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Mulla Sadra on Virtue and Action

Mulla Sadra on Virtue and Action

According to Mulla Sadra, although philosophers believe that all human beings have the same nature and define the human being as a rational animal, everybody has an individual identity, which, through actualizing their practical and theoretical potentials, builds them gradually and makes them distinct from others (Mulla Sadra 1382 Sh, 128; 1981, 8:343, 9:85). Dispositions of the soul, knowledge, deeds, and intentions are the main factors that contribute to forming personal identity (Mulla Sadra 1981, vol. 9). Since the constitutive elements are different from one person to another, everyone will have their own special identity. Mulla Sadra calls this identity the second nature, in contrast to the first nature, which refers to tendencies with which we are born (Mulla Sadra 1382 Sh). According to his teleological approach, the mentioned elements help one to achieve felicity. Mulla Sadra explains these ideas on the basis of his philosophical principles like the metaphysical primacy of existence (asalat- al-wujud), the substantial motion (al-harka al-jawhariyya), as well as the unity of the intellect, intelligent, and intelligible (ittihad al-‘aql wa-l-‘aqil wa-l-ma ‘qul).
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Epistemic Virtue from the Viewpoints of Mulla Sadra and Zagzebski

Epistemic Virtue from the Viewpoints of Mulla Sadra and Zagzebski

meanness, fear, arrogance, and immoral deeds such as murder, back- biting, and gossip (Mulla Sadra 1981, 9:139, 7:61). He sees mental accuracy and being realistic as requirements for being immune from fault and refraining from sins (Mulla Sadra 1380, 249) and being immune from pleasures and lust as requirements for believing and having faith in God (Mulla Sadra 1981, 7:24). Those committing these sins cannot perceive the facts in the intellectual world (Mulla Sadra 1981, 1:362, 9:28, 136, 303; 1382, 336; 1380, 480, 478; 1360, 1:95- 97). Not only does Sadra see vices as obstacles in the way of perceiving intellectual thoughts (1363b, 210 ), but he also considers the failure to perceive the minor issues as a result of moral vices and sins (Mulla Sadra 1981, 2:228), claiming that the achievement of all sciences entails the piety of the soul (Mulla Sadra 1363a, 143). This evidence is adequate to conclude that to Sadra, intellectual knowledge is not be acquired without intellectual and moral virtues. In other words, Sadra has based knowledge on the existence of virtues, considering vices as obstacles in the way of knowledge acquisition. It should be made clear to what extent the properness of sensory knowledge depends on virtues.
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The Relationship between the Continuous Imaginal World and the Discontinuous Imaginative Faculty in Ascending and Descending Arcs according to Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra

The Relationship between the Continuous Imaginal World and the Discontinuous Imaginative Faculty in Ascending and Descending Arcs according to Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra

It must be understood that our coming from that world to this one is not similar to our returning from this world to that one. That is, all people are equal in their descending path from the original world to this one and no one has superiority; but, in the ascending path, at each moment we move from an inferior world to a superior one by our knowledge and actions. Thus the difference between ascending and descending arcs is that of potentiality and actuality or that of the succinct and the delineated. Therefore, human beings are potential in the descending path and are actual in the ascending path, or they are like succinct words in their descending path, capable of various meanings, but their meanings can only be clear once they are delineated. Therefore, human beings are at first (in the descending path) united and are eventually (in the ascending path) different with respect to their states, attributes and actions. (Mulla Sadra 1987, 321)
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A Comparative Study of Mulla Sadra and Henry Corbin: Their Views concerning the Impact of Revealed Teachings on Human Being

A Comparative Study of Mulla Sadra and Henry Corbin: Their Views concerning the Impact of Revealed Teachings on Human Being

Henry Corbin (1903-1978) is an orientalist, and the most prominent Western interpreter of the prophetic wisdom. He has created a magnificent structure of research on religion in the West in the twentieth century. He has devoted himself to study comparative Islam and mysticism in the academic world. On the whole, he has succeeded in founding a philosophical structure through his intellectual efforts without involving his orientalism (Pazooki 2003, 162). Corbin’s focus on the theosophical-philosophical system of Islam in Iran has its origin in his familiarity with the works of thinkers who have strengthened the fundamental bases of prophetic wisdom. However, Mulla Sadra, the founder of a splendid edifice of theosophy, has played a special role in this regard due to his efforts to integrate the aforementioned foundations with the particular innovative principles in his theosophy.
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Re-Reading Mulla Sadra on the Intersection of Cognition and Emotion

