In this study, BeST (CIRIA, 2015) and the Blue-Green Cities multiple benefits GIS toolbox (BGC, 2016) were used to evalu- ate the impact of the Killingworth and Longbenton surface water management scheme. This partnership project in the north-east of England, jointly funded by Northumbrian Water, the EA and North Tyneside Council, aims to remove surface water from the sewer network and return it to the natural environment through blue – green and grey interventions (NWCP, 2016). Six benefits, including flood damage reduction (the primary objective of the scheme), are quantified and mone- tised, and the spatial distribution and intensity of five non-flood biophysical benefits are demonstrated, illustrating how the benefit intensity (illustrating the extent and distribution of single or cumulative benefits) may change spatially in response to local environmental factors. Two qualitative benefits are assessed, and locations that have the greatest opportunity for improvement are highlighted by calculating the potential benefits. Utilisation of these complementary tools for multiple benefit evaluation shows promise as an aid to facilitate partner- ship working towards implementation of multi-functional BGI, with potential application in the public and private sectors. 2. Multiple benefit evaluation
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Research projects such as ‘Blue - Green Cities’ and ‘Blue Green Dream’ ( Maksimović et al., 2013 ) are helping advance the paradigm shift away from grey infrastructure alone to a combination of grey plus Blue-Green. However, widespread implementation requires negotiation of the Blue-Green Vision by all representative stakeholders, and subsequent ownership and championing of that vision. Although specific to the locality where it is developed, the Blue-Green Vision will be founded on the changes in culture and practice to allow urban environments to follow the principles of Blue-Green Cities by maximising the opportunities to achieve multiple benefits of Blue-Green approaches to surface water and flood risk management. Blue-Green design can be used to create an urban environment where multifunctional surface water management schemes bring a range of benefits to the environment, society and economy. For instance, the integration of water management, urban green space provision and connected Blue-Green space makes areas better places to live. Natural assets enhance the visual quality of the urban environment in the time between floods; communities are more healthy and quality of life is improved; social capital is enhanced through better relationship with water and the interaction with the natural environment/urban space; water quality is improved by natural processes and treatments; and schemes are designed to be sustainable by making them resilient and adaptive to future changes, e.g. in climate and landuse. It is no longer sufficient to consider water and flood risk management in isolation from other urban systems and services, rather to take an integrated and synergistic perspective in order to get ‘more from less’ in any investment. For this to be effective, the place of water management within land use, urban design and city planning needs to be properly
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Food security, lowering the risk of climate change and meeting the increasing demand for energy will increasingly be critical challenges in the years to come. Producing sustainably is therefore becoming central in agriculture and food systems. Legume crops could play an important role in this context by delivering multiple services in line with sus- tainability principles. In addition to serving as fundamental, worldwide source of high-quality food and feed, legumes contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, as they release 5–7 times less GHG per unit area compared with other crops; allow the sequestration of carbon in soils with values estimated from 7.21 g kg − 1 DM, 23.6 versus
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Pineapples are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals which have multiple benefits to human health. In Malaysia, pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors with 76 cultivars planted throughout this country. According to some previous studies, different pineapple cultivars have different phytochemical characteristics and bioactivities from each other (Brat et al., 2004; Kongsuwan et al., 2009; Zulipeli, 2007, Wardy et al., 2009). However, the physicochemical, biochemical and organoleptic properties evaluation and comparison among the commercial cultivars are yet to be fully accomplished. Hence, this study was performed to analyse the differences among the cultivars with the purpose to generate useful nutritional and health beneficial information of different Malaysian pineapple commercial cultivars in order to provide essential data resource either for future study of the fruit or as reference for commercial activity.
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The multiple benefits of Valeriana officinalis made it a true miracle of nature. Numerous studies have been conducted on different parts of Valeriana officinalis, but this plant has not yet developed as a drug by pharmaceutical industries. In view of the nature of the plant, more research work can be done on humans so that a drug with multifarious effects will be available in the future market.
