In this study, the effects of NaCl, CaCl 2 and NaCl-CaCl 2 treatments on the growth profiles, nutritional quality, phytic acid degradation- lower inositol phosphate formation system of germinated mung bean were investigated. Mung bean seeds were germinated at 30°C in darkness for 4 days and sprayed solutions containing distilled water, 1.6 mM NaCl, 6 mM CaCl 2 , and 1.6 mM NaCl plus 6 mM CaCl 2 every 1 h. Samples were collected every 2 days in liquid nitrogen for experiments and each experiment was repeated three times. The results showed that the NaCl-CaCl 2 treatment improved nutritional quality significantly for the higher content of ascorbic acid, soluble sugar and free amino acid content in mung bean sprouts. Meanwhile, NaCl-CaCl 2 treatment was also the most effective way to improve the degradation of phytic acid by enhancing phytase activity and the related gene expressions. This led to a higher level of the lower inositol phosphate content in mung bean sprouts. These results suggest that NaCl-CaCl 2 treatment had a better influence on improving nutritional and functional quality of mung bean sprouts than NaCl and CaCl 2 .
Fresh mung bean sprouts (MBS), devoid of any preserva- tive antimicrobials was purchased from local markets in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. The growth of mung beans and the germination of the sprouts were done in Selangor State. The mung bean sprouts were left to dry in dark area for three days at room temperature 23-25°C. After the dry- ness of sprouts, they were ground to powder. The ground powder was extracted 1:10 wt/v with 2.4 M HCl acidified methanol (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) to extract all, free and conjugated, components of phenolic compounds ; the ground powder was then soaked in dark area for three days at room temperature. The supernatant was collected after filtration and the fresh solvent was added to the plant material. The extraction procedure was repeated twice and the collected extracts were evaporated to dryness under vacuum at 40°C by using rotary evaporator. To remove the effect of the acidity from the crude extract, the crude ex- tract of MBS was neutralized to exclude any pH-related ef- fect. The pH for MBS extract was neutral ranging from 6.8 to 7.0. The dried extracts were stored at −18°C in a desic- cant until further use.
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A total of 100 grams of mung beans are washed and soaked in distilled water overnight. Furthermore, drained and leveled over a porous container lined with filter paper, let stand at humid room temperature. To assist the process of growing sprouts for quicker and evenly, the container can be placed in the pot (lid slightly open) or covered with a napkin and humidity maintained by sprinkling water on a regular basis. For the isolation and purification of the DAO enzyme of mung bean sprouts, sprouts age of 3 days was collected and washed with distilled water and the outer skin removed. Mung bean sprouts that have clean homogenized with an equal amount (w/v) of 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.0 in cold condition by using a blender. Crude extract obtained by squeezing homogenate through four layers of gauze and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 20 min at 4°C. Results (solution) was called crude extract of DAO enzyme
a potent antiviral agent and its action was not related to the cytotoxicity of host cells. Second, MBS extract was highly selective against RSV and HSV-1 or against the virally infected cells. Third, MBS extract, acted as viru- cidal agent more than prophylactic agent. These valuable results of MBS extract anti-HSV1 activity may be sup- ported by a recent study on plant methanol crude ex- tract which found that such extract found to be effective to inhibit HSV-1 infection in vitro . The results of MBS extract, IC50 and SI, with different modes of action against RSV were significantly better in its virucidal ac- tion (IC50 = 15.62 and SI = 14.18) than its prophylactic action (IC50 = 17.23 and SI = 12.82). Similarly, MBS ex- tract was a virucidal agent (IC50 = 7.62 and SI = 18.23) rather than a prophylactic agent (IC50 = 12.72 and SI = 10.9) against HSV-1. These findings may point out to the importance of MBS extract as an agent with the abil- ity to interact with viral envelope more sufficiently than its ability to interact with host cell surface. One of the clear reasons that may explain the effective antiviral ac- tivity of MBS extract in the current study is the presence of high level of antioxidant compounds in the germi- nated mung bean sprout. Germination of the mung bean causes a rise in total content of the antioxidant com- ponents like phenolic compounds, α -tocopherol and vitamin C [19, 20]. It is well known that α -tocopherol, a member of vitamin E family, has a potent antioxidant activity [21, 22]. Moreover, many studies proved the effi- cacy of α -tocopherol as antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiviral [23 – 25]. On the other hand, ascorbate (Vitamin C) has been shown to have specific antiviral effect in which it inactivates RNA or DNA of viruses [26 – 28]. Moreover, ascorbate was found to be able to act synergistically with other phen- olic compounds to enhance their antiviral activity . All these facts may explain the effective antiviral activity of MBS extract. The ability of each antioxidant compound to work alone or with other compounds to enhance its Table 9 The differences in selectivity index (SI) of MBS extract on HSV-1 between the different times in the same protocol (DVI and IVR)
