concentration . As a result, the quality of some local streams and rivers has been degraded to the point where water is not safe for human consumption, for livestock use and irrigation . Although, agricultural land in Ekwulobia is increasingly polluted by municipalsolidwastes, most of these wastes are chemically unstable and are phytotoxic due to the production of ammonia, ethylene oxide and organic acids . Assessing of soil quality involves measuring soil physical and chemical properties and using them to detect changes in soil as a result of municipalsolidwastes and micronutrient effect. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate micronutrients and physicochemical properties of soils affected by municipalsolidwastes in Ekwulobia Southeastern Nigeria.
The new Solid Waste Management Rules 2016 has been announced by the Ministry of Environment, Government of India which is applicable in Municipal areas, urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships and even different areas under the control of Indian Railways, Airports, Defence establishments, various state and central government organizations, sea ports, special economic zones, place of pilgrims and of historical importance, etc. During announcement of this rule, the revised version of Solid Waste Management rules 2000 at a press conference, the then Minister of State (Independent Charge) of Environment, Sri Prakash Javadekar mentioned, “about 62 million tons of solidwastes are generated annually at present in India, out of which 5.6 million tons is plastic waste, 0.17 million tons biomedical waste, 7.9 million tons hazardous waste and 15 lakh tons is e-waste. The per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 grams to 600 grams per day”. He also pointed out that only about 75 – 80 % of the Municipalsolidwastes i.e. 43 million tons get collected, out of which 11.9 million tons (22 – 28 %) is treated while 31 million tons solid waste is dumped in landfill sites (PIB release, 2016). The major concern is the continual increase of waste generation from 62 million tons in 2016 to about 165 million tons in 2030 and 436 million tons in 2050. If dumping of solid waste continues at present rate without treatment, the additional requirement of land for dump yard will be about 1240 hectares per year and by 2031 the requirement of land will be 66000 hectares.
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the prevailing seasonal changes of physico-chemical and microbial community for mesophilic bacteria and fungi at different degradations stages of municipalsolidwastes. The samples were collected from Excel plant (Vidyaranyapuram, Mysore) in different depths of pile during summer, rainy and autumn seasons in the year of 2011 to 2012 at once in 10 days intervals up to 60 days. Temperature and pH were measured by using standard method. The microbial analysis was done by serial dilution method and bacterial growth Nutrient agar (NA) and Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) for fungi enumeration. The pure cultures of the bacterial isolates were subjected to various morphological and biochemical characterization tests like, Catalase Test (CAT), Oxidase Test (OXT), Indole Test (INT), Methyl Red Test (MRT), Voges-Proskauer Test (VPT), Citrate Utilization Test (CUT), Urease Test (URT), Nitrate Reduction Test (NRT), Hydrogen Sulphide Production (H 2 S), Starch Hydrolysis Test (SHT) and Gelatine
The present results, as shown in Tables 3 and 4 also characterized the potential sources of biomass which can be used to produce biogas as alternative energy sources from agricultural processing and municipalsolidwastes recovery. As shown in Table 3, values of yield and recoverable individual waste materials are presented using different mango sources from four (4) locations. The yield from mango ranged between 53 and 67g/100g (%) and the average waste estimates ranged from is to 23% for the peels to between 18 and 25% for the seeds. The total recoverable wastes (peels and seeds) ranged from 33 to 48% (Table 3) which can be biodegraded for biogas production. Since methane gas is the main resources of interest, its production output will depend on the volume of mango fruits available for processing and both the effectiveness and efficiency of the biodegradation, and equipment used. Optimum operating conditions of the systems at cottage or large commercial levels have been reported (Uddin et al., 2011). In practice, 41% of whole mango fruit is characterized as wastes (Table 3) which can either be used as poultry feed or processed into biogas for methane recovery.
Alkali pre-treatment was given better result in comparison to acid pre-treatment as it is non- toxic as well as cost effective. After pretreatment, the hydrolysis was done by different fungus A.niger, A.fumigatus, T.reesei and mixed culture followed by the fermentation was done by normal Saccharamyce scerevisiae . After fermentation, distillation was done and percentage of ethanol was calculated. Bioconversion of municipalsolidwastes to bio-ethanol production has its economic and environmental advantages compared with the
Municipalsolidwastes consist of discarded items such as food wastes, containers, product packaging and other miscellaneous wastes, from residential, commercial, electronic institutional and industrial sources  while municipalsolid waste management refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resource recov- ery and disposal of solidwastes from urban areas .  cited municipalsolid waste management as a global challenge, especially in developing countries due to its adverse environmental effects. In these countries, heaps of solidwastes are a common sight view in many locations within the city landscape. More so cities in develop- ing countries spend 20% - 50% of their annual budget on solid waste management, but waste collection services cover less than 50% of the population in these cities  . Therefore, high public expenditure with a low per- formance of service delivery is affecting waste management in developing countries like Nigeria.
