ABSTRACT: A Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous (GALS) modeling tool is introduced for circuit verification. In particular, this approach enables the visualization of point-to-point causality of problems occurring among various parts of the system which are more difficult for analyzing. The reliability and quality improvements are essential for digital circuits as their complexity and density increases. Validation of VLSI circuits becomes more difficult with higher test cost. In Circuit Under Test (CUT) architectures, the Test Pattern Generator (TPG) utilizes Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) generates pseudo random patterns that increases the switching activity of test patterns. The test pattern generator generates a multiple single input change vector which increases the accuracy of test response. The TPG is used in test-per-scan scheme. A combinationalcircuit is used as the circuit under test, and the output response of CUT is stored in Look Up Table (LUT) for error comparison in LUT method of verification. Reversible technique is also used for the testing the circuit under test.
Multiplexers are combinational logic circuits for which there are multiple potential inputs but there is always only one output. Demultiplexers are the opposite in that there is always one input but there are multiple potential outputs. Both multiplexers and demultiplexers have a bit (or multiple bits) called selector bit(s) which is responsible for determining which input or output is chosen. Like encoders and decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers can be broken down into circuit components but are typically represented by chips for visual simplification. In this lab, we will analyze multiplexers and demultiplexers in both their circuit and chip forms.
The multiplexer, shortened to “MUX”, is a combinational logic circuit designed to switch one of several input lines through to a single common output line by the application of a control signal. Multiplexers operate like very fast acting multiple position rotary switches connecting or controlling multiple input lines called “channels” one at a time to the output .
Single-input Multiple-output Signals Third-order Active-R Filter for different Circuit Merit Factor Q Configuration is proposed. This paper discusses a new configuration to realize third-order low pass, band pass and high pass. The presented circuit uses Single-input Multiple-output signals, OP-AMP and passive components. This filter is useful for high frequency operation, monolithic IC implementation and it is easy to design .This circuit gives three filter functions low-pass, high-pass and band-pass. This filter circuit can be used for different merit factor (Q) with high pass band gain. This gives better stop-band attenuation and sharper cut-off at the edge of the pass-band. Thus the response shows wider pass-band. The Ideal value of this filter circuit which is closed to Ideal value of third-order active-R filter is at 0.8≤ Q ≥6. The advantages of this circuit are reduction in size and weight, increased circuit reliability, more economical and easy for manufacturing.
Abstract - Blasting is usually the first step in any mining process . Detonators are compact devices that are designed to safely initiate and control the performance of larger explosive charges for blasting. Different kinds of detonators like chemical, mechanical, electrical are available but all of them have several drawbacks and there are various hazards associated with them like accidental initiation due to Electrostatic discharge or Radio frequency interference, improper firing of the circuit or problem in delay or logic of the circuit. Nowadays electronic detonators are being used that eliminate almost every drawback of the earlier inventions. Under the electronic detonator various concepts have been employed for better performance. Different kinds of EED's(Electro Explosive Devices) are used in the detonators like hotwire bridge, thin film bridge, detonating cords, SCB etc. In this paper the electronic detonator is designed using SCB. SCB is indigenously made by ARDE . We have used SCB due to its excellent properties such as high safety, low ignition energy, fast ignition time, small size, low cost, immunity to EMI (Electro-magnetic interference), ESD (Electrostatic discharge) and RF (Radio Frequency) hazards. The designed detonator comprises of delay circuit, boost convertor, firing circuit with SCB and ESD and RF protection circuitry for safety against un intended firing. Detonators will be secured with passwords to avoid unauthorized use.
The strobe appliance circuit consists of a NAC (9 to 31VDC) input and a supervised NAC (24VDC) Output. As described in Table 3-1 on Page 3-3, the strobe output provides a synchronized output for compatible Wheelock, Inc. synchronized strobes. When a synchronized signal from a previous module is used open Jumper W2 (See Figure 3-15, Page 3-15). This also allows for pass through of the synchronized NAC Circuit on the RET connections. See Figure 3-1, Section 2 on Page 3-2 for location. Figure 3-3, below, is an enlarged picture of the referred area.
