It is possible that group discussion and student modeling at the end of each power practice lesson may have guided self-monitoring, which strengthened beliefs about future music learning. Participants may have also acquired knowledge from other students, and received positive feedback from the instructor giving credence to the social learning context. It was observed and documented in the researcher’s daily reflection journal that learning behaviors during the intervention reciprocally supported the learning environment, as expectations of performance outcomes were set by the instructor. Students in the experimental group also learned about effective musicpractice processes and strategies by modeling and motivating each other through their social interactions. Unlike other current research on adolescent musicpractice in relation to self-regulation (Hallam, 2001; McPherson, & McCormick, 1999 ; McPherson, G., & McCormick, 2006; McPherson, & Renwick, 2001; Miksza, 2006, 2007, 2012, 2015), this study goes further to explain the relationship between the sub-processes of self-regulation as it relates to meta-cognitive awareness and processing speed. The SRL-MPSC focused on key instructional strategies that would support general meta-cognitive awareness. Participants engaged in music learning activities that required applying previous knowledge to new musical challenges. This mental task is representative of the reliance one has on working memory and processing speed. Participants in this study were taught strategy management, and problem solving skills,
Renzo Tonin & Associates, Sydney, Australia
PACS: 43.55.FW, 43.55.GX, 43.55.HY, 43.75.ST
Small musicpractice rooms for non-amplified musical instruments are essential requirements in the teaching of music in music education facilities. The requirements for wall partitions and doors sound insulation performance for musicpractice rooms are usually the primary consideration and generally well understood. In this paper, the focus is on the sound quality within the musicpractice room as perceived by the music student and teacher. The size, shape and fin- ishes of the small musicpractice rooms decided at the design phase would determine the final cost, floor areas util- ised and resulting acoustic quality of the built musicpractice rooms. This paper reviews the various options for the design of musicpractice rooms for specific musical instruments and for multi-purpose use. The determination of mu- sic practice room sizes, proportions, shapes and finishes and their potential impact on the sound quality of the rooms are discussed. Issues regarding standing waves, room modes and the even distribution of the modes in small musicpractice rooms are also addressed. The various methods of varying the reverberation times and diffusivity in the mu- sic practice rooms with the use of alternative room elements and finishes are reviewed and discussed in the paper.
In viewing DIY as the fostering of local interconnected communities of musicians across the UK in reaction to an evolving music industry economy, through both traditional and new forms of cultural production DIY artists can be observed as reclaiming the live music audience and negotiating with them the aesthetics, norms and values of their performance (the space, live and digital interactions, the sound quality etc.). This is perhaps about a wish to provoke debate surrounding what constitutes authentic musicpractice and how is it experienced. It might also aim to inspire artists to nurture new creative practices and live music experiences. It may also involve a collective consideration of the possibility of it no longer being essential to have a mediator for these productions and performances in the digital creative economy age and to consider the opportunities for increased authenticity when the arbitrator (promoter, label etc.) is removed from the process of music production and consumption. Through the shared organisation of regular live events and fan/artist interactions through both digital and face-to-face communications, DIY artists can be observed as ceasing control of existing mediums for interactions with fans with the advent of shared negotiated music distribution sites such as Soundcloud, Bandcamp, Tumblr, Vimeo and Youtube. Whilst providing new opportunities for artists wishing to try out creative practices with other artists in existing and upcoming local music scenes, by enabling a direct communication between the artist and their fans on these free open services, DIY artists are putting music consumers in direct contact with the originators of that music. Dividing their time between live interaction in the spaces and promoting their music online was a main topic of discussion during the interviews and something which defined how they interpreted their amateur musicpractice. The combining of these two practices is something which is constantly reviewed and revised by the musicians as they consider how they intend their audiences to engage with their music.
Objectives: The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between musicpractice and level of stress in dental students. Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of musicpractice and 44 matched controls without musicpractice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores.