ABSTRACT : An attempt is made in this present work to study the variations of various parametric values during the composting of MunicipalSolidWastes by conducting experiments on laboratory scale models. The organic waste needed for the present study is obtained from the University hostels and local markets and segregated into fine, coarse and mixed samples. The prepared samples are kept for composting along with the soil collected from local dumping yard in alternate layers, in the boxes of size 40x20x20 cm. During the study period of 60 days the samples are analysed for the parameters, viz., Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, C/N ratio, Temperature, Moisture content. The compost with Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) values 1.41, 0.62 and 0.7% by weight respectively is obtained at the end of the 60 day composting period. It is observed from the experiments that, the finer the particles the faster the rate of reaction and larger the peak temperatures obtained. The temperatures raised sharply and reached the peak values of 60° C to 71° C during the first 20 days of composting period. It is observed that the peak temperatures decreased with the increase in C/N ratios. It is also observed that the composting period varied with the moisture content. It is noted that the rate of composting is fast in the watered sample when compared with that of un-watered sample.
Abstract—Environmental effects of open wastes disposal continue to receive global attention. This study determined the heavy metals pollution status of pasture grass around Katima Mulilo municipalsolidwastes dumpsite, Namibia. Samples of the pasture grass were collected from grassland around the wastes dumpsite and a control site and then analyzed for levels of the heavy metals: Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Ni, Co, Cu and Mn using standard analytical procedures. The results obtained revealed that Mn recorded the highest mean concentration of 102.50mg/kg while Co recorded the lowest level (0.13mg/kg). Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their health regulatory limits. However, the degree of contamination of the pasture grass was significantly higher (paired sample mean t-test, p < 0.05) in the samples collected around the wastes dumpsite with an index of 0.3502. The loading values obtained from the principal component analysis of the heavy metals suggest that all the seven metals detected can be grouped under one main factor. Therefore, we recommend periodic monitoring of the levels of heavy metals in the pasture grass around the wastes dumpsite and advice precautionary measures in order to limit unintended exposures of livestock and hence, human beings to metals toxicities.
In recent years, incineration has frequently been preferred to other waste treatment or disposal alternatives due to advantages such as [2-4]: the volume and mass of municipalsolid waste is reduced to a fraction of its original size (by 85- 90 % volume); the waste reduction is immediate and not dependent on long biological break-down reaction times; incineration facilities can be constructed closer to the municipalsolid waste sources or collection points, reducing transportation costs; using heat recovery technology, the cost of the operation can be offset by energy sales; air discharges can be controlled to meet environmental legislative limit values. However, incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. The flue gases may contain significant amounts of particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, furans, sulfur dioxide, and hydrochloric acid . The public health impact associated with emissions from municipalsolid waste has become and continues to be a major subject of concern due to the following reasons : some materials should not be incinerated because they are more valuable for recycling, they are non- combustible or their by-products may give rise to harmful emissions; poor operating practices and the presence of chlorine in the municipalsolid waste may lead to emissions containing highly toxic dioxins and furans; the control of metal emissions may be difficult for inorganic wastes containing heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, etc.; incinerators require a high capital costs and trained operators leading to moderately high operating costs; supplementary fuels are required to achieve the necessary high combustion temperatures. Taking above mentioned aspects into consideration the flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants may or may not be reduced by several processes, depending on the plant. Particulate is collected by particle filtration, most often electrostatic precipitators and/or baghouse filters. The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles . Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, mercury, lead and other heavy metals . The efficiency of removal will depend on the specific equipment, the chemical composition of the waste, the design of the plant, the chemistry of reagents, and the ability of _______________________________
characteristics was stimulated the isolation and selection of new lipase-producing strains, lipases producing bacteria are distributed in diverse habitats in soils, water and plants in the fields, these organisms are occupy different locations as vegetable oil processing factories  , industrial wastes  , dairies, soil contaminated with oil decaying food, oilseeds, compost heaps, coal tips, and hot springs. ,, Reported that waste contaminated sites such as dumped with kitchen wastes, which are usually comprised of numerous lipid leftovers from processes of cooking and non-cooking, can be serving as excellent breeding grounds for the isolation of lipolytic bacteria of industrial significance.
The landfill under investigation is located in an industrial area in Johor State with total area of 50 acres. It consists of two cells each having an area of 13 acres. This landfill started operations in April 2002 and the first cell was closed in 2007. The second cell began operation in October 2007 and is expected to be full by October 2012. The landfill receives 300 – 350 tonnes of municipal and industrial waste daily. It has a leachate treatment system consisting of three ponds for anaerobic, aerobic, and settling activities. Currently there are no gas recovery facilities at the site.