The use of multiple antennas at the transmitter as well as at the receiver can greatly improve the capacity of a wireless link when operating in a rich scattering environment. In such an arrangement all transmitting antennas radiate in the same frequency band so the overall spectral efficiency becomes very high. Such a multiple antenna scheme, popularly known as Multiple Input MultipleOutput (MIMO) has potential application in wireless local area networks (WLAN) and cellular micro-cells. One reason is that the WLANs and other short range wireless systems often operate in an indoor environment, which offers rich scattering. The other reason is the demand for higher data rates in cellular and WLAN systems to cater for multimedia services. Recently researchers have proposed different architectures for materializing the potential of the MIMO scheme. VBLAST (Vertical-Bell Labs Space Time) is a popular architecture that will play an important role in future standardizations. Furthermore, different decoding methods have been proposed for VBLAST. The SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) based system is envisioned as a highly effective MIMO technique in a TDD (Time Division Duplex) framework. Such a system operates by adapting the constellation size across different subchannels.
The Controller selection is to compare single-chip microcomputer in many models, the single-chip microcomputer is selected. In Fig.1, SPCE is a sixteen-bit microcontroller developed and manufactured by Science and Technology. It is very convenient and flexible by using it to realize voice recording and playback system. The chip has 8 channels and 10-bit precision ADC, one of chips is an audio conversion channel, and it has built-in automatic gain circuit for recording . The two channels of 10 precision DAC, only need external power amplifier to complete playback. The instruction system and integrated development environment of 16-bit MCU are easy to learn and use for high efficiency. In the integrated development environment, it supports standard program language, and it can call each other
Now, we give a general view of the categorization that is introduced for the relations having combinational constraints. A R, based on its constraint degree, can be categorized as Strong or Weak. In the case of Weak R, it is possible to have more than one C in the relation R. We introduce two types of relations, namely Unary and Doubly (or Binary) Weak R. A Doubly Weak R can be Symmetric or Asymmetric. A Symmetric or Asymmetric Doubly Weak R can be Pure or Impure. From another point of view, a R can be Single or Multiple. To nd other kinds of R, we combine the
ABSTRACT:Electricity has always remained a primary necessity of life as it is impossible to imagine our life without electricity. But the only problem, as far as electricity is concerned, the cost at which it is generated that is crossing all limits by every passing day, and thus undue the burden on the consumers in the form of higher electricity bills. There is a solution to manage energy efficient lightings at home door sensor for automatic lighting control is widely being developed for energy saving and it can also be used for security purposes. An infrared sensor based on electrical and electronics combinationalcircuit technology is used to develop the automatic light switching system. The automatic light switching system will lead to energy saving and efficient energy usage which could benefit every single individual. Here is a simple and low cost automatic door light circuit. The light automatically turns on when the door is opened and the light glows until the door is opened and whenever the door is closed the light automatically turns off.
ABSTRACT: Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is faster than any other adders used in many data-processing processors to perform arithmetic functions speedily.In adder design carry generation is the critical path. To reduce the power consumption of data path we need to reduce Area and Delay of the adder.The proposed design is implemented without using multiplexer and RCA structure with Cin=1. Instead of multiplexer and RCA Cin=1 structure hear we used simple combinationalcircuit which consists AND and XOR and OR gates.In the proposed scheme, the carry select (CS) operation is scheduled before the calculation of final-sum, which is different from the conventional approach.Bit patterns generated by two carry words and fixed carry cin is used by CS unit.The proposed CSLAdesign involves significantly less area and delay than the recently proposed BEC-based CSLA.A theoretical estimate shows that the proposed SQRT-CSLA involves nearly 35% less area–delay–product (ADP) than the BEC-based SQRT-CSLA, which is best among the existing SQRT-CSLA designs, on average, for different bit-widths. Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data-processing processors to perform fast arithmetic functions.The proposed design is synthesized and simulated in Xilinx ISE design suite 14.2 and is implemented on Spartan 6 XC6SLX16 CSG324 FPGA device.
Figure 6 shows the temperature overheat protection circuit. Overheat detection with 75 ° C normally closed contact relay K1. In the main power circuit IGBT, rectifier diodes near the heat sink are equipped with normally closed contact relay, several relays in series. Relay K1 closes to ground when temperature below 75 ° C in the heat sink , the optocoupler U3 diode conduction, excitation conduction secondary transistor, optocoupler U3 pin 6 clamped low, that is, overheat protection circuitOutput RA1 is low. When the temperature of the heat sink reaches 75 ° C, the relay K1 is disconnected, the diode in the optocoupler U3 is turned off, the pin 6 of the optocoupler U3 goes high, that is, the output RA1 of the circuit is high, indicating that the system is overheated. STM32F103RBT6 detects that RA1 is high and locks the PWM drive signal until the fault is released and reset.
