Finally, in the study, pre-service social studies teachers were asked to make suggestions for solving problems in a multiculturalenvironment. Almost all of the study group proposed solutions to problems in a multiculturalenvironment under the themes of ―the values that must exist in a multicultural society should be introduced‖ (95%), and ―training should be provided‖ (94%). Therefore, it can be said that multicultural education is considered as a very important tool in the values education. Indeed, Banks (2009) pointed out the importance of multicultural education in introducing values to children in his study. In studies conducted on students receiving multicultural education (Gay, 1994; Hollins, 1996; Ware, 2006), it was determined that there is an increase in the academic achievement of students in common. In his study, Aslan (2017) found out that teachers use the case study method in multicultural education based on the activity. In this study, some of the pre-service teachers suggested this method under the theme of ―training should be provided‖. The secret of success in a multiculturalenvironment is destroying the prejudices of individuals to one another (Banks, 2009, Dunn, 1997). This is possible by raising awareness among children through multicultural education. Other solution proposals of the pre-service teachers were gathered under the themes of ―differences should be accepted‖ (19%) and ―the state should take measures‖ (18%).
Our findings concur with those reported by Cleveland et al. (2013) and Cleveland and Laroche (2012), as we can see cosmopolitanism being an integral part of ethnic consumers ’ acculturation process in a multiculturalenvironment. Beck (2002) suggests that for cosmopolitans, cosmopolitan values subordinate their national values. This is not always the case for some of the respondents in our research: as we noticed, people may exhibit cosmopolitanism for health reasons, economic reasons and/or social reason (as discussed in the section on refrainment). Cosmopolitanism spans across the social strata. While for the educated elite, it may provide opportunities to learn, experience and enjoy meeting people from other nations, trying their food and celebrating diversity, for the working class it may create collective and communal bonding that supports their livelihood and maintains their ancestral food habits (e.g. buying vegetables and halal food from ethnic shops). As such, consumer cosmopolitanism in multicultural environments may work as a supporting and complementary catalyst for acculturation strategies. Multiculturalism, although it encourages the co-existence of various communities and their cultures, may not promote and support cross-community interaction. Rather, communities may well be separated like mosaic boxes. Consumer cosmopolitanism on the contrary may well enable and encourage people living in a multicultural society to inter-mingle and adopt each other ’ s cultural practices. Our paper analyses the paradoxes and intricacies that facilitate and/or inhibit these practices through a taxonomy of multi-directional acculturation strategies and their interaction with cosmopolitanism in a multiculturalenvironment.
The inclusion in the school environment and generally in education. The framework of the class provides a predictable routine, clear expectations, consistent rules and direct feedback, so it has been recognized as an field of socialization, expansion especially in the case of trauma. Children survivors have the ability to integrate into a normal daily routine and adopt "normal responses". In addition, teachers have trusted contacts with students and their parents, and most of them are able to function and contribute to a comprehensive healing framework.
The entrepreneurial game took place in Setúbal during the Business Week dedicated to “Entrepreneurship”. In it there were 56 students and 11 teachers from 7 countries 1 . Students were divided by seven groups and each group had 2 tutors (one Portuguese and another for a foreign country). Tutors had a special role in the game to support students during the activities. The entrepreneurial game also was an opportunity for tutors to work in a multiculturalenvironment in apprenticeship perspective.
All the above mentioned factors raise the necessity for the development of new programmes, courses. It widens the educational market, the appearance of different ways of learning. It means there is a necessity for a global adult educator who is able to promote democratic processes, manage controversial issues, work in a multiculturalenvironment, apply the subject knowledge, understand international labour market, changes in the workforce, good in the application of new technologies and new organizational forms in the social life, able to speak in three or four foreign languages, think globally, act locally (Steiner, 1996).
