Music Business

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Ethics in the Music Business and its Impact on Popular Music, Society and Culture

Ethics in the Music Business and its Impact on Popular Music, Society and Culture

Rumors and suspicions of illegal and unethical behavior have hovered around the entertainment business since the turn of the twentieth century. One segment of the entertainment business that has not alluded suspicion is the recording industry. Stories of associations with organized crime families are linked with many major and independent record labels during the mid-twentieth century. Recording artists, personal managers and label executives have been the subjects of documentaries, exposés, and magazine interviews alleging all sorts of wrong-doings in order to “make it” in the music business. As one of the five leading exporters of U.S. products around the globe, the entertainment industry has tremendous influence on governmental policy and the economy. As the music industry continues to expand by acquisitions and mergers, so too, has grown concern by many observers who question the ethical principles of significant business practices.
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BAND TIPS: Music Business Plan by Peter Spellman

BAND TIPS: Music Business Plan by Peter Spellman

Remember too that the musicians you currently respect rose to their success with strategic planning and a keen sense of what "doing business" really means. Furthermore, today we are seeing the smarter bands being brought home because they know the inner workings of the music business and how to best organize their limited resources in order to penetrate it. How about you? Are you planning for success? by Peter Spellman - Copyright © 1999-2000 MUSIC BUSINESS SOLUTIONS

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Music business models and piracy

Music business models and piracy

Revenues in the global music industry have been shrinking since the start of the twenty first century (Liebowitz and Watt, 2006; Liebowitz, 2006, 2008; Elberse, 2010; IFPI, 2011). Firms in this sector are moving from a focus on selling music as a physical product towards creating value from selling music in digital formats (Parry et al., 2012) which gives rise to different business models (Balocco et al., 2010). A clear correlation exists between digitalization (i.e. MP3 format, broadband availability, online file sharing) and revenue decline in the music industry, with the most common explanation for this decline being the role of illegal file sharing, often referred to as piracy (Liebowitz, 2008). The piracy phenomena may be a form of purchase substitution, where music consumers substitute illegal downloads for legal purchase (Liebowitz and Watt, 2006; Liebowitz, 2006). Widespread availability of broadband internet facilitates the growth of file sharing. As physical distance is largely irrelevant for internet based file sharing, individuals from across the world can participate (Siwek, 2007; RIAA, 2011). To counter act illegal file sharing some countries have introduced stronger legislation. Analysis shows a correlation between stronger legislation protecting Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and increases in revenues (Bhattacharjee et al., 2006; Adermon and Liang, 2010; IFPI, 2011; Danaher et al., 2012).
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Table of Contents. Page Mission Statement SCCC Music Programs... 2 A.S. Performing Arts: Music A.A.S. Music Business Music Certificate

Table of Contents. Page Mission Statement SCCC Music Programs... 2 A.S. Performing Arts: Music A.A.S. Music Business Music Certificate

3. Sight Singing – The student will be asked to sing several printed melodies. The student will hear the tonality established at the piano and will be given the first pitch. The melodies include treble, clef, bass clef, step-wise melodic motion and skips in the tonic triad mixed with step-wise motion. A simple minor tune is included. The student may use numbers, solfege or a neutral syllable. We are looking for competent music reading ability, the ability to identify and name simple key signatures, good rhythmic concepts and the ability to maintain a tonal center.

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Music Business and the Experience Economy: the Australasian case

Music Business and the Experience Economy: the Australasian case

Pearce School of Business, James Cook University Townsville, Townsville, QLD Australia Philipp Peltz Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia David Salisbury School of Creative Arts, Jame[r]

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Disintermediation and re-intermediation in the music business: the effect of multimedia technologies and E-commerce

Disintermediation and re-intermediation in the music business: the effect of multimedia technologies and E-commerce

FIGURES Figure 1 The market Failure Framework Figure 2 The Two Co-ordination mechanisms Figure 3 Relative Costs for Markets and Hierarchies Figure 4 The shift towards Electronic Hierarch[r]

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Music Was It. Music Was It. Young Leonard Bernstein RUBIN