from the seventies ; however it has not been approved as an energy saving method for the built environment. The most of the studies have been conducted about green façades (base on climbing plants), but still even those concepts are not fully investigated. Many re- searches can be deepened for quantifying the environ- mental benefits especially for the macroscale. Recent technical solutions are under development for vertical greening systems, as defined living wall systems (LWS). This is a new field to investigate, regarding the insula- tion properties, durability aspects, maintenance, plants choice related to the climate conditions, materials in- volved, etc. The systems design can take into account many aspects, such as the integration with the building envelope, a sustainable material choice considering the environmental impact but also the symbiosis between the growing medium and the vegetation, which is a key element for the success of the greening system. Also the economical aspects, related to costs savings due to pos- sible reduction of energy needed for heating and cooling, have to be taken into account for avoiding a larger use of green envelops in the urban area. A process tree can be developed for urban design, new constructions and ret- rofitting projects, to afford the right choice of greening system, considering the main parameters, as the climate type and building characteristics, to avoid damages and maintenance problems caused by an inappropriate design. The multiple benefits of vertical greening systems could
In Direct Sequence (DS) spread spectrum communications  the employment of channel coding is crucial. Viterbi’s classic work  suggests that bandwidth expansion dedicated to low-rate channel coding has the potential of fully exploiting the achievable processing gain, while simultaneously offering a high coding gain as well as approaching the capacity of the multiple access channel contaminated by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). As a further development, the concept of code-spread CDMA was suggested by Frenger et al. in , where the authors proposed the employment of so- called maximum-free-distance low-rate codes, which combine channel coding and DS-spreading. More specifically, these maximum-free-distance low-rate codes are designed by first finding the ’best’ generator polynomials specifying the most meritorious convolutional code for a specific constraint length having the maximum free distance. The resultant codes are then concatenated an appropriate number of times, according to the specific code rate required. The resultant performance was shown to be better than that of conventional CDMA and of the low-rate orthogonal code-spread CDMA scheme of . In  Mahadevappa and Proakis further augmented the concept of chip-interleaved CDMA, which is capable of mitigating the effect of both Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI) and Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The performance
The possibility of sorting polypharmacy into the categories appropriate and inappropriate can be very useful in fostering the most beneficial combinations of drugs. The proposed approach is innovative and enables the integration of a variety of conflicting criteria in the evaluation of polypharmacy quality. It allows clinicians to express their opinion, and their hesitation where relevant, linguistically. In addition, it evaluates each polypharmacy taking into consideration the impact of the drugs that compose it in terms of risks, benefits, and improvement of quality of life. The proposed approach is based on the ELECTRE Tri and ELECTRE Tri-C methods and demonstrates their applicability in conjunction with linguistic variables. The evaluation of the quality of polypharmacies and their classification into a category as being appropriate, more or less appropriate, or inappropriate, is very useful for clinicians. It allows them to promote the use of more beneficial drug combinations. For example, algorithms can be developed and integrated into pharmaceutical management software in drug stores and hospitals in order to rapidly identify potentially problematic polypharmacies that need to be examined more closely by a pharmacist. Algorithms can also be included into smartphone applications so as to enable healthcare professionals to use them in the course of their clinical activities. Furthermore, because polypharmacy mainly affects the elderly, we based our example thereon. However, the principles developed can be extended to a number of other population groups and clinical situations. For example, the concomitant use of several drugs is frequent in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. The proposed method in this paper is general and can also be applied in these cases in order to distinguish appropriate and inappropriate polypharmacies.
Cases of polypharmacy are most commonly observed in elderly patient as they are more likely to take multiple medications to treat their chronic illnesses. Patients aged more than 65 years old are the one who takes medicines more than that is prescribed which includes the supplement and herbal medicines . So much so, because they are so concern about their health as they are aging. However, they are unaware of the consequences that are ahead of the habit of polypharmacy.
Döring TF, Storkey J, Baddeley JA, Crowley O, Howlett SA, McCalman H, Pearce H, Roderick S and Jones HE (2012). Legume based plant mixtures for delivery of multiple ecosystem services: Weed diversity and weed control. In: Valuing Ecosystems: Policy, Economic and Management Interactions. Proceedings of the SAC and SEPA Biennial Conference, Agriculture and the Environment IX, Edinburgh, 163-168 pp.
Sirtuins are class III HDACs proteins that have deacylase activity and are critical to ageing [148,149]. They regulate important biological pathways in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. They have been implicated in influencing a wide range of cellular processes like aging, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation and stress resistance, as well as energy efficiency and alertness during low-calorie situations. The name Sir2 comes from the yeast gene 'silent mating-type information regulation 2', a gene responsible for cellular regulation in yeast. The well-established member of the sirtuins family, SIRT1, is the mammalian homologue of the yeast SIR2. Sirtuin activators slow down the onset of age associated diseases which reduce the rate of ageing. SIRT1 is one of the key genes upregulated during calorie restriction, which leads to a number of biological adaptations to prolong lifespan . Overexpression of sirtuin is believed to be the reason for slowing down of ageing in yeast [150, 151]. Resveratrol has long been shown to act as an anti ageing compound due to its ability to activate the sirtuin compound . It has been reported to increase the life span of yeast, flies and several non-mammalian species, and confer protection against a variety of aging-related maladies, including neurodegenerative diseases, multiple forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease, implicating its potential as an anti-aging agent in treating age-related human diseases [4,77,152] Some early reports observed that overexpression or increased dosage of Sir2 increased lifespan in both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila [150,151,153,154]. But later on it was found that increased longevity was calorie restriction mediated and increased dosage of Sir2 increased the lifespan modestly. It was observed that increased dosage of Sirt1, the mammalian ortholog closest to Sir2, does not increase the lifespan, but improves healthy aging in mice .
