Cattani et al. (2006) discuss equal pricing scenarios for wholesale price or retail price in a manufacturer-Stackelberg dual channel supply chain. They reach a conclusion that both retailers and customers would benefit from maximizing the manufacturer's profit with equal pricing. Mukhopadhyay et al. (2008) investigate pricing decisions in a mixed-channel model in which the retailer is allowed to add further value to the product before selling to the final customer. Chen et al. (2008) investigate a dual channel considering consumer channel choice model in which the demand faced in each channel depends on the service levels of both channels and determine when the manufacturer should establish a direct channel. Zhang et al. (2012) investigate the effect of product substitutability and pricingstrategies under three different power structures (which are manufacturer Stackelberg, Retailer Stackelberg and Vertical Nash) of a dual exclusive channel system where each manufacturer distributes its goods through a single exclusive retailer.
Consumers rely on price as a critical input to assess the value of products in choice sets (Kalwani et al. 1990; Rajendran and Tellis 1994). In online retailing settings, firms’ pricingstrategies often are particularly dedicated to consumers who are sensitive to price information (Chevalier and Goolsbee 2003; Lynch Jr and Ariely 2000), such that retail search engines frequently offer sponsored search advertising display results that also feature price comparison tools. They thus support comparison shopping, in that the search engines collect product information, including prices, from retailers, then display the collected, comparative information in response to shoppers’ queries. Prior research notes the influences of rank positions (Agarwal et al. 2011; Narayanan and Kalyanam 2015; Rutz et al. 2012; Xu et al. 2011), competition (Yang et al. 2013), and budget allocations (Sayedi et al. 2014) on the outcomes, but despite potentially meaningful implications, limited search advertising literature addresses how product prices in a display list affect the performance of sponsored keyword advertising. In this sense, firms’ pricingstrategies, especially as they relate to the prices of competing products, remain unexplored.
Early work on the Internet as a channel of distribution was mostly concerned with pure-play e-tailers (e.g., Bakos 1997) and competition between Bricks-Only retailers and a direct retailer (Balasubramanian 1998). Subsequent papers began studying the implications of operating dual channels. In Lal and Sarvary (1999), the introduction of an online channel is shown to affect consumers’ search behavior and, under certain conditions, to result in higher equilibrium prices. Their model assumes that each consumer is exogenously familiar with the product fit of only one of the retailers and that firms are not able to control the ease/difficulty of consumer search. Zettelmeyer (2000) examines situations where competing retailers can provide information to consumers both online and offline to help them determine their utility for the products offered. Providing information is costless online, but there is a cost offline. Having dual channels is shown to increase the amount of information provided online, but only if a limited fraction of consumers have access to the Net. Our work differs from the above papers in that we focus on the implications of a product mismatch from the consumers’ and firms’ perspective. We further assume that all consumers have access to the Internet and that, given the nature of products under consideration, the uncertainty associated with determining fit can only be effectively reduced in physical stores. We examine the actions firms can take to manage product returns through investment in store assistance and pricing. 5 As indicated, our analysis is most pertinent for categories where the primary way to determine product fit is by physical inspection (and at the store the retailer can provide effective ways to do so). We, of course, acknowledge that for some categories retailers can provide product diagnostics for consumers online, for example when customer reviews are highly relevant (Chevalier and Mayzlin 2006) or when decision making is
Track Chair is Tim Ogilvie, CEO of Peer Insight, a service innovation research and consulting firm in Washington, DC. The company has invested the past five years studying service innovation through its Global Service Innovation Consortium, an ongoing consortium including over 50 leading Global 500 corporations.Peer Insight will share service innovation strategies, techniques, and insights learned from leading corporate innovators, including Bank of America, The Hartford, Siemens, and many others.
Jain et al.  consider throughput optimization using a general interference model. Their algorithm can be computationally intensive to achieve close to optimal performance. In addition, their algorithm does not exploit the properties of interference using 802.11 MAC for better performance. Kumar et al.  consider the throughput capacity of wireless networks between given source destination pairs for various interference models. However, they do not take channel allocation into account as they consider a single-channel network. Kodialam and Nandagopal  investigate the same problem using a simple interference model where a node cannot send and receive at the same time. Objectives other than throughput have also been considered, e.g. power optimization . There have also been approaches that consider routing and channel assignment separately. In , Draves et al. propose a routing metric that exploits multi-channel diversity. In particular, paths with more channel diversity and fewer hops are preferred.