Music Was It. Music Was It. Young Leonard Bernstein RUBIN

cantor sang “the ancient tunes,” Lenny remembered. “Then the organ would start and then the choir would begin with its colors, and I just began to get crazed with the sound of choral music.” The organist and choirmaster was Professor Solomon Braslavsky, a musician trained in Vienna. Braslavsky was also a composer and performed many of his own compositions during services. Once he created an arrangement of the hymn “Adon Olam” (“Lord of the World”) for High Holy Days. “Arrangement is too small a word,” said Lenny. “It was a great com- position. I knew every note of it because I heard it every year; it was like an opera.” Later as an adult, Lenny said that Braslavsky provided him
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THE MUSIC RAIN?... (A New theory on “ J-Music”)

THE MUSIC RAIN?... (A New theory on “ J-Music”)

It is focused that global leaves scientific theories could not clarify still what is the Energy Source of Human Heart Beat?... It is hypothesized that “Soul Music” of super Nature (Dark Crystal) shall be considered as source of energy for human Heart Beat. The organized “Pulse wave” emanated from white whole region of Universe shall be considered as “J-MUSIC”.

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Music Education Commons , and the Music Pedagogy Commons

Music Education Commons , and the Music Pedagogy Commons

Students could improvise a sung melody with solfège syllables, or a tapped rhythm on syllables. Improvisation could also reinforce the study of harmony in Kodály philosophy, which he valued muchly. Students could improvise over a familiar harmonic progression, exploring for themselves which solfège syllables fit into that harmonic progression and which do not align. Regardless of the practical implication, Kodály philosophers may argue improvisation should come later rather than earlier in a music student’s career, as improvisation requires a basic understanding of harmony and a reasonably strong ability to audiate. Kodály’s philosophy states that “the teaching of harmony and theory begins of necessity only after children have had a large body of rote experience and have some proficiency in singing, reading, and writing simple rhythms and melodies.” 31 Kodály students
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The Impact of Computer Music Technology on Music Production

The Impact of Computer Music Technology on Music Production

The deployment of computer technology on the music industry has affected almost all facets of modern music. The last fifty years has seen the most primitive uses of computer generated sound evolve into the digital domain that is today’s music. Computer technology has led the evolution of format, medium, performance, and distribution of audio over this time. On the other hand,

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Music and Auditory Transportation: An Investigation of the Music Experience

Music and Auditory Transportation: An Investigation of the Music Experience

membership, decrease anxiety, improve mood, and induce strong physical reactions such as thrills and chills. My dissertation research looks at closing this gap by investigating how music can offer more to its consumer than is currently understood. Using a mixed- method approach, I first explore the phenomenon of experiencing a favourite song. Following that, I experimentally investigate: 1) how and whether different modes of music can induce an emotive, cognitive and imagery filled experience (auditory transportation), 2) whether this transportation experience results in differences across songs that have happy versus sad personal connotations, and 3) whether manipulating varying levels of auditory transportation can in turn influence other consumer-related downstream behaviors. The contribution this research stands to make includes a theoretical one: I introduce a theory (transportation) previously limited to the visual domain into the auditory domain, while also systematically investigating whether it can predict psychological changes, and if these changes in turn influence marketplace interactions. Practically, I involve participants in the choosing of the music stimuli for experimentation, thereby not only increasing validity, but also addressing an important gap in the study of music consumption as a form of experiential consumption.
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The Music Between Us: Is Music a Universal Language?

The Music Between Us: Is Music a Universal Language?

Little has been said in philosophical aesthetics about the way we encounter the music of other cultures. Kathleen Higgins’ The Music Between Us takes a big step towards remedying this neglect. Higgins’ goal is to explore the extent to which music affords mutual engagement and understanding between individuals separated by linguistic and cultural barriers, a thought traditionally expressed with the adage that ‘ music is a universal language ’ . Higgins agrees that there are significant parallels between music and spoken language, but she suggests that the comparison may obscure more than it reveals (p.80). While she still tends to describe the powers of music in communicative terms, her key claim is that music is ‘ a vehicle for recognizing — and directly experiencing — ou r common humanity’ (p.2). The justifications and various qualifications for this claim are spread out across the book. However, the core argument goes something like this: 1) Humans share a capacity for processing low-level musical features, rooted in our common biological heritage. 2) Music can convey the sense of human activity and attitude, based on these universally-processed features. 3) Humans can also become entrained or attuned to these perceived qualities. Therefore, 4) music affords the recognition and experience of these basic and shared human qualities.
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The music of speech: Music training facilitates pitch processing in both music and language

