- lancing algorithm, providing greater resilience (enforced fairness, overload control) and potentially better resource utilization.
First, in the context of emerging IP/MPLSnetworks, there is an acute desire on the part of network service providers to deploy traffic engineering (TE) mechanisms in their networks. The goal of this deployment is to optimize network capacity utilization while also providing service guarantees to their network users. Interest in TE mechanisms has prompted router vendors to define various extensions to existing protocols to enable TE deployment. Indeed, within the IETF, OSPF-TE [?] and RSVP-TE [?] have emerged as the routing and signaling components, respectively. OSPF-TE refers to the standard OSPF protocol plus all its TE related extensions. RSVP-TE refers to the RSVP mechanisms defined for setting up MPLS Label switched paths (LSPs). TE related extensions to OSPF involve advertisement of additional link state information such as available bandwidth for every link in the network. As new LSPs are set up or old ones removed, such link information changes. Whenever such a change is deemed significant, routers re-advertise this information using flooding procedures. In general terms, TE issues have been studied under the umbrella of QoS routing. Traffic demand patterns clearly play a role in determining the frequency of TE related link state advertisements. If the frequency of such advertisements is very low, the information available in every routers link state database can become very stale. It has been shown that stale information may limit the benefits of richer network connectivity. It has also been suggested that in order to capitalize on dense network topologies, link state updates should be more frequent and as a result there is a need for techniques for dealing excessive link state traffic [?].
IPv6 implementation would be carried out in 3 phases - Providing IPv6 at the access level, running IPv6 within the core infrastructure, interconnecting with other IPv6 service providers. Various migration strategies would include deploying IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels, deploying IPv6 using dual stack backbones. Since the networks of large Telecom Service Providers are mostly Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) based therefore the IPv6 will have to be deployed over the MPLS backbones. This is also the fastest up gradation because it requires fewer backbone infrastructure upgrades and lesser configuration of core routers. It is also a very cost-effective strategy. There are different methods for deployment of IPv6 over MPLS backbones 
The most used terms to describe the routing tables in the MPLS technology are the Label Information Base (LIB) and Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB). The LIB contains the labels associated to a determined address and the address itself associated with these la- bels. These associations are those generated in this LSR and also those received from the LSRs in the neigh- bourhood. The LFIB table contains only the necessary information to forward a datagram to the next hop in the LSP. This information consists on local labels (to be used between two LSRs on the same LSP and cre- ated by the LSR with this LFIB) and the output labels. This table also contains information of the interface to be used to forward the traffic to the next hop. An egress LER removes the label of the IP packet and forwards it to a traditional IP network. The Label Switch Routers (LSRs) are devices capable of forwarding packets in- side an MPLS network. These routers are located inside the MPLS network and are intermediate hops between the ingress and egress LERs. Their function is to exam- ine the labels of the received packets and replace them with another label according to the routing table of the intermediate routers.
Whether you work for an organization that produces telecom, datacom or networking products or services; or you buy these products and services - or just have to get up to speed on what all the rest of them are talking about when they say “MPLS service”, “MAC frame”, “transit”, “Optical Ethernet”, “VPN” or “Layer 3”…
For each O-D pair k, only one BE demand pair is defined, which can be looked as the aggregation of multiple BE demands with the same O-D. Unlike EF traffic, we allow the traffic within a single BE demand to split arbitrarily across any number of candidate LSPs, therefore the aggregation of BE traffic would potentially improve the effectiveness of traffic engineering. However, we assume only one backup path will be used for traffic on the same working path. We assume that the BE traffic may not be fully restorable in case of link failure. BE traffic restoration level r, a value between [0,1], represents the proportion of BE traffic on each link that is being protected. The ability to set the restoration level of BE traffic and accordingly differentiate the resilience level provides a powerful tool to the service provider. It allows the ISP to clearly demonstrate the advantage of premium service based on EF class, and also allows the ISP to fine tune the redundancy level and total network cost.
Crosstalk signals generated at the routers propagate through the links; it is assumed that all the routers inject crosstalk signals with equal power level. The performance analysis of unequally powered interfering crosstalk signals has been considered in the literature. Even though crosstalk signal suffers power loss the inline optical amplifiers provide sufficient gain along the transmission path which causes it to accumulate along the lightpath. Optical amplifiers in the path inject ASE noise and a link may have one or more fiber spans separated by the amplifiers.