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effects on human health, for example antioxidants of legumes play an important role in limiting the effects of cellular and molecular damage by reducing reac- tive oxygen species (Luthria & Pastor-Corrales 2006; Rebello et al. 2014). Legume germination has also been suggested as a powerful strategy to increase total antioxidant activity (Fernandz-Orozco et al. 2006). The antioxidant activity of different samples evaluated by TRP, HOSC, RDSC, and ARSC is re- ported in Figure 4. It is evident that germinated seeds show a good antioxidant potential in terms of TRP, HOSC, RDSC, and ARSC values. For example, the TRP, RDSC, and ARSC values of mung bean sprouts were significantly increased by 430.0, 131.8, and 249.4% on Day 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The highest values of soybean and black bean were increased by 146.2/133.3% (TRP), 211.0/78.6% (RDSC), and 167.6/90.1% (ARSC), while changes of antioxidant activity varied between and within species. Guo et al. (2012) reported that the antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was 6 times higher than in the seeds. Pajak et al. (2014) observed a more than 10-fold increase of antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in mung bean after 5-day germina- 0.0
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hippocampus area is the major cause for the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Facilitation of central cholinergic activity by the use of anticholinesterases is presently the mainstay of the pharmacotherapy of dementia in AD. 23 In the present study, green moong bean sprouts produced significant inhibition of AChE activity. This might have lead to the accumulation of Ach at the synapse and facilitation of cholinergic transmission. Polyphenols have been associated with a reduced risk of developing dementia, improved cognitive performance in elderly individuals and overall improved cognitive function. They exert their beneficial actions through their ability to suppress neuro- inflammation and protection of neurons against neurotoxins induced injury. 24 There is ample evidence regarding the presence of polyphenolic compounds in moong bean sprouts. 3
compared to other two samples. However, during the process of bleaching the quantity of fiber increased but the values of moisture, fat, protein and lignin contents decreased. The fiber contents of Mung bean samples are approximately approached to the values suggested by Adel A. et.al. 21 . Moreover, high fibre content makes bleached hull of mungbean a good digestive food. Due to their high fiber content, legumes are digested very slowly, thus low on the glycemic index, and help maintain stable blood glucose level and healthier glucose metabolism. Eating more beans helps to reduce the effect of high glycemic index foods by lowering the glycemic value of meals 22 . As Mungbean belongs to the family of leguminoseae the member of this family having a high amount of protein and protein is a major content of Mungbean. The protein content of whole grain was higher than the hull. However, the bleached hull contains lowest amount of protein (7.6%) than that of whole grain and hull. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among the protein content of the whole grain and hull samples. Similar percentage values of protein were estimated by Saleem B. et al. 23 . In our study calculated value of carbohydrate was shown that whole grain Mung bean having a heist value than bleached hull followed by hull 24 . In addition to it was observed that the % age cellulose content of bleached hull was significantly higher than the cellulose content of whole Mung bean grain. On the contrary, that the lignin content of bleached hull was lower than the whole grain mung bean and hull 25 . The data on mineral analysis of mung bean revealed that the investigated varieties appear to be a rich source of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium and ferric (iron). Mung bean can effectively contribute towards the daily recommended dietary allowances 26 for all groups. It was also observed that generally mung bean is used for protein source but it can fulfill the micro nutrients deficiency as well.
and 20% PEG treatment, the SOD activity change index of Dayinggelv 935 was showed the falling trend n after rising again with the increase of treatment days; after different concentration PEG treatment, the rest of the va- rieties was showed trend of increasing decreased with the increase of number of days. Especially it was showed changes extremely significant difference among different varieties after 6th days of 5% PEG treatment by water stress, the variation coefficient were 0.2733; Dayinggle 935 and Bailv No. 9 was showed 2.0203 and 1.3467 of higher change index respectively; the changes index of Bailv No. 11 and Dayinggelv 985 is low, 1.1195 and 1.2969 respectively. After 6th days of 20% PEG treatment by water stress, the SOD activity of change index was showed significant differences between the different varieties. But change law do not agree with drought resistance performance of varieties. So, It should choose the SOD activity as one of the physiological indexes for drought resistance identification after 6 days of 5% PEG treatment in the flowering mung bean.