The music of speech: Music training facilitates pitch processing in both music and language

The idea that exposure to music and intensive musical practice benefit in nonmusical domains is as old as the myth of Orpheus that illustrates the magical power of music. More recently, this idea has been submitted to experimental investigation. Results of several behavioral studies have indeed shown improvement of spatial and/or mathematical abilities due to music training in children. However, these findings are not always conclusive, mainly because of methodological problems (for a review, see Schellenberg, 2001). For example, although it has been found that 6-year-old children who were taught music for 7 months by means of the Koda´ly method showed improvements in mathematical and reading abilities compared to control children (Gardiner, Fox, Knowles, & Jeffrey, 1996), this method also includes some nonmusical training aspects that confound the interpretation of the results. To study the influence of music training on linguistic abilities in adults, Chan, Ho, and Cheung (1998) compared musicians that started playing music at an early age with nonmusicians without musical training. They found that
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Music as Evil: Deviance and Metaculture in Classical Music

Music as Evil: Deviance and Metaculture in Classical Music

This section ends with two highly influential and controversial composers that definitely fit Becker’s (1982) conception of a maverick, namely Wagner and Stravinsky. Igor Stravinsky was one of the most influential composers of the Twentieth century (Grout and Palisca, 1996). His Le Sacre du Printemps (the Rite of Spring) is about the sacrifice of an adolescent girl ordered to dance herself to death, and is famous for its use of primitive folk sounds and melodies. The piece provoked a riot at its first premiere (Grout and Palisca, 1996). Deems Taylor, in The Dial (New York, September 1920) wrote of Stravinsky’s famous work, “Of course, it sounds like cacophony because I’m not used to it, and it probably sounds all alike for the same reason that Chinamen all look alike to me: I’m not well acquainted.” [Slonimsky, 1994, p. 198] The Musical Times in London, August 1926, wrote, “The music of [Stravinsky’s] Les Noces flouts Western civilization. Western civilization will probably return the compliment, for our musical functions provide no frame to fit the work… But the music is a first-class curiosity, one of the documents of our hapless age.” [Slonimsky, 1994, p. 202] Lazare Saminsky, in Music of Our Day (New York, 1939) writes, “Stravinsky is the father of the rebarbarization of music. He has transformed music into a collection of qualified noises. He has reduced melody to the primitive, inarticulate refrain of a Zulu, and has converted the orchestra into a gigantic rattle, the toy and mouthpiece of the new savage.” [Slonimsky, 1994, p. 204] Richard Wagner is one of the crucial figures in the history of nineteenth-century music (Grout and Palisca, 1996). His impact on music is too broad to mention here, but a major debate in the music world (sometimes called the War of the Romantics) was between the followers of the more radical style
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The music. manifesto. More music for more people

The music. manifesto. More music for more people

Music, like all great art, has the power to change our perceptions of the surrounding world for the greater good – it is ultimately a civilising influence. Music also has the power to develop children's inter-personal skills and confidence, to bridge the cultural divides and to act as the glue which can hold communities together. That's why Classic FM is delighted to throw its weight behind the music manifesto.”

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iSargam: music notation representation for Indian Carnatic music

iSargam: music notation representation for Indian Carnatic music

Unlike the encoding strategy used for singleton en- tities, encoding for grouped entities is done together and not as individual elements. It can be observed that any pitched note is an extension of a pitched music constitu- ent. In case of a pitched music constituent, the swara symbol is followed by octave and duration symbols, as mentioned in the previous section. Additionally, musical notes can contain additional characters which augment the basic music note like stressed note symbol, foreign note symbol etc. The musical note may then be part of another group in case of occurrence of musical phrase or glide expressions. It might look straightforward to assign symbol priorities in the same order. But this does not work due to a difference in the type of notation symbols used. So, iSargam develops a new encoding logic for notating a music note, which is explained here. In this context, we
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The patron saint of music : Beethoven's image and music in Japan's adoption of western classical music and practices

