KewalRamani, 2010). Because of this drastic change, revision is needed in our current education system; from a Eurocentric perspective towards a multicultural one.
Current Representation. The U.S. population has become even more diverse
over the past two decades. Currently, about 14 percent, or 40 million people, living in the United States are foreign-born (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010; Kraut 2014). Most foreign-born individuals are coming from countries in Asia and Latin America (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010; Banks, 2006). The U.S. Census Bureau (2003) illustrates that 82 percent of documented immigrants to the United States, between 1991 and 2000, came from nations in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa, with only 15 percent coming from European countries. Approximately 11 million are undocumented and living in fear (Kraut, 2014). These statistics illustrate the growing diversity in the United States and further communicates the need to integrate multiculturalcurriculum into public schools.
Concerning curriculum implementation, 42 percent of the programs had written multicultural policies or guidelines, but only 33 percent required teachers to follow these guidelines. There were no differences between licensed and exempt programs. Having clearly defined multicultural education policies and guidelines is essential to curriculum implementation (Klein and Chen, 2001). Written guidelines provide direction on how to deal with cultural issues (Gollnick and Chinn, 2009). An examination of curricula indicated that 33 percent of the programs always introduced children to other cultures using multicultural books, posters and pictures, dolls, drama and musical items. Data from interviews regarding curriculum materials did not differ from that collected using the survey instrument. For example, interviewees indicated that they mostly used books and poster in their programs. One administrator however lamented on lack of enough multicultural materials in her program stating that “my program has very limited materials, we are a parent supported programs and often do not have the money to buy toys and other materials that represent a multiculturalcurriculum. We try to make do with what we have” (Author’s filed notes). Nonetheless, cultures represented in the
Instructor-learners will expand their awareness, knowledge and skill in integrating cultural diversity into the professional-technical curriculum at the community college level. This course will increase instructor-learners awareness about cultural diversity, enhance knowledge of specific issues in diversity, and develop skills in integrating cultural diversity into the curriculum. This course will focus on the integration of individual multicultural competence from personal understanding to professional skill. We
Several approaches to promote the self-awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to be a multiculturally competent counselor have been established in accordance with the multicultural counseling standards and recommendations of the Council of Accredited Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP, 2009). Strong evidence exists in support of the positive impact of multicultural training within counselor education programs on increasing trainees’ multicultural competencies regardless of the pedagogical approach (Brown, 2004; Castillo, Brossart, Reyes, Conoley, & Phoummarath, 2007; Cates, Schaefle, Smaby, Maddux, & LeBeauf, 2007; Chu-Lieu Chao, Wei, Good & Flores, 2011; Malott, 2010; Pack-Brown, Thomas, & Seymour, 2008; Sammons & Speight, 2008; Tomlinson-Clarke, 2000). However, it remains a paramount challenge to find the curriculum designs for implementing the multicultural standards that most effectively enables counselors in the field to apply their multicultural knowledge and skills with diverse populations.
The purpose of this study is to present data from the Dream Catchers program in Texas, a literacy-focused program that brings a culturally relevant curriculum to developmental classes in community colleges in that state. The Dream Catchers program, (previously known as Texas College Success Program: Crossing Bridges, Catching Dreams), which focuses on the first year experience of at-risk, first time in college students, was brought to Texas by the non-profit organization Catch the Next, Inc., and began in three community colleges in 2012. The program has since provided training to nearly 13 community college campuses across the state, and is working on its efforts to scale up to all community colleges throughout the rest of the state. Currently, the Dream Catchers programs operate on campuses in some of the most populated regions of Texas, including areas that are majority Latinx (Chavez, 2016). In five years, the program has served approximately 1,500 students across the participating colleges, and about 95% of these students at Latinx (Dream Catchers, n.d.).