Conventional ADPG engines target single fault pairs at a time with Boolean values only. However, targeting single fault pairs may miss opportunities to find vectors that can simultaneously distinguish multiple pairs.Our approach will be to increase the quality of generated IC using VLSI design, by efficiently generating all the possible tests for determination of output. Generation of all the possible input pairs of testing will lead to the use of Random Number Generator. Earlier methods used conventional method using keypad which takes human efforts to manually enter the input combinations. The ability of random number generators to generate all the possible pairs of inputs will be utilized to generate inputs. Corresponding outputs will be noted. The noted outputs will be compared with the actual expected outputs for given input combination.
The contents of this thesis are the results of original research and have not been submitted for a higher degree to any other university or institution. This thesis investigates the complexity issues of techniques that use the Multiple Input MultipleOutput (MIMO) approach. Two major works are described in the thesis. Chapter 3 investigates the effect of clipping induced by the limited dynamic range of the receiver Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) on the Space Time Block (STBC system. The novelty of this work highlights how physical implementation issues affect the performance of the well-known and popular Alamouti STBC algorithm. The results of this work were published in two papers
The paper illustrates an adaptive approach based on different topologies of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the power energy output forecasting of photovoltaic (PV) modules. The analysis of the PV module’s power output needed detailed local climate data, which was collected by a dedicated weather monitoring system. The Department of Energy, Information Engineering, and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (Italy) has built up a weather monitoring system that worked together with a data acquisition system. The power output forecast is obtained using three different types of ANNs: a one hidden layer Multilayer perceptron (MLP), a recursive neural network (RNN), and a gamma memory (GM) trained with the back propagation. In order to investigate the influence of climate variability on the electricity production, the ANNs were trained using weather data (air temperature, solar irradiance, and wind speed) along with historical power output data available for the two test modules. The model validation was performed by comparing model predictions with power output data that were not used for the network’s training. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the short-term power output forecasting problem and identified the best topology.
At present, the functions of portable electronic products are updated, and the application is diversified and can be used for a long time toward low power and small area. Therefore, a high-efficiency power management module and a mixed signal circuit are required to be integrated on the same system chip (SOC) to achieve a variety of low power applications. A low- dropout voltage (LDO) regulator, with low noise, small size, and improved performance, is the mainstream of low-power regulation and intelligent power management regulator circuits . Traditional LDO linear regulators require an output filter capacitor of a few microfarads to a dozen microfarad grades as frequency compensation, thus accounting for PCB area and cost. Among all on-chip LDO regulator, the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) based LDO regulators are more attractive in terms of simplicity, fast transient responses and low-voltage power
The 555 IC of the buzzer circuit is in astable mode which itself triggers and changes its states automatically from ‘High to Low’ and ‘Low to High’. When a switch is pressed, then the output at pin 3 is high during the capacitor charging from a power supply VCC through resistors RV4 and RV5. This capacitor gets charged up to 2/3 Vcc so that the output becomes high through this period and the buzzer makes sound. Then the capacitor starts discharging through resistor RV5 till 1/3 Vcc, and the output at pin3 becomes low during this time so the speaker gets muted and completely gets turned off when the switch opens. This process repeats until the square pulses are generated from high to low state and low to high state based on the RC time constant. We have also connected a LED at the output of Timer IC, which will glow till the buzzer rings. We can also control the frequency of the buzzer by adjusting the value of RV5 and/or capacitor C4.
In designing E-Logic Trainer Kit this project had limited certain criteria such as number of timing diagram input and output. This Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) will display three input timing diagrams and one output timing diagram. Three inputs will use for E-Logic Trainer Kit because this project only use Thin-Film- Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT LCD 2.4”). If four inputs timing diagram use for this LCD it will produce very small timing diagram and too hard for user to see the output. For logic gate IC, E-Logic Trainer Kit will used only five type of logic gates. Two inputs for AND, OR, XOR, three input AND gate and lastly is NOT gate. All this gate is selected because there is the basic gate that learn. All this gate also selected because it is enough to prove that this kit can give highest effectiveness during teaching and learning session. Power bank is a power source for this kit. This is because output voltage for power bank is 5V and it suitable to use at Arduino.