The way people view the world is determined wholly or partly by the structure of their native language. Following this way of reasoning, it seems obvious that in a situation when two people being users of different native languages meet, their view of the world, patterns of behavior and beliefs differ. Nowadays, in the era of globalization, more and more people move to another country to work or study and different cultures come into contact. Multiculturalism is an entrenched reality at university nowadays. Those who do not love it bear it, and those who accuse it are few. It defines the core of the moral mission of the contemporary university. Students, and also their tutors, seem to encounter problems concerning cultural clashes. Teaching and learning in a multiculturalenvironment has, undoubtedly, advantages and disadvantages. As far as the negative aspect of learning and teaching in a multiculturalenvironment is concerned, there are various problems encountered while two, or more different cultures come into contact. The problems are encountered not only by students, but by tutors and lecturers as well. As far as it concerns the students, and state that students enrolled in courses taught by professors coming from different ethnic or linguistic backgrounds experience discomfort, tension and conflict. It also applies to professors who experience such reservations towards foreigners and may encounter problems while marking them and trying to be honest. There are students who do not appreciate
Diversity prevails in the education system. Diversity in the classroom consists of different learners. Teachers play an important role in dealing with such diversity. It is pivotal that pre- service teachers must be confident and possess the ability to cater to a multicultural classroom. It is imperative that pre-service teachers are effectively trained to meet the needs of diverse learners. In short high multicultural efficacy among pre- service teachers is needed. Do the preservice teachers possess the experience, attitude and multicultural efficacy towards teaching? Can they effectively implement multicultural strategies for equity pedagogy?The paper is an attempt to study it.The present study is a descriptive research of comparative type. The main goal of this type of research was to compare the Multicultural Efficacy on the basis of type of management and year- wise of the pre- service teachers. The sample consisted of 400 pre- service teachers from colleges of education. The Multicultural Efficacy Scale was prepared by Guyton, E. M., &Wesche, M. V was used for the present study.In the present study, two- stage sampling technique was used. ‘t’ test was used to compare the means scores and profile analysis to identify the dimensions of Multicultural efficacy.The study reveals that the Multicultural Efficacy of pre- service teachers of aided colleges of education is higher than that of unaided colleges of education. There is no statistically significant difference in the multicultural efficacy of F.Y.B.ED and S.Y.B.ED pre- service teachers. The result of the profiles analysis of aided and unaided colleges of education intersect across dimensions on the basis of type of management. The profiles of F.Y.B.ED and S.Y.B.ED are not equal and do not intersect across dimensions on the basis of year- wise.
however, may gravitate to one side more based on relationships with family members or other monoracial individuals that police the authenticity of their identity. Adults that are both Black and Latinx, can identify as the immersion of one identity (e.g., Blaxican, Afro-Latinx, or Mixed Race). Afro-Latinx identity development in k-12 schooling is challenged by the affects of neoliberal reforms to education. As a strong emphasis on performance and standardized tests— areas where funding is limited—schools are bombarded with stipulations and restrain from a critical cultural relevant pedagogy to a teaching environment that focuses on accountability. The role of k-12 school inhibit mixed-race identity construction of Afro-Latinx adults. For Afro-Latinx adults, what shaped their identity were spaces they felt comfortable in expressing themselves freely, for example, at home, church, school or college, the military, and/or social group. A suggestion would be to bolster youth initiatives within their community though
These hands-on multiculturalist activities have been particularly intense in the Mission neighbourhood, probably because the concentration of people whose professions—arts, literature, humanities—and attendant life orientations foster explorative, open-minded attitudes towards the world and the people in it, is higher here than elsewhere in the city. A lack of significant residential or economic competition among the resident groups has upheld the friendly coexistence of their members, and a low level of residential racial, ethnic, and sexual (gay vs. heterosexual) segregation has facilitated everyday contacts. These features of the Mission have, in turn, attracted a particular kind of people: people who are cosmopolitan or, as observers call them, “bohemian” in mind and spirit, whose individual characteristics, reciprocally, sustain the multicultural profile of the neighbourhood in which they live. As they engage in the everyday activities of their neighbourhood, its residents compose and re-compose over time their interests and practices into changing constellations, creating a variety of local (sub) cultural features: faces, pronunciations, sights, smells, and sounds.
On further reflection, it seems to me that both the “culturally tolerant” attitude and the “you must obey the local laws” attitude belie subtle forms of racism, and indeed, raise vital questions about the nature of a multicultural society. It seems to me both attitudes betray an unwillingness to engage members of other cultures in discussion, even when the practice being discussed (physical discipline of children) is hardly a practice foreign to the dominant Anglo- Australian culture, and has been subject to intense debate within this dominant culture. There seems to be a kind of Orientalism (Said, 1978) occurring here, where a common practice, developed for a common end (the development of one’s children) can no longer be commonly discussed due to a barrier called “culture.” The teacher mentioned in the example above would not have hesitated to share her concerns with a parent from her own culture, yet believed that these concerns could not be attended to by a parent from a different culture because somehow this thing called “culture” would convince this parent that concerns about the safety of the discipline practice were irrelevant. (It may be overstating the case a bit, but it almost seemed as though this teacher were assuming that “culture” would prevent a parent from caring about their child). The same applies to the case mentioned above of the child protection officer (me). I also assumed too quickly that the family would not be willing to discuss their practice with me due to this inhibition called “culture.” Yet, there were a number of questions I could have asked had I not begun from an assumption that this family would not be willing to talk to me; technical questions such as, whether they were aware that using an implement to hit a diminishes the amount of control one has over the impact of the strike, and may result in non-intentional injury; or more broad ranging questions such as how the children would not notice who was holding the implement, and still associate punishment with that person’s hands (as the family had asserted the “hands give love”).