For the beginner teacher participants, there is one glaring challenge that many teachers can relate to. The resources that there never seems to be enough of is of course time and money. In addition to simply trying to stay on top of lesson planning,
department meetings, and communication with parents, in order for multicultural education to work successfully, there must be a large effort in content integration and equity pedagogy. In order to do so, teachers are spending countless hours researching simply trying to find materials that are both inclusive and representative. In addition to low-funded schools, teachers are also spending much of their own resources to provide diverse materials in their classrooms. For many teachers such as Nora, she states that it would make a large difference having additional funding to be able to provide relevant materials and resources that are inclusive such as having all home letters be translated in other languages. She also includes the necessity of continual diversity training not only faculty and staff but for students as well. Other ways that the five teachers described would be useful with additional funding is to develop a database for pre-planned
related to the implementation of PAI at SMA Plus Pembangunan Jaya Bintaro Tangerang having a commitment to develop the multicultural insights. The implementation of PAI in developing the multicultural insights applies two things: firstly, developing type of inclusive educators. Such educators are as the exemplary actors for students to develop the multicultural attitude and as the actors who implement the school programs having the multicultural dimensions. The second one is designing the multiculturalcurriculum. Curriculum which is doubly applied is the curriculum of PAI K-13 containing the integration between the KD and the KI, although in this curriculum there are still weaknesses and curriculum of liberal art. Curriculum of liberal art is as the curriculum of typically school or part of the excellent curriculum, whose objective is to develop the multicultural insights. The two curriculums are complementary. With this approach, PAI can deliver the religious missions as the mercy bringer for the universe. In summary, the findings of this study are not in line with the previous studies that revealed the religious education served as medium of cultivating ideology and supporting factors for cultivating exclusive behavior and thought.
oppressive situations. A longitudinal research project and/or a quantitative study could further explore the validity and relevance of our findings. A comparative study of attitudes of the participants before and after a SFT process would also be very interesting. What changes take place in regard to acculturation? Which attitudes linked to integration have shifted in both immigrants and students? A longitudinal research project might give some answers to these questions. We see the need for educating art and cultural workers in the areas of theatre (SFT) as intercultural communication. Having received this training, they could then teach SFT at learning centres, asylum centres and schools. This would contribute to increased integration in the multicultural society and counteract mutual stereotyping, segregation and
The case study described in the next section will consider this approach, promoting this kind of education experience through the creation of multicultural groups, including students from several nationalities (Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, Finland, Czech Republic, Poland and Latvia,). The activities were expressed and resolved within various cultural groups (Lee, 1995).
The city is located in the Dobrogea region of Roma nia, on the Black Sea coast. 100 youngsters from Euro pean countries will celebrate the European Year for Ac tive Ageing and Solidarity Between Generations 2012 under the motto “TΟΜΙΣ: A multicultural example for Eu rope!”, combining the typical EYP program with cultural, sports events, trips and even re laxing time, as well as enjoying the summer sun while discovering the beauty of Romanian beaches.
geographies, and communities – locally and globally. I propose a global graduate to be someone who has the capabilities to lead a life she has reason to value in a multicultural and globalising world. This definition owes much to the capability work of Amatya Sen (Sen, 1999, 2008), and situates all our graduates as people who live in a culturally diverse world in which, gender, ethnicity, nationality, social class, and many other dimensions of difference materially impact upon an individual’s freedoms to conduct his life in ways which will give him reason to value it. University education makes a difference to what I refer to as an individual’s subjective capabilities for leading such a life, and today as never before, those capabilities need to be relevant to and applicable within a world in which encounters with diverse others are increasingly commonplace and often contested, and where the impacts we have upon the lives of diverse others are increasingly globally as well as locally dispersed.
Counselors must be prepared to work effectively with diverse clients because the composition of the population of the United States continues to change (Sue & Sue, 1999). Previous research has reflected reluctance by training programs to include course work on mental health and socio-cultural issues relative to minority groups (Bernal & Padilla, 1982). Although multicultural education is generally believed to be effective, there continue to be questions about the extent of its efficacy (Vontress & Jackson, 2004), but a “troubling” number of respondents reported seeing clients despite reporting low levels of competence with that client group (Allison, Echemendia, Crawford & Robinson, 1996). Counselors who hold a worldview different from their clients’ (and are unaware of the basis for this
Multicultural education is a response to the development of various educational realities from all aspects of diversity. In another dimension, multicultural education is able to provide learning according to socio-cultural reality. Thus, educators need to understand the characteristics of the students. Educators who understand the characteristics of children, of course, directly learn to understand the differences of each child in all aspects. Therefore, through multicultural education covers all children without distinction from various aspects including social and cultural. This is similar to one of James Bank's (1994) explanations, that multicultural education has an important interrelated dimension: (1) content integration, which integrates cultures and groups to describe fundamental concepts, generalizations and theories of learning or discipline. (2) the knowledge construction process, which is to bring children to understand the cultural implications into a lesson. (3) an equity pedagogy, ie adjusting the learning method with the child's learning style, as an effort to facilitate academic achievement that varies both racially, culturally and socially. (4) prejudice reduction, which identifies the characteristics of the child and determines the method of teaching. Then train the group to interact with the diversity that exists in the environment, in an effort to create a tolerant and inclusive academic environment (Mahfud,2006:176-177). It can be understood practically that the dimension of multicultural education, ie integrating culture so that the birth of the basic theory of multidisciplinary science, so that it can be implied in life. Creating or using learning methods that are more
The Integrated model provides a church where people of all cultures can overcome fear of non-acceptance and insecurity regarding the extent to which they can feel a sense of belonging, a sense of home. This is achieved by welcome and hospitality, interaction and education, and the church’s intentional efforts to find ways to include all people in the worship, life and decision-making of the church. A church may not have achieved all that is possible, but its genuine attempts are recognised and appreciated. For instance, at Brunswick’s focus group, a member pointed out ‘we read the Bible from a very ethnocentric, monocultural perspective. I think it would be an enriching experience to read the Bible with the perspective of many different cultures’. It is significant that someone is aware enough of that to at least ask the question, even though the person is saying that Brunswick is not there yet. An Integrated church model is able to work towards and engage in ‘unity in diversity’ fully where they can read the Bible from an ethno-relative multicultural perspective. This indicates that the voices of different backgrounds are welcomed to the centre.
