Although Karnes does not seek to invalidate earlier studies, he argues for a revised view of the founders of musicology by fundamentally altering the way we think about these figures and by legitimizing an alternative approach to their work, one that he argues was vetoed in the second half of the last century. Karnes sees this academic one-sidedness in the context of the Cold War era. He is not the first to do so, and he quite openly adds his voice to an array of recent commentators, among them Anne Schreffler, Celia Applegate, Philip Gossett and Daniel Beller-McKenna. Music, Criti- cism, and the Challenge of History can be understood as a decisive and significant contri- bution to scholarship, not only in the field of musicology, but also in the broader field of German and Austrian cultural life. This book is also to be welcomed for the wealth of source material it consults, as evidenced in the extensive bibliography. A number of figures, tables and previously unpublished photographs and drawings add to the ap- peal and usefulness of the book. It is to be further valued for the elegant and idiomatic translations it contains.
Boynton’s third chapter is a concise study of a remarkable and exquisitely beautiful artifact and the role that it played in Burriel’s historiography. In 1752, at Burriel’s request, Palomares made a full-colour, hand copied, parchment facsimile of a book of masses and offices (that Burriel dated to ca. 1085) together with a transcription of the source into modern script.(5) Fascinatingly, Palomares, who had no musical training himself, was aware that the medieval musical notation he had so faithfully reproduced was no longer intelligible – the ‘silent music’ of Boynton’s title. His observation, rarely acknowledged before the 20thcentury, was tantamount to a declaration that no unbroken connection between the neo-Mozarabic liturgy transmitted by Cisneros’s books and the medieval Mozarabic liturgy existed. Three years later Burriel presented the magnificent facsimile to Ferdinand VI via the Duke of Alba, supplying a preface that places the meticulously accurate reproduction of the manuscript into a much wider historiographical context. ‘The facsimile’, Boynton observes, ‘created a seductive fantasy of historical continuity.’ And in its preface, Burriel sought to convince the King that the manuscript represented incontrovertible evidence of the
Modern scholars do not make a strict differentiation between the terms “historiosophy” and “philosophy of history” [5, 6, 7, 8]. Though the differentiation between historiosophy, philosophy of history, cultural history, metaphysics of history, historiology, etc. is suggested by some researchers [1, 6, 8, 9, 10]. They believe that it is theoretically justified, because these terms appeared at different time, they have different subjects, and imply different ways of comprehending the history of philosophical forms, i.e. this differentiation can hardly be put into practice. According to the current tradition in humanitaristics and, in particular, in the study of literature, the term “historiosophy” is considered the most preferable. Here a hidden desire to separate philosophy of history as a politicized and ideologized doctrine, which it used to be in the USSR till the 1990s, from historiosophy in the interpretation, which was popular 10-20 years ago. This interpretation can trace its origins back to Russian religious philosophers, who lived at the end of the 19th till the first third of the 20thcentury.
Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.
To do this, Kennedy uses autobiographical accounts, as well as examples of correspondence between children and their relatives at the front, now housed at the Imperial War Museum. Many letters sent by children appear to have been lost in the Flanders mud. However, their content can be inferred from carefully preserved replies, and seem to have detailed, as one might expect, all those things that mean so much to (rather privileged urban) children: pet animals, visits to Father Christmas’ Grotto, and wheeled transport (in one case ‘an illuminated tramcar in the form of a tank’) (p. 36). As such, they offer an intriguing child’s-eye view of domestic routines in war, but are hard to subject to the usual rigours of source criticism. Kennedy sets herself the immensely difficult task of reconstructing not only their content but also their emotional significance.
deploys vocal glissandi in a sound-world based on dissonant harmonies. In Suantraí Ghráinne, written for the Lindsay Singers in 1983, Rhona Clarke (b1958) foreshadows what will grow into the mature voice that characterises the choral output upon which her reputation primarily rests. These features include a gentle rhythmic complexity, changing meters, and a sensitive facility in the setting of Irish texts. The main thrust of Seán Ó Riada’s immense importance to the history of music in Ireland lies outside what he wrote for choirs, yet his two settings for unison choir and organ of the mass ordinary in Irish, Ceol an aifreann (1968) and Aifreann 2 (1970), belong in any discussion of the transition away from the ‘celtic twilight’, irrespective of his use of traditional song. John O’Keefe calls this ‘vernacular church music’ in that it emanates from a ‘living oral culture of native traditional song; as part of a historical continuum of monophonic liturgical composition for the Roman rite.’ 111
The use of drawing in the classroom has a contentious history in the U.S. education system. While most instructors and students agree that the activity helps students focus and observe more details, there is a lack of empirical data to support these positions. This study examines the use of three treatments (writing a description, drawing a perceptual image, or drawing a perceptual image after participating in a short instructional lesson on perceptual drawing) each week over the course of a semester. The students in the “Drawing with Instruction” group exhibit a small but significantly higher level of content knowledge by the end of the semester. When comparing Attitude Toward Biology and Observational Skills among the three groups, inconclusive results restrict making any conclusions. Student perceptions of the task are positive, although not as strong as indicated by other studies.