As we can see, diversity, peace education, and multicultural classrooms bring several benefits. Along this line, a study in Spain conducted by Aguadez, Buendía, Expósito, and Sánchez (2015) concluded that although multicultural coexistence is an important issue for the educational system, there are not enough resources allocated to education to make improvements; therefore, the different strategies and the curricular adaptations for this type of classroom are not appropriate for achieving inclusion. In Chile, the government knows about this reality, but the evidence has shown that teachers do not receive enough tools to integrate diversity in their classes. Nowadays, the only program that the government has is one called Bilingual Intercultural Education which is focused on recovering the indigenous cultures in the national territory, people who reside mainly in the north and south of the country and have for years been excluded from the cultural heritage taught in schools. However, this program does not include suggestions for inclusion nor adaptations for migrant students in the classroom, leaving a gap.
It is the breadth of multicultural education which makes it such a profound change in the ways we think about education. Banks (1997b) describes the dimensions of multicultural education in five overlapping areas in which researchers and practitioners are involved. Content integration is the inclusion of materials, concepts, and values from a variety of cultures in teaching. Knowledge construction is the recognition that all knowledge is socially constructed, created in the minds of human beings to explain their experience and thus, can be challenged. Ideas that shape society do change.. Equity pedagogy is involved when teachers alter their teaching methods to accommodate the various cultural differences of diverse students to stimulate academic achievement. Prejudice reduction concerns, changing the students' attitudes towards differences of race and ethnicity teaching tolerance about religion, physical and mental abilities, and sexual preference. An empowering school culture is the dimension of multicultural education that enables the other four dimensions. Educators must examine the structures of education that impede learning and empower students and families from "diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups”. The aim is to create schools that encourage the full development of all students. Multicultural education is about social change through education. It requires deep and critical thinking, imagination, and commitment to another tomorrow, inclusive of the wealth of all of our stories and peoples. It is another aspect of the continuous human journey toward justice and pushes us toward the fulfillment of the promises of democracy. It gives us new questions to ask and directions to follow to uncover human possibilities in the new millennium. (Greene (1995),)
The Integrated church model is based on a theological vision of multicultural mission. It has the potential to strongly reflect diversity and inclusivity because it is not only inclusive of people of other cultural backgrounds but indeed its diversity influences and changes the community, in stark contrast to the Monocultural church model. Healthy Integrated congregations show a leadership team with representation that reflects that diversity. Life in such communities involves constantly interacting and working towards equality in the light of justice. The sharing of stories is central at services, hospitality and celebrations. A high level of awareness is needed around differences in power perceptions and communication styles, which can lead to strategies for the genuine inclusion of NESB voices. One key challenge in this model is that churches need to be aware of issues of power balance between the English-speaking and NESB people. If these are not intentionally addressed it’s probably true that the church has reverted to functioning in a Monocultural way.