Computing can amplify these concerns, bringing abstracted notions of control into the performance situation. O’Modhrain highlights the importance of involving a performer’s perspective in the evaluation of DMIs, to ensure that the resulting instruments meaning- fully consider their perspectives on playability, transferability of skills, and effort.²²⁹ As an example, Sarah Nicolls highlights that augmenting a performer with sensors can turn their previously subconscious or involuntary movements into gestures of musical signif- icance, with the consequence of denying the typical opportunities for recovery.²³⁰ This dynamic becomes even further foregrounded in dance performances that attach sensors to dancers, where sensor augmentation easily evokes an invasive medicalization, with all of its fraught gendered implications.²³¹ Where Alvin Lucier’s Music for Solo Performer was at one point singular, it now serves as grandparent to a whole generation of works us- ing intrusive body metrics, from emotion-sensing helmets to the sonification of sphincter muscle contraction.²³²
Another idea for future research would be to survey parents, students, and
teachers on means of communication that they think might be helpful in order to improve communication between teachers and students and parents. I know from experience that many parents regularly stay in the parking lot in their cars and therefore do not have the opportunity to communicate with teachers on a regular basis. Additionally, as Private Music Academy teachers are Independent Contractors, the owner of an academy does not typically have the authority to tell teachers that they need to communicate with parents. While it is likely that more successful Private Music Academy teachers do at least make an effort to communicate with parents on a somewhat regular basis, some make no effort to do so whatsoever. Also, the Independent Contractor setup means that teachers and parents do not, by default, have each other’s contact information, so parents who remain in the parking lot cannot easily be reached. While teachers and parents do occasionally request each other’s contact information, and when both parties have given permission for the owner or office manager to provide this information, this does sometimes occur, it does not happen nearly enough, in my opinion. It would be interesting to do research on whether it is a lack of communication and/or understanding that leads to the lessening of enjoyment of lessons by students (and parents with the lesson experience).
I recently bought a couple of early 70s drum machines, like an old Maestro Rhythm King. I’ve just been playing that in, putting that through synthesizers, recording it in and then chopping it up afterwards, so you’re kind of creating drum loops and drum sounds on the fly, then recording it in and chopping it into its components. (Honer interview 2011.) So you know, more and more recently I’ve just been recording myself attempting to play drums, that kind of thing, almost making a little groove, and then sampling that… and not allow[ing] myself to go back and mess around with all the individual elements. In the same way as having a sample, you’re imposing those restrictions upon yourself, and quite often it’s the pushing up against those restrictions and dealing with music that is already completed and using that as the starting point for something else – it’s those restrictions which I think really test and encourage your creativity…So yeah, you tend to take less obvious bits of records and obviously you hunt for more obscure records, or you chop something within an inch of its life so even you’ve forgotten what you sampled…The new cautious approach in itself becomes a limitation, but not necessarily a bad one. I probably choose less musical elements to sample [now] and probably add more of my own musical input on top of it. (Carthy interview 2011.)
Research supports connections between speech and singing, rhythm and motor behavior, memory for song and memory for academic material, and overall ability of preferred music to enhance mood, attention, and behavior to optimize the student’s ability to learn and interact. Rhythmic movement helps develop gross motor skills (mobility, agility, balance, coordination) as well as respiration patterns and muscular relaxation. Because music is reinforcing, it can be used to motivate movements or structure exercises that are prescribed in physical rehabilitation. Involvement in music may provide a distraction from the pain, discomfort, and anxiety often associated with some physical disabilities.
Women and men interested in performing in choral ensembles that do not require an audition are welcomed to participate in the women’s ensemble, Bel Canto and the men’s ensemble, the Singing Buccaneers. Both gender ensembles are committed to excellence in choral literature and performance.
The Charleston Southern University Concert Singers is an auditioned vocal ensemble specializing in music of all genres. The 34-member group is composed of music majors, music minors and non-majors, and has performed throughout the east coast and in England, Scotland and Bulgaria. They have performed twice in the Washington, D.C., National Cathedral and at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City, in addition to performing at various schools and churches in Virginia, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina and Florida. The Concert Singers regularly perform at the Piccolo Spoleto Festival in Charleston; most recently in 2007. They have performed Brahms’ Ein Deutches Requiem in Varna, Bulgaria, as part of the Fifth International Conductors Workshop. In June 2004 and 2006 they were selected as the Choir in Residence at York Minster Cathedral in England. In June 2008 the Concert Singers performed throughout Austria and the Czech Republic including a concert at Salzburg Cathedral and in June 2010 the Concert Singers performed throughout Northern Italy including performances at some of Italy’s most famous cathedrals and in 2012, the Concert Singers were Choir in Residence at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, UK during the week of the Queen’s Jubilee. In June 2014, the Concert Singers will tour Spain.