Anaerobic digestion gains more attention now-a-days, both as a solution to environmental concerns and also as an energy resource for today’s energy demanding life style. Anaerobic digestion is considered as the most promising technology to give a proper treatment disposal method to the biodegradable waste coming from source or separate collecting systems. As per the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB,2000) report that more than 90% of MunicipalSolidWastes in India is directly disposed of on land in an unscientific manner. As per the MunicipalSolidWastes (Management and Handling) Rules,2000, “Land-filling shall be restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological processing”. MunicipalSolid Waste (MSW) in India is defined as the non-industrial and non-hazardous solid waste. The MunicipalSolid waste amount is expected to increase significantly in the near future as India strives to attain an industrialized nation status by the year 2020 (Kaushal et al.,2012). Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and or to produce valuable end products. Anaerobic digestion is a pre-treatment prior to landfill disposal or composting offers several advantages like minimization of volume of wastes, inactivation of biological and biochemical processes in order to avoid landfill-gas and odour emissions, energy production in the form of methane. Anaerobic digestion of bio-degradable solidwastes can be considered an alternative technique to improve the environment condition caused by organic solid waste and as an environmental-friendly by- product of methane. This paper is reviewed the process of anaerobic digestion for biogas generation from MunicipalSolid Waste, parameters affecting the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, studies of effects of various parameters on amount of biogas generation and the different methodology used in managing the anaerobic digestion of MSW. The studies on the variation of generation of biogas due to co-digestion of MSW with other organic wastes in varying amount is also reviewed.
Vermiculture technology is emerging as an “environmentally sustainable”, “economically viable” and “so- cially acceptable” technology all over the world. 1) Vermi-composting Technology (to manage most organic wastes); 2) Vermi-filtration Technology (to treat municipal & several industrial wastewater); 3) Vermi- remediation Technology (to treat & clean up contaminated lands); 4) Vermi-agro-production Technology (to produce chemical-free organic foods by worms & vermicompost); 5) Vermi-industrial Production Technol- ogy (to produce valuable industrial raw materials from worms). The use of earthworms as “waste managers” for efficient “composting of food and farm wastes” and as “soil managers” for “fertility improvement” and enhanced “farm production” were known for ages but now it is being more scientifically and also commer- cially revived. The other uses of earthworms for the benefits of environment and society (wastewater treat- ment, land remediation & production of valuable medicines even to combat cancer and heart diseases; raw materials for rubber, lubricant, soap, detergent & cosmetic, industries and protein rich feed materials for fishery, dairy & poultry industries are some “new discoveries”. We have successfully experimented with the first four technologies for management of “municipalsolidwastes”, treatment of “municipal & industrial wastewater”, remediation of “PAHs contaminated soils” and production of “wheat & corn crops” by use of vermicompost at Griffith University, Australia, with excellent results. Wastes are degraded by over 75% faster than conventional systems and compost produced are disinfected, detoxified, richer in nutrients & beneficial soil microbes; BOD loads & TSS of wastewater is reduced by over 95%; PAHs from contami- nated soils are removed by over 80% in just 12 weeks; and crops growths are promoted by 30-40% higher as compared to chemical fertilizers. Earthworms are both “protective” & “productive” for environment and so- ciety.
According to the authors Unclear refuse heaps still inundate our activity nuclei, viz. markets, shopping centers, civic centers, public fields, residential neighborhood set as a result of non-conformance and non compliance to existing laws and poorly coordinated municipalsolidwastes clearance scheme. Even then, the monthly one day Saturday weekend is too minimal and insufficient to combat the rate of the wastes build up so that the uncollected garbage from residential units and drainage channels return to existing status or form. The markets for example, remain filthy because of unclear solidwastes. Therefore, the chain or cycles of event will not have any meaningful impact is due to its distant and disconnection. It is also noteworthy that there are often no credible designated sanitary landfill sites.
resources could be found in Egypt, such as industrial residues, animal residues, agricultural crop wastes and residue, and municipalsolid waste. The municipalsolidwastes (MSW) can be found in Egypt with tremendous amounts. If MSW left unexploited, it would cause many harmful impacts on the environment leading to an increment in the greenhouse effect and global warming. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in that context . This paper presents a case study that compares two energy designs for supplying the electricity to a small building in Hurghada. The two energy designs are 1) a grid-tied HRES system including PV, biomass, battery storage, and the utility grid as a backup, and 2) diesel generator system. In design (1), the electricity generated from the corresponding resources as follows: the biomass system generates 65% of the total amount of energy, the PV system generates 25%, and the utility grid only represents the remaining 10%. The optimization and the economic comparisons of the two designs are presented using HOMER software.