Yet orientalism is being transformed, rather than overcome, through the intercultural citizen. It is a figure which largely corresponds to a multicul- turalist conception of society and can be illustrated through the Channel 4 reality programme Make Bradford British aired in 2012. Like numerous media representations of multicultural society, the documentary caused a brief media frenzy and was later forgotten. It is, however, distinguishable through its promotion of intercultural citizens. The programme mostly concurred with many of the Labour Party’s guidelines for community activism such as ‘developing resilience’ through sharing futures and notions of belongings, while dispelling ‘myths’ and ‘promoting interaction’. 70 Yet there was one
In his milestone study, Hofstede (1980) classifies culture using four dimensions which structure organisations and societies. These dimensions comprise of power distance, uncertainty avoidance; individualism vs. collectivism and masculinity vs. femininity. He interviewed and questioned 16000 employees coming from 40 different countries and his findings have been extremely dominant in later literature on culture and management (e.g., Erez & Earley, 1993; Kedia & Bhagat, 1988; Shore & Venkatachalam, 1995). The most influential dimension proposed by Hofstede (1980), which affects trust within the multicultural project team, is individualism vs. collectivism. Team members with an individualistic cultural background tend to focus more on their individual needs, values and objectives, rather than those of the project team as a whole. On the contrary, collectivist nationals share the needs, values and objectives with the other members of the project team. His research also implies that individualistic nationals are not majorly affected by team membership, find it easy to join and leave the team and tend to be involved in open and direct communication, in comparison to individuals with a collectivist national background (Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1980, 1991). Additionally, trusting behaviour (Pearce, 1974) reflected in the responsiveness to unclear messages, occurs more amongst individualistic cultures
Multicultural education deals with the ideals of social justice and education equality in which all students reach their full potential as learners and as socially aware and active beings, locally, nationally, and globally. It is an education that enables all learners regardless of their gender, ethnicity, race, culture, social class, religion, have an equal opportunity to learn at school. By applying this multicultural perspective in the practice of English language teaching and learning, the learners will acquire, attitude, knowledge, and skills needed to function within their own culture, mainstream culture and the global community. Therefore, it is important to improve multicultural awareness among students. Moreover, teachers should use content from diverse groups. This will enable the students to understand how knowledge in various disciplines is constructed. The teachers should develop positive intergroup attitudes and behaviours, and modify their teaching skills so that students from different racial, cultural, language, and social- class groups will experience equal educational opportunities. An education system should be such that it can create a new generation of individual who believe that all human beings are brothers and that difference of caste, religion, community have no significance.
Multiculturally oriented personality is the personality having civil ethno-cultural consciousness, ways of creative self-organization and self-realization in the multicultural world. Key competences have to be inherent in it, namely: common cultural competences: knowledge of bases and regularities of development of the multicultural world, ability to be guided in cultural diversity of the world; the competences concerning life in multicultural society: ability to the organization of cross-cultural interaction; the competences connected with the organization and management of productive communication in the conditions of the multiculturalenvironment: ability is effective to solve communicative problems; existence of abilities to interсultural communication in professional, sociocultural and public work.
Abstract This article is based on a survey of an international class, covering a period of 8 years, each class consisting of 24-32 students form 12-16 different countries, mainly Europe, but also including some Asians, Africans and Americans. Through the course, the students are confronted with their own attitudes, exploring how they react to prejudices and biases. We focus on the concepts of multicultural identity and multicultural competence, challenging the students to express their own perspectives both on their own culture as well and on others, and how this affects their identity. The course also focuses on culture and worldview, as well as the identity-construction of children in a multicultural setting. The students also discuss their views on global challenges, and their own role in the future society. The survey, which is both quantitative and qualitative, therefore includes both cognitive as well as emotive elements, and is partly descriptive and partly analytical. We challenge the students to express how their attitudes, values, and convictions have been influenced by the course. The main issues mentioned are discussed in relation to theory, both the required readings of the course, as well as supplementary literature in the multicultural field.
The development of a competent communication style for students in a multicultural space involves the tolerance development, the adequacy of social perception, communicative competence and self-confidence, trust in oneself and the world, but it does not boil down to being protected from physical influences, and above all, protecting a person from manifestations of psychological aggression, negative, emotional, informational, organizational influences (Kharlamenkova, 2019). Psychological and pedagogical research, reflecting the problem of security at the university educational space, actualizes the need to study objective factors, features of a multiculturalenvironment, attitudes of students that can influence constructively or destructively the psychological tonality and well-being of interaction. The psychological safety of the university multiculturalenvironment ensures the psychological well-being of its subjects (Harlamenkova, 2018).
Findings from the present study provide information about the perceived multicultural disability competence of master’s-level counseling students enrolled in CACREP-accredited programs. Study results contribute to and enhance the current knowledge base on the impact of exposure/contact and training on perceived multicultural disability competence. The present study also produced the only known data capturing master’s-level counseling students’ perceptions of the extent to which the topic of ability/disability is covered in multicultural counseling courses in CACREP-accredited programs. Collectively, these findings have implications for counselor trainees, counselor educators, and counselor training programs. Results of the present study suggest that master’s-level counseling students in CACREP- accredited programs may not be receiving adequate training regarding multicultural issues for persons with disabilities in their multicultural counseling courses, and there is some preliminary evidence that the needs and concerns of persons with disabilities are not addressed in other areas of training (Allison et al. 1994; Milsom, 2002; Reed-Cunningham & Fleming, 2009). Findings from this study indicated that disability-related life experience(s) not only had a greater impact on perceived multicultural disability competence than multicultural counseling course