Re-Reading Mulla Sadra on the Intersection of Cognition and Emotion

reason and theoretical reason from the standpoint of the activity they have and from their relation to human deeds‖ (Mulla Sadra 1360 Sh, 199). ―Practical reason needs the body in its actions, while theoretical reason in itself does not need the body or its faculties‖ (Mulla Sadra 1981, 9:84). It is obvious that Mulla Sadra considers practical reason as the faculty of knowing practical affairs. In his view, the existence of the perceptions that are not pleasant nor painful cannot be useful by themselves and cannot create the link between action and perception. In other words, such perceptions, which are placed in the third category in the above classification, only make cognition possible for the soul, but this is not practically useful. Therefore, along with theoretical reason that attempts to perceive the world as it is, another faculty is required so that perceptions would be practically useful; this faculty is practical reason. The human soul achieves the third group of perceptions through theoretical reason, but pleasure and pain, as two kinds of perception, are beyond the power of theoretical reason. This is because theoretical reason is concerned with the superior realms of existence (Mulla Sadra 1360 Sh, 199), while pleasure and pain are mostly relevant to the body and the inferior realm of the existence— that is, the material world. In other words, ―the theoretical faculty is a faculty through which man achieves awareness whose statues is that it is not to be practiced, and the practical faculty is a faculty through which he identifies affairs in the domain of practice (Sabzavari n.d., 310). It seems that the immediate agent of pleasure or pain is practical reason.
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Investigation of Mental Existence and its Proof Based on Mulla Sadras Perspective

Investigation of Mental Existence and its Proof Based on Mulla Sadras Perspective

Mulla Sadra's perspective is based on two prefaces: A) There are two predictions. It means that verity of predicate on subject matter and identity between them via ordinance is in two types. Firstly, it is verified in subject matter substance and essence hierarchy, that is, it points out conceptual unity of subject matter and predicate (primary essential prediction) and secondly, in existence level it indicates predicate verity on subject matter both mental existence and external existence, that is subject matter and predicate identity (common technical prediction). In fact it has been expressed in the book Bedaya –ol Hekmat that common prediction is possible when the effects of predicate is applied on the subject matter and this type of application is only fulfilled in an object's external existence not its mental existence. Therefore, there is a contradiction in the case that common prediction is assigned to subject matter and predicate identity in the level of external existence or in the level of external and mental existence [6].
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Kartuli kasvatamise mõju mulla mikrobioloogilisele aktiivsusele ja orgaanilise süsiniku ning lämmastiku sisaldusele erinevates viljelusviisides

Kartuli kasvatamise mõju mulla mikrobioloogilisele aktiivsusele ja orgaanilise süsiniku ning lämmastiku sisaldusele erinevates viljelusviisides

tuli kasvatamisel orgaaniliste väetiste lisamine, nagu sõnnik, erinevad multšid ja haljasväetised, suurendavad orgaanilise aine kogust mullas, mis avaldab positiivset mõju mulla mikroobide aktiivsusele (Larkin, 2008; Larkin jt, 2010; Bhagat jt, 2016). Orgaanilise aine sisendi kogus ja kvaliteet mõjutavad nii mulla füüsikalis-keemilisi omadusi kui ka mullaelustikuga seotud biootilisi tegureid, nagu mikrobiaalne biomass ja selle aktiivsus (Gomez jt, 2006; Gomiero jt, 2011; Bonilla jt, 2012). Haljasväetistest vahekultuuride kasutamisega on saadud bakte- riaalsete populatsioonide ja mulla mikroobide aktiivsuse kasv ning soodne mõju ka mugula saagikusele (Larkin jt, 2010). Watson jt (2002) on leidnud, et suuremad orgaanilise aine kogused on suurendanud küll mulla mikroobide massi ja aktiiv- sust, kuid ei ole taganud ilmtingimata suuremat saagikust. See on sageli para- tamatu, eriti maheviljeluses, kus taimede toitainete vajadus ei ole alati kooskõlas toitainete kättesaadavusega.
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Muutused mulla mikroobide hüdrolüütilises aktiivsuses ja orgaanilise süsiniku sisalduses punase ristiku allakülviga odra kasvatamisel

Muutused mulla mikroobide hüdrolüütilises aktiivsuses ja orgaanilise süsiniku sisalduses punase ristiku allakülviga odra kasvatamisel