Based on the perspective of the maximum manufacturers profits, Bikram et.al (2007)assumed the amount of returned merchandise as the random variable in direct selling mode, analyzed refund policies and pricingstrategies for reverse logistics  . Based on a two-stage pricing methods, Eckalbar (2010) investigated the pricing issue under the circumstances of demand uncertainty. When the demand is uncertain, manufacturers make their own production plan and determine the quantity and price before the products go into the market; when the demand uncertainty has been solved gradually, the manufacturers need to change their pricingstrategies correspondingly to pursue the maximum profits  . Hemant (2012) called the unresolved demand uncertainty phase as the first stage, and the phase after it as the second stage  . George et.al (2009) investigated the pricing scheme in the form of discount contract and analyzed the game model that the scheme built up. The results showed that a simple discount strategy can improve the sales revenue of manufacturers and distributors, and the best discounts response factor can be calculated with the help of the game model to set off the reference value to analyze consumer preferences in depth  . To sum up, there are many forms of pricing strategy in the channel supply chain, so making a pricing strategy needs comprehensive consideration of various practical factors, including survey of the channel structure, product cost, and consumer preferences.
market fixed-income assets including inflation-linked notes, FX contracts, and hybrid products such as inflation-linked FX instruments. Here, we mention Flesaker and Hughston (1996b) for an arbitrage-free pricing kernel approach to the valuation of FX securities, and to Frey and Sommer (1999) if one were to consider extending classical short rate models, based on diffusion processes with deterministic coefficients, for FX-rates. The approach by Jarrow and Yildirim (2003), based on the HJM-framework, might be treated as in Section 4 and used for inflation-linked pricing as shown in Section 6, later in this paper. We note here the early work in 1998 by Hughston (1998) who produced a general arbitrage-free approach to the pricing of inflation derivatives, in which (to our knowledge) a foreign exchange analogy was used in such a context, for the first time. In Hughston’s work, the Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) index is treated like a foreign exchange rate that links the nominal and the real price systems as if they were domestic and foreign currencies, respectively. The work by Pilz and Schlögl (2013) on modelling commodity prices re-interprets a multi-currency LMM approach. Similarities can be seen when applying our approach to multi-currency and multi-curve LIBOR models, as developed in Section 6.3, where an FX-LIBOR forward rate agreement is priced. In all that follows, we refer to the discounting curve as the x-curve and the forecasting curve as the y-curve. Therefore, when describing our framework, we speak of the xy-formalism, while we refer to the application thereof as the xy-approach.
good detection as well as error rate performance using LDPC code. This coded scheme has attracted significantconsideration as good error correcting codes achieved the error rate performance near to the Shannon limit .Additionally, attained SISO detection through estimated MMSE symbols in all spatial layer.This MMSE ﬁlter recurrently used in the frame by frame,as well as the channel matrix inversion was computed at the beginning of each frame. Consequently, the proposed combinatorial link selection strategies have been proven to the bit error rate performance that gains over-codedPNC MIMO systems. Also, invented the offered detectors and IDD method as well as examined their performance in MU-MIMO systems. The simulation results proven the proposed iterative detectors method of SU (single-user) performance assured and less delay of decoding.
DELIVERING QUALITY SERVICES - Causes of Service-Quality Gaps: The Customer Expectations versus Perceived Service Gap, Factors and Techniques to Resolve this Gap Gaps in Service - Quality Standards, Factors and Solutions - The Service Performance Gap Key Factors and Strategies for Closing the Gap - External Communication to the Customer: the Promise versus Delivery Gap - Developing Appropriate and Effective Communication about Service Quality.
The primary objective in WSN design is maximizing node/network lifetime, while maintaining appropriate level of data transfer. The communication of sensor nodes is more energy consuming than their computation. It is a main concern to minimize communication while achieving the desired network operation. Communication in a clear channel is an ideal case. However in reality of the shared spectrum band like the 2.4 GHz ISM band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 devices, collision caused by collocating devices from multiple standards is unavoidable. As a result, sensor devices will have lower performance under interference environment since they need to waste energy on trying to communicate rather than the communication process itself. The more flexible and intelligent functionality that can adapt the system in respond to the interference environment (possible collision) could enhance the system performance leading to an optimization of the node/network lifetime.