something, they see it as in aspic. I think the reality is that they all sound different, so even if they’re all playing and modelling the same violinist, they never sound exactly like that. Say someone like Gergö (Koncz), is the closest to sounding like Marci (Coboda) in Palatka, but it is not exactly the same – there will be differences – even if only slight. So in that sense, their whole goal is to play it exactly like it was. Of course it is impossible to play exactly the same as someone else and for me I’m not convinced that such a narrow goal is a worthwhile one. Each person should bring something to the music whilst respecting the stylistic subtlties. A question, and it is a frustration that we often come up with and it’s fine, but what do you take? Like what, do you play like when he was in his 20s, in 1963, or 1979 or 1982, so what period of time? Because obviously, they change and evolve, no one stays the same. So those musicians also, their skills develop, their knowledge develops so they do change, so I think it’s inevitable but more particularly in the village, the music has always evolved. I mean, we say, ‘I like that musician playing at that moment in time, that’s what I love’, but you know he played differently from his dad, and if you go back 100-200 years, it was bagpipes and zithers, so this string music is from a very recent couple of hundred years, and so it’s really a snapshot in terms of Hungarian folk music if you want to look at it that way. And so for Hungarians, what’s changed in the village now is that, what had kept music more homogenous was the fact that they were cut off, so they didn’t have much contact with other people and they just sort of kept to themselves. Obviously, the more things open up with radios, in the village they hear Magyar nóta from Budapest and they love it and say, great that’s what I want to learn. So if you hear Potta Géza (old prímás from Slovakia famous for Magyarbödi music – now deceased
Mtpp addresses the career development needs of instrumental and vocal teachers. It is a Distance Learning course, and employs reflective practice principles to allow private teachers and those involved in instrumental and vocal practice to develop their professional skills, informed by the latest research in anatomy, psychology, sociology and pedagogy applicable to music teaching. Mtpp makes extensive use of a Virtual Learning Environment: Blackboard for e-teaching and assessment. The goal of the MA in Mtpp is that students become active participants in the newly evolving international community in practical music education research to which this programme makes a significant contribution.
Diversifying course offerings. Väkevä (2010) suggested adding digital and computer-aided music to the pedagogical foundation of music education. With the emergence of online communities of practice and software that allows casual and professional musicians greater access to remix music, work together in collective songwriting, and edit and post music on websites like YouTube, among countless other ways to interact online, Väkevä advocated for the inclusion of these way of music- making as the notions of music pedagogy were expanded and redefined. At County College, the band director also wished to expand the scope of music pedagogy by adding a program of study in sound design. The band director’s approach to the communities of practice at County College was to make the school more enticing to a larger population of students in hopes of broadening the appeal and scope of the department, specifically to the types of students who would be interested in the types of music-making for which Väkevä advocated. The band director’s new approach to music education at County College met with some resistance by some administrators who were hesitant to take the risk of hiring new faculty, renovating facilities, and purchasing equipment that would be required to offer such a program. Similar to the choir students discussed above and the new teachers in Korthegan’s (2010) research, the band director faced resistance from other invested parties as he attempted to implement his new perspective and approach to music education at County College.