Sánchez de Cima et al. (2016) leidsid, et talvistel vahekultuuridel ja sõnnikul oli märkimisväärne mõju mikroorganismide ensümaatilisele aktiivsusele, kuid mulla orgaanilise süsiniku sisaldusele olulist mõju ei täheldatud. Ka meie katses leidis see kinnitust, kus enne allakülviga odra kasvatamist 2012–2017 aastate keskmiste FDA ja C org näitajate vaheline

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A STUDY OF AWARNESS AND APPLICATION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS OF VIJAYAPUR CITY Safiya Mulla 1&Dr.Vishnu M.Shinde2

A STUDY OF AWARNESS AND APPLICATION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS OF VIJAYAPUR CITY Safiya Mulla 1&Dr.Vishnu M.Shinde2

A STUDY OF AWARNESS AND APPLICATION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS OF VIJAYAPUR CITY Safiya Mulla1&Dr.Vishnu M.Shinde2 Research Scholar, Department of studies in Education,[r]

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Viljelusviiside mõju kartuli saagile, saagi kvaliteedile ning mulla toiteelementide sisaldusele

Viljelusviiside mõju kartuli saagile, saagi kvaliteedile ning mulla toiteelementide sisaldusele

kasvatamine mahepõllul vähendas mulla kaaliumisisaldust 15% võrra. Ilmnes ka tendents, et kartulisaagiga eemaldati mullast magneesiumi. Kaaliumipuuduse kompenseerimiseks tuleks, lähtuvalt kasvukoha tingimustest, kasutada K ja Mg hästi siduvaid ja sügavale mulda tungiva juurekavaga talviseid vahekultuure.

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The Missing SaaS Metric: Customer Retention Cost. By Kaiser Mulla-Feroze Chief Marketing Officer, Totango

The Missing SaaS Metric: Customer Retention Cost. By Kaiser Mulla-Feroze Chief Marketing Officer, Totango

The reality is that Bessemer’s CAC Ratio and Scale’s Magic Number (when calculated for public companies) are actually not only CAC, but a combination of CAC and CRC -- because sales an[r]

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Viljelussüsteemide mõju mulla süsinikuvarule

Viljelussüsteemide mõju mulla süsinikuvarule

seejärel tsentrifugeeriti ja filtreeriti läbi 0,45 µm filtri. Saadud lahusest määrati vees lahustunud OS-i sisaldus elementanalüsaatoriga varioMAX. Mulla vees lahustunud OS-i osakaal kogu mulla OS-i sisaldusest (DOCp) arvutati, kasutades valemit: DOCp = 100 x (DOC / OS), kus DOC on vees lahustunud mulla orgaaniline süsinik (mg g -1 ) ja OS on kogu mulla orgaaniline süsinik (mg g -1 ). Katses eemaldati süsinikku põllult ainult põhisaagiga (terad, mugulad). Külvikorras olevatest kultuuridest pärinevad aastased süsiniku (C)-sisendid (mis moodustusid maapealsest ja -alusest (juured ja risosfäär) biomassist pärit olevast süsinikust) mulda arvutati põhisaagis oleva C kaudu, kasutades eri kultuuride C jaotuskoefitsiente erinevates taimeosades (Bolinder et al., 2007).
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Erinevate viljelusviiside pikaajalise kasutamise mõju mulla toitainete sisaldusele

Erinevate viljelusviiside pikaajalise kasutamise mõju mulla toitainete sisaldusele

Mulla proovid võeti igal aastal aprilli keskel 0‒25cm sügavuselt ja õhukuivad proovid sõeluti läbi 2-mm sõela. Mulla ja sõnniku proovidest määrati ammooniumlaktaat meetodil (edaspidi AL meetodil) (Egner et al., 1960) taimele omastatava fosfori- ja kaaliumisisaldus ning CNS elementaaranalüsaatoril (ELEMENTAR, Hanau, Germany) üldlämmastiku sisaldus.

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Al Mulla

Al Mulla

reactions reported for skin and hair care cosmetics include allergic contact dermatitis, urticaria, cheilitis, angioedema, acne, itching, photo contact or photo allergic r[r]

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EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCO-SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS OF CLASS    AND EDUCATION PROGRESS OF STUDENTS  Seyed Sadra Nojbaee , Ghazal    Ahmadi, Ehteram Ghasemabadi

EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCO-SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS OF CLASS AND EDUCATION PROGRESS OF STUDENTS  Seyed Sadra Nojbaee , Ghazal Ahmadi, Ehteram Ghasemabadi

Ghadiri (2011) in study examined expected relationship from class environment and goal orientation with education progress of mathematics in female students of high[r]

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