RGB color model comprises of three color channels, which are red, green and blue (Parveen, 2010). In fundus image, green channel has the best contrast between blood vessel and the background. Meanwhile, red channel has a low contrast and often saturated that results on a lot of bright pixels. The blue channel is a very noisy component because of poor dynamic range. However, it does not mean that red and blue channels do not contain any significant information just that blood vessels are more suitable to be presented by green channel because of the highest contrast (Walter et al. 2007). As a result, this paper proposes multi-channel approach instead of favoring green channel only. Each channel is treated separately, where red, green and blue channels will undergo the same process. Each channel will be map to 8-bit gray-scale image for red, green and blue channels, which later will be filtered to reduce the noise (Meshram and Pawar, 2013). The grayscale representation strengthen the presence of retinal blood vessel which is the darker region. Then, an inverted form will be used, so that the detected blood vessles will be represented by bright pixel while the surrounding will be detected as dark pixel for each channel.
• Furthermore, several retailers and manufacturers believe that most items are already available in sufficient number of variations. Greater complexity of different sizes and units across different channels would only add unnecessarily to costs and would be misleading for customers. • On the other hand, over a third of those interviewed online and multi-channel retailers agreed
A small set of data is prepared reflecting the real liquid crystal television (LC TV) business situation. The pricing data for the components are collected from the LC TV accessory stores in the biggest Chinese e-marketplace Alibaba (http://china.alibaba.com). Two types of products and six types of components from those products are included. The six types of components are 42-inch liquid crystal panel, mainboard, logic board, power panel, high-voltage switchboard and shell. The numbers of the alternate components in the RCSs are 4, 4, 3, 3, 3, and 3, respectively (as Table 1). The minimum component configuration requirements of both products are: Product 1 (3 rd for RCS 1, 4 th for RCS 2, 3 rd for
The second factor affecting the pursuit of these benefits is the degree to which an industry requires multi-channel integration. As shown in Table 2, financial services firms, by virtue of their information-rich offerings, face a very high degree of channel substitutability (there is lit- tle a customer can do in one channel that cannot be done in others). At the same time, there is an unmistakable trend – at once desirable and costly for marketers – toward more frequent and direct customer interactions leveraging new channels. In these situations, multi-chan- nel value propositions are rapidly becoming strategic necessities. While retailing channels are not yet this interchangeable, high-value cus- tomers increasingly expect key multi-channel benefits to be in place – and wise competitors should be building capabilities now.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 3 that includes cost of creating and delivering the service, plus a margin for profit to be recovered via reasonable pricingstrategies .in many service industries of the past ,pricing was traditionally driven by a financial and accounting perspective which means in another words cost plus pricing .today most service marketer setting the prices with good understanding for value and competition - based .Pricing decisions in the service are more complicated and take many different terms to describe the prices they set for instance: tuition in education, fees in collection firm, interest in bank and charges in telecommunication etc. Throughout most of history, prices were set by negotiation between buyer and sellers but at nowadays the company draw the pricing policy in different way based on many factories inside and outside the organization that effectively designing and implementing pricingstrategies upon their understanding of customer psychology and systematic approach to setting, adapting and changing prices (Lovelock, 2011). There are several pricingstrategies widely used in marketing according to (Paul, 2010) and all of those strategies are conceptualized into four levels of pricing situations: new product, competition, cost and product mix or line for each manager to develop strategy in low or high prices, and from other points of view they can build pricingstrategies based on Monroe (2003) and Winer (2005) model that includes three Cs (cost, competitors and customer). Consequently, once the pricing objectives are understood the pricingstrategies can be described in three dimensions the first one is cost to the suppler, rival's prices and customer value .as far as the cost represent the internal factor in any organization and its need more complex in terms of financial costs of creating process or intangible real time performance for a customer than it is to identify all operating cost or indirect cost and require a lot of methodologies to calculate it accurately such as activity based costing (ABC). On the value side the service pricingstrategies there is a close links between prices and value that is defined clearly as subjective evaluation from customer perceived judgment with taking onto consideration the net value that equals benefits minus costs for monetary and non monetary. the last dimensions is competition when the customer see a little differences form competitors offers with keep the same quality and take the cheapest prices from each one and at that time we can classified as price leader and all competitors react the market leader accordingly (Lovelock, 2011).
The theoretical model might provide an explanation for Microsoft’s pricing of prod- ucts like Windows and Office. Despite their dominant market position and a huge army of faithful users, their products are not priced nearly as high as some software products provided by other dominant developers of proprietary software (e.g. Adobe). 30 Microsoft products are associated with strong network externalities, easily accessible illegal copies, and large installed bases. Substitutes like OpenOffice and various types of Linux oper- ating systems are generally regarded as being of high quality, but are also little used. It can therefore be argued that it is a strategic pricing decision by Microsoft not to price their products too high in order to prevent open source competition to increasing its installed base, thus preventing network benefits being obtained.