tion Internet Protocol (IP) based backbone networks . MPLSnetworks can offer the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees that data transport services like frame relay (FR) or Asynchronous Transfer Mode Switching (ATM) give, without requiring the use of any dedicated lines. MPLS was devised to convert the Internet and IP back- bones from best effort data networks to business-class transport mediums capable of handling traditional real time services . The initial trust was to deliver much needed traffic engineering capabilities and QoS enhance- ments to the generic IP cloud. The availability of traffic engineering has helped MPLS reach critical mass in term of service provider mind share and resulting MPLS de- ployments. Advantages accrue primarily to the carriers, User benefits include lower cost in most cases, greater control over networks, and more detailed QoS. The con- straint-based routing label distributions protocol (CR- LDP) and the resource reservation protocol (RSVP) are the signaling algorithms used for traffic engineering. In this paper, a comparative study of the performance MPLS TE signal protocols is presented. The paper also shows the performance enhancement of MPLSnetworks over conventional IP networks. MPLS is improved net- work performance for multimedia type application in heavy load traffic environment. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a brief reference to related works has been presented. Section 3 describes traditional IP network and MPLS network operation along with the important terms associated with MPLS. In Section 4, traffic engineering signal protocols of MPLS
suitability for monolithic two dimensional integration, and compatibility with on-wafer probe testing . The architecture of VCSEL can make particularly good use of the broad quantum-well gain bandwidth for the generation of ultra short pulses, and can easily achieve gigahertz-level repetion rates. Although VCSELs have chiefly attracted interest to date as frequency doubled blue sources, their potential as practical and inexpensive ultra short pulse sources is equally great. It is recently demonstrated a picoseconds mode locked VCSELs operating at 1.5 µrn , Most characteristics of GaAs based VCSELs in the 0.8 to 1.0 µm wavelength range are now comparable to those of edge-emitters in the lower power (~1 mW) regime where many short haul data communications applications fall. For these applications, fiber loss and dispersion are generally not significant factors. These VCSELs are also proposed for many applications, ranging from printing to optical switching . Moreover, these lasers have proven power scaling capability, and there are many additional attractive characteristics of VCSELs include their circularly shaped, low numerical aperture output beams for easy coupling to fibers or free space optics; their single-axial mode spectra for potential wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or wavelength addressing schemes; their high power conversion efficiency in the low power range for reduced heating in highly integrated circuits; and their natural vertical emission or array applications . Optical interconnects provide solutions for almost all the levels in the interconnection hierarchy. The main advantages of optical interconnects are higher density, and higher bandwidth length product. In fact, there exists a break-even length above which optical interconnects are more advantageous than electrical ones in terms of power dissipation and bandwidth. For current technologies, optical interconnects are superior for length > 7 km for a system that has a maximum bit rate of 10 Gbit/sec .
To assess the effectiveness of the proposed PMLG-PSO algorithm, we have made two concise performance anal- ysis investigations. The first evaluation appears in the outcomes of solving the MCOP optimization problem in MPLS/ GMPLS networks by using the Pareto Front graphs. The second investigation is a comparative study analysis; where the offered algorithm performance is compared against numerous meta-heuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO), adaptive PSO , , Bat algorithm  and Dolphin algo- rithm . Both researches focus on an algorithm con- vergence ratio (particularly the trapping in local/global optima) to test how successfully the proposed algo- rithm fixed the exploration problem when compared to the other optimization algorithms. The MPLS/ GMPLS network-based topology is used for the experiments, where objective functions; resource provisioning costs and traffic load balancing costs are considered, as de- scribed in the problem formulation section. Demonstra- tion of the conducted experiments along with results breakdown are discussed in the proceeding sections. A. EXPERIMENTS FOR PARETO FRONT AND RESULTS ANALYSIS
Human behavior recognition [9-11] is to recognize the behaviors of individuals be- tween humans or between humans and scenes by means of the methods of continu- ously observing of moving objects, collecting and classifying data of object behav- iors, template matching etc. Human behavior recognition belongs to the advanced processing link of moving object behavior. There are several common classification and recognition methods: HMM, DBN and CRF etc. In this paper, the author adopts deep convolutional neural networks of soft computing technique to train experimental database so as to realize the classification and recognition of target behavior in video.
In this paper, we aim to propose a solution to address the need for an optical communication model that is amenable to network simulations. Specifically, we propose the first under- water optical network simulator based on real measurements of optical propagation in ocean waters of different types. Such parameters were measured during the ALOMEX’15 research cruise, organized by the NATO STO Centre of Marine Research and Experimentation (CMRE). The ALOMEX’15 campaign spanned 13 days and covered a total route of about 2800 km, starting from Cartagena, Spain, down to the West Saharian sea, and with final destination Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain (see Fig. 1). During the cruise, the research vessel R/V Alliance has been navigated to 39 different stations to collect measurements. In each site, the measure- ments included the down-welling solar light irradiance, the optical attenuation and absorption coefficients and the water temperature throughout the water column. The measurements have been explicitly taken at different locations and times of day, in order to encompass diverse environmental conditions and water properties.
As discussed above, optical OFDM-basednetworks provide flexible bandwidth by supporting the allocation of a variable number of subcarriers and adapting the modulation level of subcarriers to increase the available capacity, resulting in significant reduction in the power consumption of the whole network. In this work, we investigate the power consumption savings introduced by OFDM-basedoptical network compared to WDM networks. To enable bandwidth flexible transmissions, the fixed-bandwidth components used for WDM networks need to be replaced with network components that can work at flexible rates. In this section, we study the power consumption of the different network components in an optical OFDM-based network and compare it to the power consumption of the same components in IP over WDM networks. We consider the three most power consuming components: IP port, transponder and erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA).
The rapid growth of Internet and the extra traffic volume injected makes the packet forwarding process more challenging. MPLS is suggested to overcome the shortcomings of IP networks which perform complex layer 3 packet forwarding based on the longest prefix match. In an MPLS domain, all time-consuming tasks are pushed to the edge of the network where LERs (Label Edge Routers) are located. Ingress LERs categorize packets into different FECs (Forwarding Equivalent Classes) and assign a short fixed label to each class. Then, inside the MPLS domain, LSRs (Label Switch Routers) use these labels to switch the packets applying the label swapping scheme. It seems MPLS will be the dominant technology in the future backbone networks. However, the current architecture does not support multicast traffic services.