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Asthma is a major public health problem affecting a large number of individuals of all ages. The effectiveness of medications depends not only on the efficacy and appropriateness of the drugs used, but also on patient adherence to the intended regimen. Adherence with medication regimens is essential for attaining maximal therapeutic benefits. The main objective of the study was to assess the medication adherence and to identify the reasons for non-adherence to prescribed therapy. The medication adherence was assessed by using Morisky Medication Adherence Assessment questionnaires. Assessment of patient’s adherence from baseline to first follow up showed a mean increase in medication adherence level of 2.735 ± 0.1762 and P < 0.0001 which is statistically significant. Assessment of patient’s adherence from baselines to second follow up shows a mean increase of 3.211 ± 0.172 and P < 0.0001 which is statistically significant. The study concludes that pharmacist provided patient counseling found to have significant influence on improvement in the patient’s adherence to prescribed therapy.
This work has several implications for the current debate on the determinants of managerial compensation. First, it has the advantage of focusing on the French context. On the one hand, France is characterized by a relatively weak legal system and, thus, a low investor protection environment, which gives rise to expropriation of minority shareholders (La Porta et al., 1999). Typically, French listed firms have a concentrated ownership structure and are controlled through various control-enhancing mechanisms, such as dual-class shares and pyramidal structures. These mechanisms allow the ultimate owners to control their firms while holding only a small fraction of the cash flow rights (Faccio and Lang, 2002; Boubaker and Labégorre, 2008). The separation of ownership and control may result in severe agency conflicts between large and minority shareholders, which enhances the possibility of extracting private benefits of control. On the other hand, the present study is among the first to examine the impact of the owner-manager’s excess control on the owner-manager’s compensation in France.
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At the community level, having an RT head who considers the district to be poorer than other districts is associated with a higher probability of enumeration. This aligns with findings of SMERU (2012) indicating that community leaders are reluctant to survey a high number of households and particularly those not considered to be poor, as this would raise households’ expectations on receiving programme benefits. Among indicators of the potential for elite capture, households in communities where the RT head declares that s/he knows each community member very well have a lower probability of removal from the enumeration pre-listing. Village remoteness is negatively associated with registration in the UDB and positively with removal from enumeration pre-listings, all else being equal. These areas may be more difficult or more costly for enumerators to reach, and supervision of enumerators may be lacking in these areas, potentially leading to local leaders that have more leeway in removing people from the pre-listing (even if they deserve to be registered in the UDB).
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Comparison of the retrieved Melbourne Umkehr time se- ries with ozonesonde observations shows good agreement between the two measurement sets. The best agreement is seen at lower Umkehr layers 2 + 3 and 4, between 10–20 and 20–25 km respectively, for both the C and A + C + D wavelength pair retrievals. This is expected as these layers hold the largest amount of independent information. Sea- sonal variability closely matches that seen in the ozonesonde data for these layers. Umkehr layers 5 and 6, between 25– 30 and 30–35 km respectively, show poorer agreement be- tween the Umkehr retrievals and the ozonesonde data, where the Umkehr retrievals consistently retrieve a lower amount of ozone. The cause of this is likely due to unaccounted for stray light effects, omission of multiple scattering from the forward model, and under-represented stratospheric aerosol. Layer 5 shows the largest consistent difference between the C-pair and A + C + D-pair retrievals. This highlights that notable differences are present when using the C and A + C + D-pair retrievals.
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Temporal migration transforms drought risks to opportunities in the form of employment else- where (Paavola, 2008; Smucker & Wisner, 2008). Our results agree with those of farmers in Tharaka Nithi (Kenya) and Morogoro (Tanzania), where migration and employment reduced farmers’ drought risks (Paavola, 2008; Smucker & Wisner, 2008). However, there are differences in remuner- ation for off-farm activity in both sublocations: Umande is advantaged in getting higher wages because of its proximity to Nanyuki town, while Muhonia is more isolated and interviewees cannot access Nanyuki regularly. Proximity to urban cen- ters increases benefits to rural communities, such as in the case of the lowlands of West Africa (Erenstein, 2006) and Nepal (Ghimire, Shivakoti, & Perret, 2010). Highly vulnerable farmers had limited access to market centers and low employ- ment diversification. Agricultural farm wages con- stitute a major source of off-farm employment (Ghimire et al., 2010). Interviewees’ labor wages of less than two dollars is insufficient to fulfill the basic daily needs considering soaring food prices in 2008, and recently in 2011, making it even more difficult for households to fulfill their basic needs (Munang & Nkem, 2011). We consider the migra- tion of men during droughts a disadvantageous off-farm activity that may increase households’ vulnerability to drought, when there are hardly any rains and fewer paid agricultural opportunities (Winarto, Stigter, Prahara, Anantasari, & Kristiyanto, 2011). Our argument underline con- clusions of Mendelsohn, Basist, Kurukulasuriya, and Dinar (2007) that climate change will worsen and lower the incomes and opportunities of the most vulnerable populations.