He also writes disapprovingly of how allegedly ‘modernists drew highly selectively on what we now call the premodern’ (p. 130) but his view of modernism is equally selective. He calls modernist performance ‘the product of a culture in which it is the exception for performers to be also composers’ (p. 127) – which would exclude Busoni, Hindemith, Artur Schnabel, Boulez, René Leibowitz, Bruno Maderna, György Kurtág and others. Or ‘Hanslick’s aesthetics turned into sound’, because according to Cook, in Hanslick’s terms ‘expression is something piled on top of structure’ (p. 127), an argument which might be different if Hanslick’s many critical writings were investigated as well as his early treatise. At different times Landowska, Schenker, Schnabel, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Hindemith, Furtwängler, Boulez, or Alicia de Larrocha (though not necessarily Adorno), are all associated with modernist performance. Schenker, we are told, ‘laid the foundations’ of ‘modernist music theory’, which ‘in conjunction with modernist aesthetics and modernist performance’ turned the classics ‘into perfect musical objects, perfectly reproduced’ (p. 134), an extravagant statement which needs more evidence (I would find it difficult to recognise various of the above names in this description). The most prominent performers of new music are largely omitted, even those also associated with repertoire from the common practice era. There is nothing at all on Leibowitz, Hans Rosbaud, or Maderna and just a brief mention of Hermann Scherchen; Claudio Abbado and Maurizio Pollini are only mentioned in passing, and Pierre Boulez is addressed through his pronouncements rather than his performances. 17
By contrast, the South-Korean case is quite different because they didn’t have this problems and the South-Korean State was able to lead the industrialization process. "In 1961, however, the field was clear for the assumption of state power. The landed nobility had been destroyed; the peasantry was less rebellious as a result of a land reform; and the 'captains of industry' were beholden to the state for their regeneration. Only workers and students remained as opponents to military rule. Industrial workers, however, were still only a small portion of the population. As for the students, their role in an industrialization based on learning became pivotal. The Hangul generation, the first generation of students since the nineteenth century to escape education under the Japanese, came off the streets and into the modern factories of the 1970s as managers" (AMSDEN, 1989, p. 52).
expeditions of explorers or intelligence operations’ (p. 344), as it has been in most Cold War and even more recent post-Cold War works (cf. also the influence of Kipling’s interpretation, p. 6). Feminist approaches which portray it as a ‘network of men’s clubs that reinforced the spatial and social barriers separating the sexes’ (p. 10) are, likewise, insufficient. It is, instead, a complex narrative which needs to be re-constructed according to three, possibly four, ‘interrelated dimensions': 1- ‘the competition for goods and capital investments in the preindustrial Asian markets’; 2- a competition between two distinct ‘models of early globalization’, namely the two main empires of Russia and Great Britain which both aimed to integrate ‘non- European decadent societies’ into their domains of rule socially, politically, and economically; 3- ‘as a complex, multilevel decision-making and decision-implementing activity directed by their ruling elites’; and 4- as a vital era in the history of Russo-British relations across Eurasia which ‘precipitated their consequent rapprochement and military alliance in World War I’ (pp. 5, 13).
The current study has been envisaged to present a comprehensive history of the development of Indian Science Museums and Planetariums, and study their exhibits and activities. Based on available documents, their impact in enhancing public understanding of science and technology has also been attempted. Two major accounts on science museum (or science centre) movement in India, written by Dr Saroj Ghose, former Director General of NCSM (1986-1997) and Shri Ingit K Mukhopadhyay, former DG NCSM (1997-2009) and on Indian planetariums by Shri Piyush Pandey, former Director of Nehru Planetarium, Mumbai (2003-2011) though not very comprehensive in historical studies of science museums and planetariums in India has helped us a lot to prepare our document. However, there was not a single account available on the history of natural history museums in India. The ‘Science Museum’ has been used as a generic term to include traditional science museums, natural history museums, science centres and science cities. The ‘Planetarium’ on the other hand covers all forms of space theatres using projection systems like manual, opto-mechanical, hybrid and digital.