As community college enrollment entered a new period of growth in the 1950s, music educators began to report on multiple missions. Each author offered his or her perspective on which missions were being adequately addressed, as well as areas for improvement. For example, Viggiano (1955) examined curricular trends and practices of 75 junior college music programs from California, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, New York, Pennsylvania, and New York in 1942, and conducted a similar examination in 1954. Viggiano first noted the four functions of a junior college, namely, terminal degrees, transfer preparation, community education, and adult education. He conceded that it was possible for each college to emphasize different functions. Subsequently, he compared the results of his two examinations, reporting that music courses increased from 539 in 1942 to 680 in 1954. The researcher then discussed the diversity of courses that were offered, including harmony and ear-training courses, music teacher preparation courses, music history and appreciation courses, ensembles, instrument classes, and conducting. Viggiano’s description of the terminal degree function corresponded with Bailey and Morest’s (2004) core mission of the community college, whereas the transfer preparation function corresponded with upward vertical expansion, and community education
The value of music as an authentic expression of the ideas, responses and cultural background of children, contributed to the place of music in the classrooms of the three participants. It was a dynamic aspect of Paul’s teaching, and was present to some degree, in the programs of the other two participants. Regarding popular music, Katy could list the children’s favourite songs from the Top 10 over the past year, without blinking an eyelid. The song writing that went on with Bob and Paul captured the children’s own ideas and their interpretations of topic themes in other key learning areas. Paul conveyed the perspective of a range of purposes music activities held for him in the generalist curriculum. Music activities could enable him to learn more about the personalities and abilities of his students, could assist him to calm or refocus student attention, engage their full attention in a new topic to be studied, teach them non-music and at times, music-related vocabulary and, importantly, he stated, to teach them to sing. Music activities were spontaneous pathways for students to share the music of their culture and to participate in shared, creative music making adventures.
At the local level, a plethora of volunteer-driven physical and virtual archives and collections focused on local artists and music scenes reveal bottom-up heritage practices where preservation is experienced as a moral imperative, compelling individuals to perform a duty for a collective beneﬁt. Echoing the ﬁndings of research into com- munity archives (Flinn et al. 2009), the rationale for setting up local music archives is based on the enthusiasm of an individual or group to document its history on its own terms, responding to a lack of visibility and representation within mainstream institutions (Harvey 2001). The Manchester District Music Archive, run by volunteers, provides an overview of the history of the city’s music, searchable by bands, venue and artefact. Between 2002 and 2010, the archive was linked to URBIS, ﬁrst a museum of the city life, then museum of popular culture, with a focus on popular music from the city. The museum has now been refurbished into a museum of foot- ball, and many of its former music centred exhibitions (for example, on the nightclub The Hacienda) are touring. While staying in England, the Birmingham Home of Metal is a museum set up with the support of Heritage National Lottery Funds and based on donations to help ‘secure [the museum’s] identity’ and ‘honour[ing] a truly global musical phenomenon’. The enthusiasm for the museum’s rationale echoed in news reviews of its opening: ‘Heavy Metal was born in the West Midlands and has developed a global following matched only in Hip-Hop. It’s time to stop sneering and celebrate this proud cultural heritage…’ (New Statesman, 30 July 2007).
What does it mean when African-American culture and black rhetoric are gendered in preacherly performance discourse? This dissertation is an interdisciplinary analysis of the presence of black women preachers in both twentieth and twenty-first century African-American literature, music, and religion. Though scholarship in African-American literary and cultural studies has examined the importance of voice in black women’s cultural production, the cultural figure of the black woman preacher in literature, music, and the pulpit remains unstudied as a focus of current scholarship. Building upon the work that has been done by scholars in sound studies, this dissertation uses music to make an interdisciplinary intervention among the intersections of African-American literary criticism, music, and religious studies. Using the sermon as a literary genre, this project seeks to undertake a close examination of the black woman preacher in all three realms of discursive practice as a way of troubling the static boundary separating the sacred and the secular, sanctified and sacreligious. By looking at the exegetical, eschatological, and pedagogical elements of black feminist sermonic practice, I investigate how performance of the sermon is personified through the black woman preacher’s emphasis on musicality, expressivity, thematic relevance, and improvisatory phrasing. By formulating a methodology that seeks to think critically about how black feminist sermonic practice occurs in the intersections of black feminism/womanism and oral performativity in both sermon and song, I work to help readers think differently about how the sermonic space empowers the black woman preacherly figure to utilize the sermon to speak on issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality. Black feminist sermonic practice looks at the heteroglossic functions of black women preachers in literature and music in order to show how they use their sermons to create a “chromatic” space that amalgamates both sermon and song. Further, this dissertation proves black feminist sermonic practice seeks to foreground notions of value, transformation, healing, and communal empowerment.