different communities of people based on language, religion and caste multiculturalism is woven in the fabric of India. Situation in Teaching learning context The basis for teaching should always be the student. Regrettably this foundation is too often forgotten in the urgent need to cover content or make. The individual, including teachers, not just students, is lost in the rush for measurable outcomes that may or may not identify meaningful learning, but will almost always make the front page of the local paper, ranking schools and test results with little attention given to the social or cultural content or context of the school population. Reforms need to be done in teacher Education Programme The focus in teacher education programs has been on curriculum content rather than on effective and appropriate instructional strategies for teaching and reaching diverse groups of students. If we are to prepare today’s teachers for the changing composition of our society and schools, colleges of education need to do much more following are the reforms need to be done in teacher education programme:
India is a multicultural and emerging globalized society. Indian education system is secular and democratic value based. ‘Indian culture is the culture of cultures.’ So it is not a particular culture but mixture of various cultures. It is the unique culture in the world. To transmit this culture is the role of education. So, Indian multicultural education is based on social justice, educational equity and respect for all thoughts. Multicultural education includes content integration, the knowledge and wisdom construction process, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy and empowering school culture and social culture.
Within the post-war era of consensus, immigration was largely accepted as a fundamental aspect of British society. Cultural pluralism was depicted as an asset that need valorization and socio-cultural and political plans were offered to ease the integration of British ethnic minorities. A number of race relations acts were passed to echo such official interest in creating harmonious relations between British ethnic minorities and the dominant white community. Tow topical acts were passed: Race Relations Act of 1976 and 2000 Race Relations (Amendment) Act. The Race Relations Act of 1976 made it illegal to discriminate against any person because of race, color, nationality, or origin, and it is a criminal offence to incite racial hatred. 2000 Race Relations (Amendment) Act emphasized that every institution and local authority has not only not to discriminate but to promote racial equality. Apart from their legislative requirements, the two acts presented a watershed in British race-related legislation since they were the fundamental acts in organizing and managing race relations with British society and polity. They equally paved the way for the emergence and consolidation of multicultural politics in contemporary Britain.
Education with multicultural insight in the formulation of James A. Bank is the concept of ideas or philosophy as a set of believe and an explanation that recognizes and assesses the importance of cultural and ethnic diversity in shaping lifestyles, social experiences, personal identities, opportunities education from individuals, groups or countries (Banks and Cherry, 2001: 28). Meanwhile, according to Sonia Nieto, multicultural education is a comprehensive and fundamental education process for all students. This type of education opposes the form of racism and all forms of discrimination in schools, the community by accepting and affirming prularity (ethnicity, race, language, religion, economy, gender, etc.) that are reflected among students, their communities, and teachers. According to him, this multicultural education must be inherent in the curriculum and teaching strategies, including in every interaction conducted between the teachers (Nieto, 2002: 29), students, and family as well as the overall atmosphere of teaching and learning. Because this type of education is a critical religion, reflection and a basis for action in society, multiculral education develops the principles of democracy in social justice.
These categories overlap, and educators may use more than one approach simultaneously. Banks (1997b) describes the dimensions of multicultural n is the inclusion of materials, concepts, and values from a variety of cultures in teaching. Knowledge construction is the recognition that all knowledge is socially constructed, created in the minds of human beings to