From demonstrated results it can be conclude that re- placing of the “true” scattering amplitude associated to the multi-peripheral processes within the framework of per- turbation theory by its Gaussian approximation is an ac- ceptable approximation. The main conclusion is, that the mechanism of virtuality reduction (considered in ) may play a major role in ensuring the experimentally ob- served increase of the total cross-section [10,11], at least in some range of energies. This growth was obtained with allowance for n at n 8 . However, as it follows from
12 Read more
tical. Since scattering amplitude is, in general, not a product of functions of some variables, and also due to the complexity of integration domain, the multidimen- sional integral in Equation (1) is not a product of small- er-dimensional ones. In considered inelastic process this domain of phase space of finite state particles is deter- mined by the energy-momentum conservation law. As a result, the integration limits for one variable depend on the values of others. In order to overcome these difficult- ties one usually deals with the multi-Regge kinematics [2-10].
27 Read more
Laplace’s method for calculation of each interference contribution. We do not know any works that adopted the inter- ference contributions for inelastic processes. This is due to the generally adopted assumption that the main contribution to the integrals expressing the cross section makes multi-Regge domains with its characteristic strong ordering of secon- dary particles by rapidity. However, in this work, we find what kind of space domains makes a major contribution to the integral and these space domains are not multi-Regge. We demonstrated that because these interference contributions are significant, so they cannot be limited by a small part of them. With the help of the approximate replacement the sum of a huge number of these contributions by the integral were calculated partial cross sections for such numbers of secon- dary particles for which direct calculation would be impossible. The offered model qualitative agrees with experimental dependence of total scattering cross-section on energy s with a characteristic minimum in the range s ≈ 10 GeV. However, quantitative agreement was not achieved; we assume that due to the fact that we have examined the simplest diagrams of 3 theory.
16 Read more
Introduction: Frequent chronic local pain can develop into chronic widespread pain (CWP). The spread of pain is correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, and depression, conditions that ultimately lead to a poor quality of life. Knowledge is incomplete about CWP’s etiology, although it has been suggested that both central hyperexcitability and/or a combination with peripheral factors may be involved. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could act as a mirror for the central nervous system as proteins are signal substances that activate the formation of algesics and control nociceptive processes. To this end, this study investigates the CSF protein expression in women with CWP and in female healthy controls.
16 Read more
According to the conclusions of throughput based on cooperative diversity, a valuable judgment scale is given in the application environment of multi-hop relay wireless sensor network for balancing the relationship between the throughput and network cost.
Previous research has shown the potential of computational modeling to describe the connection between hemodynamic factors and NIH. One of the first studies to model the relation between blood flow dynamics and NIH appeared in 2001 (Hill and Spendiff, 2001). In this model, the relationship between flow and tissue growth was described by modeling the permeability of the endothelium as a function of wall shear stress (WSS). Tran-Son-Tay et al. (2007) and Tran-Son-Tay et al. (2008) investigated the problem by setting up an experiment using a rabbit model. Subsequently, they developed a mathematical model and compared it to the results obtained from the animal model, using a differential equation where the rate of change of the intima thickness is proportional to the shear stress. The model by Budu-Grajdeanu et al. (2008) includes cellular and chemical mechanisms and takes the change in lumen radius into account. Other studies (Dexter et al., 2009; Boyle et al., 2010; Hwang et al., 2011, 2013; Garbey and Berceli, 2013) developed agent- based models of the disease. Wu and Cassel (2013) modeled NIH as a diffusion process of smooth muscle cells using a feedback- control system, and simulated a reduction in NIH. Finally, in the model by Fok (2012), intimal thickening was modeled as a free boundary problem, which was an accurate description of cell and chemical dynamics, but did not include the flow characteristics which are an essential aspect in this study. A key feature of the work shown in this paper is that the simulations presented here are compared against patient-specific clinical data, which to the authors’ knowledge, has not been done before in the context of NIH and bypass failure. Deidentified patient- specific data for this study was obtained with approval of the institutional human investigation committee (approval AD0009, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA) as part of an ongoing collaboration between UCL and Yale University.
21 Read more
High-strength concrete leads to more economical structures. It also leads to reduction in overall building height and dead load, because of the use of thinner slabs and shallower beams. The reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements such as the peripheral beams in each floor of multi storied buildings, ring beams at the bottom of circular tanks, edge beams of shell roofs, the beams supporting canopy slabs and the helical staircases are subjected to significant torsional loading in addition to flexure. Therefore, for understanding the behaviour of reinforced high strength beam, it is necessary to study the beam under combined bending and torsion.