The patron saint of music : Beethoven's image and music in Japan's adoption of western classical music and practices

The Tokyo School of Music, which developed into the center of Japanese musical life in composition, performance, and musicology alike, enjoyed the skills of Franz Eckert, in addition to those of numerous other European musicians. Eckert was succeeded briefly by a Dutchman, Guillaume Sauvlet, in 1886. In 1889, Austrian Rudolph Diettrich took over the position. But by 1931, German musicians held the director position continuously, beginning with Klaus Pringsheim and continuing through the war years with Hans Schwieger and Helmut Felmer. A look at the 1943-44 edition of the Japan Yearbook reveals that, by the 1930s, there was also a ready supply of professors coming to the School of Music from Germany. Any time a professor at the Tokyo School of Music retired or left his or her post, a German artist quickly took over the vacancy. For example, composer and conductor Klaus Pringsheim’s term as director of the school expired in 1937, and when he returned home to Germany, he was replaced by German Professer Hans Schwieger. When Schwieger left for the United States in March 1938, Professor Helmut Fermer from Germany came to Tokyo to fill his position that April. Voice teacher Maria Toll was replaced in 1937 by Ria von Hessert from Germany. 29 There were influential faculty members from other countries, most notably the Russian pianist Leonid Kreutzer. However, these reports show that by the thirties, German artists enjoyed a strong relationship with Japanese institutions, and that they were clearly sought out for teaching positions through existing artistic connections.
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The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

To simplify the task, we  can divide the double implication into two sepa- rate implications, which are: “all music is sound” and “all sound is music”. Once we have defi ned these implications, we can study them separately. Th e implica- tion “all music is sound” relates the music to the physicality of sound. On the other hand, the implication “all sound is music” claims that the physical level of sound necessarily implies the artistic phenomenon of music. Th ese are two diff erent philosophical positions about the defi nition of music. Th e fi rst im- plication indirectly claims that some sounds might become music, while the second states that every sound should necessarily be interpreted as music. If we demonstrate that both implications are true, then we can deduce that the sound-music double implication is true as well. As we will see, in order to solve those implications we should provide an operational defi nition of music, based on the cognitive capacities of human beings.
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Music teachers' perceptions of teaching multicultural music in Malaysia

Music teachers' perceptions of teaching multicultural music in Malaysia

Since music education is now compulsory in Malaysia primary school curriculum, this research focuses on music teachers' perceptions of teaching multicultural music in order to help and p[r]

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The synergy between Salvation Army music and film music

The synergy between Salvation Army music and film music

I have a vivid recollection, from my early teenage years, of listening to ‘Century of Brass’ (1978), a live recording from The Salvation Army’s 1978 International Congress, on which the Melbourne Staff Band played Lieut-Colonel Ray Steadman-Allen’s work, ‘Victorian Snapshots - On Ratcliff Highway’ (2004). The cover of the LP (see Appendix A), was of a sketch from a front page of the Salvation Army newspaper, The War Cry, published in 1886 (and is reproduced in Brindley Boon’s book on the history of Salvation Army Bands, Play the music, play! (1966)) entitled ‘Our Whitechapel Soldiers marching the Ratcliff Highway’, by which the composition was inspired. Also on the sleeve, there was a description of the piece, with an explanation of the story behind it (see Appendix A). Listening to the clever interweaving of the popular melodies of the Victorian era, the original themes portraying the violence and deprivation of the area, the musical ‘picture painting’ of the drunken sailors who proceed to clash with the pioneer Salvationists, and finally, hearing the triumphant chorus, ‘We’ll be heroes’ (The Song Book of The Salvation Army [SASB], 1931, no.660), as the bravery of those early day Salvationists was portrayed, had a real impact on me. This piece became a firm favourite of mine and having the opportunity, many years later, to play it with the International Staff Band only enhanced my admiration of it. Having such a clear image and easy to understand analysis of the storyline really helped me, as a young Salvationist musician, understand a complex piece of music and get a clear understanding of the message the composer wanted to convey. It also led to me looking for other pieces with similar, strong storylines which I have enjoyed both as listener and performer.
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