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Copyright to IJIRSET www.ijirset.com 1339 of new DNA and RNA molecules start during the initiation and early expression phase, which could evidently be correlated well with the intense cell division and new root initial in mung bean hypocotyls explants. The low level of RNA during 0-24h may be explained as due to the inhibition of synthesis of some RNAs, presumably mRNAs, which are thought to be the suppressor of root formation at the early phase (Shibaoka et al., 1967). It will be further evident from the data that the turnover of both RNA and DNA reached almost equilibrium at the late expression phase of root emergence (96-120h) after a large scale replication at the earlier phases.
Results, therefore, point out that both leaf leachate of Eupatorium and Lantana possesses some chemicals which efficiently rendered allelopathic action on mung bean seeds. Reduced plant growth and slowed rate of plants establishment are also convincing evidence of allelopathic action 36, 37 . The leaf leachates of Chromolaena and Lantana plants show allelopathic potency, which can reduce plant metabolism like chlorophyll Table 3 DNA and RNA Table 4 contents as well as increases the amylase Table 3 activity.
Pot experiments were carried out in School of Life Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata) were obtained from Rajasthan Seed Corporation, Jaipur. Seeds were surface sterilized with 95% ethanol for 3 min., 10% chlorox solution for five min with shaking and this thoroughly washed with sterile water. Seeds were sown in earthen pots measuring 27 x 30 cm 2 filled with clay, farm yard
Using legumes as a green manure is a well-established practice because it adds nitrogen-rich plant material to the soil. This study evaluates successive crops of lettuce fertilized with different doses of bovine manure in the presence and absence of mung bean. Experiments were carried out at the Rafael Fernandes Experimental Farm, Mossoró, Brazil, from August 2015 to January 2016. We applied a complete randomized block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor consisted of bovine manure at four dosages (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 kg m -2 ) and the second factor was the presence and absence of green manure (mung bean). We used the "Regina" lettuce cultivar. The following characteristics were assessed: plant height, number of leaves per plant, head diameter, lettuce production, and lettuce dry mass. The lettuce production achieved 87.8 kg/100 m 2 . The interaction between bovine manure and mung bean did not affect the production characteristics. The use of mung bean as green manure increased the lettuce production significantly, with mean values of 81.4 kg/100 m 2 compared to 67 kg/100 m 2 in the treatments without mung bean.
Curcumin (1, 7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa. Extensive research over the last decades has indicated that curcumin exhibits anti-in- flammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-infectious activities -. Curcumin such as other polyphenols is as strong anti-oxidant . It significantly decreases lipid peroxidation, regulates antioxidant enzymes and scavenges hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), . Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely associated with tumor growth, . All such effect of curcumin has been reported from animal system and no work has been done on the role of curcumin in plant growth. The present investigation is an attempt to understand the role of curcumin in heavy metal stress amelioration in plant in general and arsenic stress ameli- oration in mung bean in particular.
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It was concluded that Mung bean contained various nutrients in appreciable quantities. All the cultivars contained crude protein in maximum amount which were comparable to those of animals sources. The HPLC method were used for amino acids determination was accurate regularly be utilized for the same purpose. It is recommended the Mung bean due to high nutritional value could be used in daily human diet which would be helpful in fulﬁlling the protein need of the body. It is also recommended that utmost precautions should be taken while hydrolyzing samples for HPLC recom- mendation of amino acid, because high risks of oxidation contamination with other protein are present.
The objective of this study was to study differential gene expression (DGE) in S. coelicolor A3(2) during the decomposition of plant material with varying N concentrations. These were: (a) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (C:N ratio 35.7); and (b) mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) (C:N ratio 17.3). Differential gene expression was compared over time (at 1, 7, and 14 days of incubation). We hypothesised that S. coelicolor A3(2) would undergo significant transcriptional changes in response to plant material with varying C:N ratios, targeted at greater acquisition and catabolism of N sourced from native SOM in response to wheat, relative to mung bean.
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In the efficiency of the machine, only seed separating from the pod was checked, therefore, it seemed reasonable that efficiency of the device increased by increasing the rotating speed and improve the device’s ability to separate seeds. But in this example, with increasing velocity, the movements of the pods may increase and part of it remains intact. On the other hand, as shown in Figure 9, with the increase of distance for soybeans, the efficiency first decreased and then increased but in the mung bean diagram the device efficiency was declining with increasing distance. In these two charts, the best soybean efficiency was obtained at 9 mm distance which was 92.36%. For mung bean, the best efficiency was 93.42% that was at 6 mm distance. It may be possible to explain the high efficiency at low distances in this way, by decreasing the distance, the compression of the material layer in the space between the rotary rollers reduced and the impact faces with the least depreciation on its pods. The machine’s efficiency is consistent with Ukatu (2006) reported yield.