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The stated above points to multiple implications for managers. Bearing in mind that these are predominantly young women, it is necessary to form a marketing mix targeting this segment, and position it in their conscience. Additional motivation research is necessary in order to obtain the opinions, inclinations and habits of this population, which could partly have been covered by this questionnaire, but was omitted due to the focus on other questions for the purpose of this article. The product’s visual identity, pricing, distribution channels, and integrated marketing communication activities need to be adjusted to the mentioned population and their preferences. For instance, if the research showed that developing a new product for this market segment would be profitable for Imlek, it could be assumed that the marketing mix should be created with “feminine” colored 0.5 litre packaging, at a somewhat higher price, both due to ingredients and the lower frequency of yoghurt consumption. In addition, the product should be promoted in time slots of the TV serials watched by 20-year-old girls (certainly Turkish TV serials popular on national TV channels), the billboards should be located near the University campus, and also advertised through radio stations most frequently listened by this population. Sales promotion actions could be initiated in fitness centres, especially at the times of aerobic exercises, and the group instructors, as opinion leaders, could be educated and stimulated with certain rewards. The promotion should also focus on taste, show pieces of fruit in the yogurt, the energy of the pretty girl featuring in the commercial, forming the image of a young, successful, strong female whose lifestyle includes accepting innovation.
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In the wild, females typically lay mostly daughters due to LMC and infrequent superparasitism (when multiple females par- asitize a single host sex ratios are less biased). In the wild, mating (typically between siblings) occurs on the natal patch and males exhibit pre and postcopulatory courtship, the latter of which serves to reduce female receptivity to further matings (van den Assem and Visser 1976). After mating, the females disperse from the na- tal patch to find hosts, but the brachypterous males are philopatric; as such, females will rarely experience any harassment by males during oviposition (King 1993), unless there are over-lapping host generations in close spatial proximity (around large vertebrate car- casses, animal-rearing and -processing plants, or refuse dumps: Werren 1983). Conditions in the laboratory differ greatly from those typical in the wild. In our laboratory (and representative of other Nasonia research groups), typically around 40 females are provided with hosts together, and males and females are main- tained together for somewhere between two and four days after emergence. Synchronous female emergence results in the break- down of local mating patches. As such, sex ratios are less female biased and the lack of dispersal means that males may be present during oviposition.
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199. Caminker, supra note 6, at 2332 (arguing that such implicit logrolling occurs). 200. Logrolling to secure a majority, as opposed to a supermajority, also may reduce the number of opinions, but only marginally so. That is because logrolling in that circumstance will occur only when the purchasing judge does not yet have majority support for his opinion, and that judge will purchase only as many votes as are necessary to secure a bare majority. There will still be judges who disagree with the opinion whose vote has not been bought—on a three judge court, there will be one dissenter, on a five member court, two dissenters, and so on—and those judges will still produce separate opinions. Moreover, the benefits of this logrolling— providing guidance through a rule for future cases—almost certainly exceed the costs.
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The greater fecundity in the multiple mating treatment was driven by the over-production of viable sons (> 87%). Likewise, multiply mated females of house wren produce a surplus of male offspring . While theoretical models predict that female multiple mating can affect the dy- namics of sex ratio , empirical studies documenting such effects are rare . Here, we empirically show for the first time, that female multiple mating influences the offspring sex-ratio in the Trinidadian guppy. Sex ratios are usually female biased in laboratory guppy strains , which is in stark contrast to our results. Variation in environmental/social conditions affects sex ratios [46,57]. As water temperature, feeding and level of sexual harass- ment were identical between mating treatments, so a sex ratio adjustment in response to differences in environ- mental conditions seems unlikely. Evolutionary theory predicts that when conditions are good, females should invest more in the sex with greater reproductive variabil- ity , which in our case is expected to be the male sex. Multiple mating and female harassment by males is the norm among guppy populations, whereas single mating is the unnatural condition. Is it possible that this created stress that led singly mated females to produce fewer sons? Future studies should investigate the causes of this over production of sons from multiply mated females and ask whether this is adaptive in the long run.
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