The persistence of the 200 mb eddy geopotential height of the NOAA 20thCentury Reanalysis data is shown in Fig. 1a, where it can be seen that the persistence is 1 month for the extratropics and from 2 to 6 months in the tropical band, with a maximum in the Pacific. This result reinforces the large in- ternal atmospheric variability present in the extratropics and the dominant role of the ocean forcing in the tropical band. Figure 1b shows the persistence after the effect of El Niño (El Niño 3.4 index) has been linearly removed by a regres- sion procedure. Clearly, most of the persistence in the trop- ical band is due to the El Niño phenomenon that is known to affect the global tropics through the propagation of Kelvin waves (e.g., Lintner and Chiang, 2007). Given that El Niño persists for about 6 months, the connections from the trop- ical Pacific to the rest of the tropics are also maintained. After El Niño is removed, the persistence in the tropics is about 2 months, which might be because the linear procedure was not enough to remove the El Niño influence completely or due to the existence of local processes that slightly en- hance persistence. Nevertheless, it is clear that a persistence of 1 month is characteristic of most of the world, and thus randomly mixing the time series on individual points of the grid provides a good test of the connectivity. This procedure ensures the recognition of the importance of the tropical Pa- cific in the global connectivity, as clearly seen in Fig. 2.
it sounds like MGMT or Arcade Fire, but it isn't. So it's like, 'OK, that's pretty much been done now. What's next?'" (Battan 2012). Rechtshaid is referring to the impetus driving indie artists toward pop rather than guitar-based musical styles; as indie rock sounds (e.g., MGMT and Arcade Fire) have become commonplace in mainstream contexts, many indie artists are now incorporating pop-oriented styles that sound both retro and contemporary. The current wave of indie stars, such as Grimes, the Weeknd, Aluna George, James Blake, Rhye, Sky Ferreira and others, variously assimilate R&B, electronic, pop, and dance stylistic elements in their music, eschewing guitar-based conventions altogether. Furthermore, certain indie artists are now openly praising and collaborating with contemporary pop, R&B, and rap stars; for example, the XX recently expressed their admiration for Beyoncé, who they consider to be “one of [their] favourite artists of all time” (J. Pelly 2013); “electronic bedroom producer” Hudson Mohawke is contributing to Kanye West’s forthcoming album (Goble 2013). Pitchfork’s selective valorization of popular music styles over the past six years both anticipates and reflects recent renegotiations of aesthetic value in indie music practice.
The rise of political antisemitism in the late 19 th century and its consolidation as an exterminatory antisemitism in the 20 th century, are associated with the ethnic nationalism that prevailed in Europe at the time, especially in Germany and Eastern Europe, while the end of antisemitism is associated with the universal civil values now embodied in the European Union and European Convention on Human Rights…….This reassuring narrative looks back to an era in which antisemites saw themselves as guardians of the ethnically pure nation-state, and forward to a post-national Europe in which antisemitism is remembered, but only as a residual trauma or a museum piece…….Thus, the idea of Europe as the civilised continent is rescued from the wreckage.[11; 463; emphasis added] It is through the prism of what Fine terms the “banality” of this “Europeanist” way of thinking”, xxxxxxx that contemporary images and perceptions of Eastern Europe in general, and of Eastern Europe’s antisemitism in particular, are formed.
Among these types of craft metal treatment is mostly developed and has ancient history. Abundance of local raw materials created favorable conditions for development of metal treatment from ancient times. In general, in the third millennium BC there was high culture of the Bronze Age in our country, and in the first millennium transition period from Bronze Age to Iron Age began. In that period in Azerbaijan there were appeared several branches of metallurgy treatment. Jewelries, daggers, arms, copper products and other samples of art have been treated so refined, that in nowadays they are protected as very valuable exhibits in famous museums in such cities, as Paris, London, Brussels, Istanbul, Tehran and other cities. There is no any source about glass production in and around Ganja. The majority of archaeologists agreed with the idea, that the homeland of glass production is ancient Egypt, but the famous English archaeologist, Egyptologist Petri Flinders thought, that it could be Mesopotamia or the Caucasus. Taking into account that cobalt, used in glass coloring wasn’t in Egypt, the scientists thought that, it could be in the Caucasus, also in Dashkesan. The majority of containers and the analysis based on graphical elements of the Roman scholars came to the opinion that the samples of the same scale as the Roman Empire through trade.