Like Rutherford, Manchester-born Alan Tomlinson performs in many large ensembles and big bands of the more experimental and left field territories of UK jazz composition. He is best known for his expertise and prodigious skill as a performer of western Contemporary Classical repertoire and Improvised Music, in small groups and as a soloist (Barnes, 2018). He is noted for his memorable performances of challenging contemporary repertoire but has performed solo improvisations in unusual circumstances, notably a 2003 solo tour with Steve Tate’s mobile fish and chip van of the villages of north Yorkshire, performing solo for the queuing customers (Bell, 2015, Barnes, 2018). His route to Improvised Music came from meeting and working with drummer John Stevens, after playing solo concerts at the London Musicians’ Collective (Barnes, 2018), and not, as was the case with most improvisors at this time, via the Little Theatre Club gigs, which he encountered but then avoided: ‘I opened the door and this wall of sound hit me, from ten saxophone players. It put me off Improvised Music and I didn’t do any for quite a while’ (in Barnes, 2018:33). His technical skills are considered outstanding and his presence on the international Improvised Music circuit since the mid 1970s has earned him a reputation as a unique virtuoso (Longley, 2003, Barnes, 2018).
A range of means is available to enable students with visual impairments to study at RCM, including enlarging documents, assistive technology, such as JAWS and Zoomtext software on student access PCs and Braille embossing equipment . It is usually possible to recruit a reader or non-medical helper from the student body if required. Orientation and general mobility training can be arranged prior to study, and accommodation close to College can be applied for (but not guaranteed) if preferred. Students can also benefit from individual advice from, and the support of, the RCM Fellow in Music and Visual Impairment, Jackie Clifton. From time to time Jackie also runs workshops on various practical issues, such as performance presentation skills and applying for jobs. There may also be opportunities to participate in a range of collaborative projects with other colleges, universities and organisations. Prospective students with visual impairments, whether registered blind or not, are invited to contact the Student Services Manager to discuss their individual requirements.
preconditions for the „projectification‟ (Midler, 1995) of economic organisation. Firstly, with regards to networks, Grabher argues that projects operate in a milieu of recurrent collaboration that, after several project cycles, provides a pool of resources and „gels‟ talent into latent networks, forming “a latent reservoir of resources to be utilized when needed” (Staber, 2004: 32). Projects, he argues, are the realisation of a potential that is generated by the practice of drawing on a network of social contacts, ties, and core members of successful previous projects to serve on successor projects (see also Jones, 1996; DeFillippi and Arthur, 1998). As such, economic action becomes embedded in networks which are socially constructed (see Crewe, 1996). Possibilities to quickly set up a new project team for a specific task largely depend on existing inter-personal networks and access to a latent pool of specialists (von Bernuth and Bathelt, 2007), which helps to reunite actors and reassign resources in the face of changing demands (Staber, 2004). Interpersonal rather than inter-firm relations bind networks together and become the conduit for project assembly and operation (Ekinsmyth, 2002). Chains of repeated cooperation are held together or cut off, Grabher argues, by the reputation members gain or lose in previous collaborations. „Know-who‟ plays an important role in selecting partners for a project team (Christopherson, 2002; Gann and Salter, 2000). Thus “project business is reputation business” (Grabher, 2001b: 1329), with reputation in this instance referring:
consciousness. The main part of the session is the music listening, approximately 40 minutes in length. Bonny viewed the music and imagery itself as the therapy. The clients, called travelers, report what they experience as they listen to the music. The primary roles of the GIM therapist, or guide, are to support the traveler during the experience and encourage him or her to fully engage with the images. The guide maintains verbal contact and follows the traveler through the music. One reason for extensive training of the guides is for them to develop a deeper understanding of each piece of music in order to effectively use the music to inspire imagery. The session concludes with a postlude of approximately 30 minutes. During this time the guide assists the traveler in “returning to a more externally oriented state” (Ventre, 2002, p. 33). The GIM therapist often uses creative modalities, such as mandalas, to bridge the imagery experience to the verbal processing and to further re-orient the traveler (Bonny & Kellogg, 1977/2002; Bush, 1988). The guide and traveler then process the experience verbally. A main aspect of the verbal processing is that the traveler directs it; the guide supports and offers feedback when asked by the traveler. GIM therapy may consist of as few as three sessions or as many as 20 or more; a typical length of a series is ten