Abstract: In this paper the composting process was studied for MunicipalSolidWastes in order to characterize the essential plant nutrients and heavy metals during the degradation process. The process was studied in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and samples were collected during 10 th to 60 th days of composting process. Primary macronutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, secondary macronutrients calcium, magnesium and micronutrients/trace minerals like chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, nickel were analyzed. Heavy metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the study, the concentrations of essential plant nutrients were found to be under the limits of Ohai- EPA standards and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) standards. Heavy metals were also found in trace quantities and humification process caused decrease in heavy metal concentration. From the present study, it was observed that composting process was faster during monsoon season and compost produced was better source of plant nutrients.
Growth of population, increasing urbanisation, rising standards of living due to technological innovations have contributed to an increase both in the quantity and variety of solidwastes generated by industrial, mining, domestic and agricultural activities. Globally the estimated quantity of wastes generation was 12 billion tonnes in the year 2002 of which 11 billion tonnes were industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tonnes were municipalsolidwastes (MSW). About 19 billion tonnes of solidwastes are expected to be generated annually by the year 2025. Annually, Asia alone generates 4.4 billion tonnes of solidwastes and MSW comprise 790 million tones (MT) of which about 48 (6%) MT are generated in India [4,5]. By the year 2047, MSW generation in India, is expected to reach 300 MT and land requirement for disposal of this waste would be 169.6km2 as against which only 20.2km2 were occupied in 1997 for management of 48MT. Fig. 1 shows the details on current status of solid waste (non-hazardous and hazardous waste) generation from different sources in India. As can be seen from Fig. 1 that apart from municipalwastes, the organic wastes from agricultural sources alone contribute more than 350 MT per year. However, it is reported that about 600 MT of wastes have been generated in India from agricultural sources alone. The major quantity of wastes generated from agricultural sources are sugarcane baggase, paddy and wheat straw and husk, wastes of vegetables, food products, tea, oil production, jute fibre, groundnut shell, wooden mill waste, coconut husk, cotton stalk etc., [2,6,8]. The major industrial non-hazardous inorganic solidwastes are coal combustion residues, bauxite red mud, tailings from aluminum, iron, copper and zinc primary extraction processes. Generation of all these inorganic industrial wastes in India is estimated to be 290 MT per annum.
With rapid urbanization and population growth, the Solid Waste Management (SWM) is becoming an acute problem. The MunicipalSolid Waste Management in municipal areas is increasingly assuming importance due to legal intervention, emergence emergence of newer technologies and rising public awareness towards cleanliness. Mysore, being the second cleanest city in India has to work hard to maintain the title due to the rapid urbanization. The proper and timely management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health and supports economic development and improved quality of life. The present research aims to assess the present status of municipalsolid waste management and to suggest measures to improve them. The Mysore City Corporation is trying to maintain the city clean but the lack of awareness among the residents and and the lack of segregation of waste at source is the main issue. The authorities do not properly handle the e-waste. The authority has not carried out the quantification of waste generated in the city. The GPS system installed were efficient to track all the vehicles transporting the waste but the vehicles were not assigned optimum routes due to the lack of knowledge in GIS technology. technology.
Abstract— Municipalsolid waste (MSW) composition study is very important as a baseline to utilizing fresh fruit and vegetables (FFVs) wastes in waste to energy (WtE) project. The aim of this paper is to determine the composition of various waste components at the Johannesburg FFVs market. The study was conducted during the summer in 2015 to evaluate the various components of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) generated at the market. This was done in order to evaluate the amount of FVWs that are generated daily at the market as a starting point for waste to energy (WtE) proposition for the City of Johannesburg (CoJ). Two international standards: ASTM D5231-92 - 2008 (American Standard Test Method) and UNEP/IETC -2009 (United Nations Environment Programme/International Environmental Technology Centre) were used as yardsticks for the procedure used. Samples were classified based on their colours; green (vegetables and fruits), blue/purple (vegetables and fruits), tan/brown (vegetables and fruits), yellow/orange (vegetables and fruits), red (vegetables and fruits) and other wastes which include corrugated boxes, metals, woods, plastic crates and other composite wastes. Samples were further classified into 135 classes in which some were not available due to seasonal variation and the samples were manually sorted by hands. From the results of the analysis, fruits constituted 55%, vegetables 38%, corrugated boxes and cartons 3%, metals, plastics, woods and other wastes all constituted 1% each.
highest cob diameter of 16.30 cm and second highest mean number of grains per cob of 500. Conclusion: The organic fertilizers demonstrated more adequacies for crop use than the inorganic fertilizers. Although the maize plants where inorganic fertilizers were applied recorded highest plant height, the crop yield was lower than that of organic fertilizers-based treatments. The organic fertilizers produced from solid organic wastes also demonstrated both higher growth and yield responses than the Neem-based organic fertilizers.