One of the major contributors to the functional or clinical manifestations of peripheral vascular disease is the progressive loss of microvessel and microvascular network structure and function which is tightly coupled to developing metabolic disease in afflicted animals (9, 15) or humans (20, 25). This compromised function within the microcirculation can take multiple forms, including impairments to arteriolar reactivity, mechanical changes to the microvessel wall, and a progressive lowering of microvessel density (rarefaction) within the skeletal muscle (14, 26). Taken together, these impede effective mass transport and exchange, and the regulation of blood flow to, and perfusion within, skeletal muscle (9, 23). In addition, while the functional impact of these impairments may be modest under resting or low-metabolic demand conditions, their cumulative impact becomes more severe as muscle activity increases (6, 13, 28). Given the insidious nature of the development of peripheral vascular diseases (PVD), and the very real clinical challenge of reversing the development of established vasculopathy in affected patients (rather than blunting its subsequent development from an otherwise “healthy” condition), investigation into if/how a compromised microvascular network can be restored to a more normal level of structure and integrated function represents an important area of investigation. Arterial reconstructive surgery for symptomatic PVD can restore macrovascular perfusion but its effects on microvascular dysfunction are unclear. Persistent microvascular dysfunction following successful macrovascular reperfusion may explain why arterial reconstruction does not always lead to wound healing or amelioration of symptoms in patients with PVD (12)
147 Read more
3.1 Adaptive channel selection of ultimate learning machine based on multi-objective combined control On the basis of constructing the multi-objective model of online sequential limit learning machine, the optimization design of channel classification selection algorithm is car- ried out. An online sequential limit model based on feed- back compensation and adaptive equalization control is proposed in this paper . The classification and selection algorithm of learning machine multi-objective model is used to select the sensor fusion information of online se- quential extreme learning machine by using multi-objective combined control. The matched filter structure model is used to optimize the channel transmission performance of the online sequential learning machine. The linear trans- verse equalization analysis is carried out by using the least mean square error (LMS) criterion . It is obtained that the complete baud interval in the frequency band p(t) of the ultimate learning machine is as follows:
CC was integrated the channel coding idea and coordination. CC send the different code word of each user by two independent fading channel. The basic idea is that each user send the redundant information increase to its partners. CC will return elastically to non- cooperation model when the channel between them is very poor. The outstanding characteristics of CC is to achieve coordination by designing channel coding Without the feedback between users. The source data sent from user includes value information and CRC information. Data sending cycle of each user is divided into two stages In CC. We call each stage for a frame.
10 Read more
The two-region simplification of composite reservoirs was improved by various analytical composite reservoir models (listed in the references of  and ). In previous works ( and ), two analytical models were developed for the pressure behaviour of a three-region composite model with power-law variation of properties in the intermediate region. Gravity override was modelled in these works differently, using continuous or discrete tilted fronts. Heat loss from the inner region to the surroundings was also included in these models.
Although the shortest path factor and stochastic factor are the same in model or in practice, there are other questions can’t be solved such as shorter path question, stochastic strength, and etc. For example, multi-path assignment model embodies the relation between travel behavior and road resources, and its theory is easy to understand, and this model’s usage is simple, so these models have a broad application fields. But we find this model may arouse the danger of travel intension accretion when the road network is very complex through a mass of transportation planning practice, and there is no effective controls parameter to decrease the danger to reasonable degree[5, 6].
There has been a body of work in recent decades on hybrid dynamical models, including hybrid bond graphs. This has been well explored in simple subsystems using scalar bond graphs, but has not yet been formalised for multi-bond graphs (also known as vector bond graphs). This variant of a bond graph concatenates scalar bonds for each degree of freedom into single vector bonds, which facilitates multi-body dynamics (MBD) modelling. Hybrid models frequently give rise to dynamic causality, which can create conflicts in a multi-bond graph if applied inconsistently. The author was therefore approached with the task of formalising how to capture switching behaviour like contact with a hybrid multi-bond graph.