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peroxidase were associated with rooting in Phaseolus mungo cuttings. Synchronous changes in isozyme patterns of peroxidase have been positively correlated with induction and initiation of rooting in several plant species , . An increase in number of isozymes, OD and Rmf value in the later stages in IBA or PUT treated cuttings might be taken as an index of better rooting performance by mung bean cuttings. In both the treatments studied, more intense peroxidase electrophoresis bands during the different phases matched a higher ability to root. So the increase in soluble peroxidase activity could be due to a general increase in all isozymes or to an increase in particular isozyme already present or to the appearance of new isoenzymes , . Based on our results, the increase in soluble peroxidase activity at 48 h and onwards was probably due to an increase in particular previously existing (only two isozymes at 0 h) isozymes.
The central cholinergic system undergoes numerous changes during the physiological process of aging resulting in impairment of cholinergic pathways 24 . Facilitation of central cholinergic activity by the use of anticholinesterases is presently the mainstay of the pharmacotherapy of dementia 25 . By administration of green moong bean sprouts for 15 successive days AChE activity was significantly inhibited. This could have lead to synaptic accumulation of acetylcholine and facilitation of cholinergic transmission, thus reducing cognitive dysfunctions in aged mice. Polyphenols have been reported to reduce the risk of dementia and have also improved cognitive performance in elderly individuals 7 . Polyphenols like vitexin, isovitexin and gallic acid exert their beneficial actions through their ability to suppress neuro-inflammation and protection of neurons against neurotoxins induced injury 26 . These polyphenolic compounds are abundant in moong bean sprouts, which might manage the age related cognitive deficits.
The behaviour of particles in an air stream during pneu- matic conveying and separation greatly depends on their aerodynamic properties. The aerodynamic forces which exist during relative motion between the air and the materials act differently on different particles. Separation of a mix- ture of particles in a vertical air stream is only possible when the aerodynamic characteristics of the particles are so different that the light particles are entrained in the air stream and the heavy particles fall through it. Knowledge of aerodynamic properties is therefore essential in the prop- er design of separating and cleaning equipments. When an air stream is used for separating a product such as mung bean seed from its associated foreign materials, such as straw and chaff, knowledge of aerodynamic characteris- tics of all the particles involved is necessary. This helps to define the range of air velocities for effective separation of the grain from foreign materials. For this reason, the ter- minal velocity has been used as an important aerodynamic characteristic of materials in such applications as pneumat- ic conveying and their separation from foreign materials (Mohsenin, 1978).
concentration was 0.195 mg/ml. Randhir et al.,2004 reported that germination causes a decrease of total phenolic content in Green mung. Barroga et al., 1985 reported similar total phenolic content values for raw and 24 h germinated Mung bean. In soaked Chick pea, the concentration of Phenol was 2.615 mg/ml, sprouted concentration was 1.070 mg/ml and in cooked, the concentration was 0.145mg/ml. In Soya bean after soaking, concentration of Phenol was 0.449 mg/ml, sprouted concentration was 0.815 mg/ml and cooked concentration was 2.749 mg/ml. Horse gram when soaked gave the concentration of Phenol as 0.344 mg/ml, sprouted concentration was 0.230 mg/ml and cooked concentration was 0.089 mg/ml. In case of Green peas, after soaking, the concentration of Phenol was 1.895mg/ml, sprouted concentration was 0.865 mg/ml and cooked concentration was 0.228 mg/ml. Thus the results explain that for all the selected pulses, the total phenol content was lowered as a result of sprouting and cooking. Bressani and Elias 1980 observed that about 40% of phenolics could be removed from common beans (P. vulgaris) by cooking and discarding the cooking water. Xu and Chang, 2008 found that most total phenol in black soybean is lost during cooking. Regular cooking caused greater total phenol losses than steaming treatments, which could be attributed to water- soluble phenolics leaching into the soaking and cooking water (Xu and Chang, 2008). Randhir et al.,2004 reported that germination causes a decrease of total phenolic content in Green mung. Barroga et al., 1985 reported similar total phenolic content values for raw and 24 h germinated Mung bean. It is observed that the concentrations of the total phenolics, of the sprouted seeds decreases as the ratio of water and temperature of sprouting are increased. (Khandelwal et al., 2010) reported that the total phenolic was reduced significantly in germinated green gram compared to Bengal gram, red gram and lentil. In germinated kidney bean, the loss of total phenolic content can be as high as 96% as shown by (Shimelis and Rakshit, 2007).