Our third finding is that, since about 1960, American books have increased their mood contents compared to British books. This divergence between American and British English occurs within the context of the overall decline in the use of mood words. If we plot the difference in z-scores between American and British word data (Figure 3a), we see a clear, steady, relative increase in American emotion-related words from 1960 to 2000. Since about 1980, books written in American have been more ‘emotional’ (in all mood figures) than the ones written in British (Figure 3a). This difference in z-scores – which reflects the respective deviations from each nation’s mean value – is duplicated also by the same change in absolute emotion scores (see Methods): American and British English have similar absolute emotion scores in the first half of the 20 th century (or even British slightly more emotional),
Raḥman al-Majdhūb”), and produced them with his own troupe, often casting himself in a role in which he would exhibit a unique comic flair. The theatre movement in Iraq was also constricted by political circumstances, but the dramatic tradition continued even so through the 1990s; an Iraqi play won first prize at the prestigious Tunisian Carthage Festival in 1999, for instance. Most prominent mong 20th-century Iraqi playwrights was Yūsuf al-Ānī, whose Anā ummak yā Shākir (1955; “Shākir, I’m Your Mother”) graphically portrays the misery of the Iraqi people in the period before the downfall of the monarchy in the revolution of 1958. Elsewhere in the Arabian Gulf, theatre remained, where it existed at all, a very young cultural phenomenon, and efforts in the early 21st century to foster a dramatic tradition vied with the popularity of forms of entertainment readily available via television, CDs, DVDs, and the Internet.
Due to several scholars’ concurrent attention in 1983, the translation of reception theory grew rapidly in the middle of the 1980s. Firstly, more and more journals were interested in the theory: “Dushu (Reading)” 1984(5) published Zhang Longxi’s “Different People Have Different Views” which made a further investigation on hermeneutics, Jauss and Iser’s reception aesthetics and Fish’s “reader-response criticism”; “Baike Zhishi (Encyclopedic Knowledge)” 1984(9) published Zhng Li’s “Reception Aesthetics: A New Method for Literature Analysis”; “Jiangsu Meixue Tongxun (Jiangsu Aesthetic Report)” 1985(1) published Sun Jing’s translation of W. Fokkema and Elrud Kunne-Ibsch’s “Reception to Literature: Theory and Practice of ‘Reception Aesthetics’”; “Wenxue Lilun Yanjiu(Theoretical Studies In Literature and Art)” 1985(2) published Luo Tilun’s translation of Grimm’s “Introduction to Reception Aesthetics’’; “Wenyi Yanjiu(Literature & Art Studies)” 1985(7) published Zhang Guofeng’s “A New Literary Theory Abroad: Reception Aesthetics” which gave a detailed introduction to Jauss, Iser and Naumann’s theories; “Du Shu(Reading)” 1987(1) published Liu Xiaofeng’s “The Real Purpose of Reception Aesthetics”. Secondly, several important monographs and collections on reception theory were published: Zhou Ning and Jin Yuanpu’s translation of Jauss and Holub’s “Receptional Aesthetic and Reception Theory” published by Liaoning People’s Publishing House in 1987 is the first translated works on reception theory in China. Later, Huo Guihuan’s translation of Iser’s “The Act of Reading” was published by China Renmin University Press in 1988. One year later, many other relevant works were published, including “Collection of Translated Works on Reception Aesthetics” (ed. Liu Xiaofeng, Joint Pressing), “Reception Aesthetics” (ed. Zhang Tingzhen, Sichuan Literature and Art Publishing House), “Reader Response Criticism——From Formalism to Post-Structuralism” (trans. Liu Feng & Yuan Xianjun, Culture and Art Publishing House).
Memory, in the context of international history, proves a difficult concept to handle, particularly collective memory. Individual memory is based on experience (I have myself some small individual memories of the war), but collective memory (an ‘organizational principle’ that circulates in society in the form of narratives, symbols and images) is, as Finney said in his introduction, essentially fictitious, by which I presume he means imaginary (p. 15). The notes Finney adds to each chapter are replete with references to individual memory (experience). But in the text itself, for the most part, only collective memory appears, morphing frequently into narrative, story, discourse and even myth. The potential reader should not, therefore, look to Remembering the Road to World War Two for an account of the personal experiences of those who were involved in it. Rather he should look for the role of collective memory in the construction of politics, historiography and national identity, with each of which it is, as Finney shows in elaborate detail,