were not reversed upon glibenclamide treatment. Even the gait test showed highly negative sciatic functional index as well as phenotypic changes in the paws, confir- ming the extent of nerve damage. These neuropathic behavioral changes in HFD-STZ group were compa- rable with paclitaxel-treated neuropathy group. Nerve conduction velocity test is a commonly used functional biomarker to assess electrical conduction of motor and sensory nerves of the body. It is known that a healthy nerve conducts impulse with greater speed and strength than a damaged one. Slowing of nerve conductions in limb areas indicate the development of generalized peripheral neuropathy. 33 We saw a pronounced decrease
10 Read more
Margaretha Gansterer (2015)  presented a comprehensive hierarchical production planning (HPP) framework, to investigate the impact of aggregate planning in a make-to-order (MTO) environment. The planning problem is formulated as a linear mathematical model and solved to optimality by a standard optimization engine. The performance of the system is evaluated based on service and inventory levels. Real world data coming from the automotive supplier industry is used to define four demand scenarios.
14 Read more
user (see Fig. 2-(b)). Therefore, an asynchronous slotted tra ffi c is considered for each channel at the gateway, due to the independence between users. The probability of transmission of a signal (or duty cycle 2 ) is denoted by q ∈ [0, 1], and for simplicity, it is supposed that q is the same for each user. As depicted in Fig. 2-(b), collisions may occur between packets when at least two users transmit at the same time on the same channel. According to the model in [6, 10], the received power at the gateway from a user at a distance R can be defined as
ditional surface properties of similarity. Finally, be- cause all decisions are informed by the overlap of conceptual units, our approach accounts for partial overlap of information across textual units. To illus- trate this last point, consider a case where three fea- tures A, B, and C should be covered in the output, and where three textual units are available, cover- ing A and B , A and C, and B and C, respectively. Then our model will determine that selecting any two of the textual units is fully sufficient, while this may not be apparent on the basis of text similarity between the three text units; a clustering algorithm may form three singleton clusters, and MMR may determine that each textual unit is sufficiently dif- ferent from each other, especially if A, B, and C are realized with nearly the same number of words. 4 Applying the Model
reduced by all kinds of public transport means, such as rail transit, bus, taxi, etc. Therefore it's not only an inevitable trend to provide diversified means of public transport networks, but also the only way out for big cities to further develop their public transport systems . Development of multi-model public transport has following advantages: 1) can meet the demands of passenger flows of different levels; 2) forms transit oriented (TOD) development; 3) further improves urban competitiveness.
Most of researches reduce their optimization models to single objective either to minimize the total cost of the supply chain or to maximize the total profit. However modeling may require more than single objective such as maximizing profit, maximizing service level, minimizing cost, maximize the utilization of resources. The multi objectives models represent reality more than the single objective ones. Usually, these objectives may cause conflicts. For example, in most cases; increasing service level usually causes a growth in costs while it may maximize profit. Similarly, minimizing the supply chain network total cost may lead to lower level of customer satisfaction due to usage of cheaper resources. The aim of a multi objective supply chain network design is to find trade off solutions in order to satisfy the conflicting objectives which must be optimized by the decision maker.
13 Read more
The essential function of the immune system is to mount effec- tive immune responses to virtually any foreign antigens but avoid harmful immune responses to self. How developing T cells maintain tolerance to self while achieving affinity maturation in response to foreign antigen in the periphery is one of the most important phenomena in immunology but is not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, many studies indicate that both central thymic and peripheral mechanisms are important. For example, thymocytes expressing TCRs with high affinity/avidity for MHC/ self peptide complexes undergo apoptosis and are deleted centrally in the thymus (1). However, some self-reactive T cells with inter- mediate affinity/avidity for self antigen escape thymic negative selection and are released into the periphery. Although these self- reactive T cells display lower affinity/avidity for MHC/self peptide complexes, they are capable of self peptide–driven proliferation, and some may differentiate into potentially pathogenic effector cells (2–4). It is clear that in order to avoid pathogenic autoimmu- nity, peripheral regulatory mechanisms are required to fine-tune the self-reactive TCR repertoire and limit the clonal expansion of these potentially pathogenic self-reactive clones with TCRs whose affinity/avidity is not high enough to cause their intrathymic elimination. These peripheral mechanisms are thought to include activation-induced apoptosis, cytokine interactions, and regulato- ry cells. We provide evidence here that one of the mechanisms for such peripheral regulation of the immune system involves Qa-1– dependent CD8 + T cells.
12 Read more