Musiceducation curriculum, while largely remaining consistent throughout the past decades, remains steeped in one primary goal: To prepare preservice teachers to teach music. “Music is a highly complex activity requiring a variety of skills and an in-depth knowledge of subject matter and pedagogy” (Temmerman, 1997, p. 27). There are multiple paths and types of accrediting institutions one can attend to become a music educator including conservatories and educational, arts, or music colleges (Matiero, 2011). Each of these different types of institutions stresses a different emphasis. A liberal arts college, such as the site of this research report, stresses broad educational goals not necessarily related to a focused musicteachereducation major such as writing and critical thinking. These skills, while not directly related to knowledge and skills in music and music pedagogy, are necessary and valuable for a teacher in any subject.
The quality of teaching occurring in schools is directly linked to the quality of preservice preparation that teachers receive (Darling-Hammond, 2000). This is particularly important in the area of musicteachereducation, given the unique challenges that classroom music teachers commonly face. This paper reports research designed to investigate the knowledge and skills that early-career music teachers perceive to be necessary to function effectively in the classroom, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of current teachereducation programs in preparing them to teach secondary classroom music. Questionnaires were completed by 76 secondary classroom music teachers in their first three years of teaching in Queensland, Australia. Importance-Performance Analysis was used to determine those areas of the preservice course that constitute a high priority for attention. The findings suggest that preservice teachers need increased support in their development of pedagogical content knowledge and skills, and non-pedagogical professional content knowledge and skills. This research provides an empirical basis for reconceptualising musicteachereducation courses and raises important issues that musicteacher educators need to address in order to ensure that graduates are adequately prepared for classroom music teaching.
PA 102 requires school districts to evaluate teacher performance at least once per year (or biannually for teachers rated as highly effective for three consecutive years), provide timely and constructive feedback, and use evaluations to inform decisions regarding teacher effectiveness, promotion, retention, development, tenure, compensation, and full certification. Although this law allows school districts to use a variety of national, state, and local assessments, it is unclear how administrators will evaluate music educators in relation to student growth and achievement. The Michigan Society for MusicTeacherEducation (MISMTE) offers the following
In most higher education-based teacher-training programmes in the United Kingdom, a period of learning away from schools is followed by a practicum, a teaching practice experience in the classroom. Once beginning music teach- ers begin to function as novice teachers, their main focus tends to be upon their own personal classroom performance, where they are concerned with reproducing the “idiosyncratic and contextual factors” (Bronkhorst, Meijer, Koster & Vermunt, 2011, p. 1122) of a school setting. At this stage beginning music teachers are appar- ently functioning as teachers; indeed, many see this as a sort of extended role play activity, but while operating at this functioning and reproductive stage many beginning music teachers are not yet able to recognize how their teaching impacts upon learning. Working away from schools enables beginning music teachers to explore in a secure environment many of the pedagogic issues they will encounter for real in the practicum. This means that they are able to experience what Vescio, Ross and Adams (2008, p. 83) define as an “authentic pedagogy” which “empha- sises higher order thinking, in other words, the construction of meaning through conversation and the development of a depth of knowledge that has value beyond the classroom”.
instruction in elementary schools in five countries. In Australia, Namibia, South Africa, and Ireland, music specialists were rare in schools, so any music instruction was the responsibility of the classroom teacher. In the United States, music instruction was typically carried out by a music specialist. Student teachers in elementary education programs in each country were surveyed about their perceptions of priorities of and problems related to music teaching. Russell-Bowie reported that 78% of participants agreed that musiceducation should be a priority in school; however, only 43% indicated that it actually was a priority in their schools. Participants were most likely to rate their own “lack of personal musical experiences” as the greatest challenge. South African participants reported greater challenges in personal musical knowledge than did Australian, American, and Irish participants. Regarding lack of resources, Namibian participants reported greater challenges than those in Australia. Many other variables, such as cultural backgrounds, economic status, or political situation may have influenced these results; nonetheless, the researcher strongly recommended that musiceducation for elementary students and better teacher preparation in music teaching should be supported and regulated by the national and state policies and regulations.
In this article, I begin by providing the educational context of Ontario, Canada as a way to situate this important topic in musiceducation. I turn then to discuss the origins of visual narrative body mapping (Art2Be, n.d.; Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange [CATIE], n.d.; Crawford, 2010; Gastaldo, Magalhães, Carrasco, & Davy, 2012) as a tool to visually narrate and conceptualize embodied musical experience. I offer insights regarding body mapping through situating it as both a theoretical and methodological lens. I follow this by describing a two-year narrative inquiry (Barrett & Stauffer, 2009, 2012; Clandinin, 2007; Clandinin & Connolly, 2000) that I engaged in with teacher candidates at Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, to explore how the role of music in their daily lives might influence their musicteacher identity. Guided by the research question, How do personal music experiences shape teacher candidates’ perceptions of elementary musiceducation?, I share words of teacher candidates who offer articulate insights into how fear and lack of self-confidence toward teaching are embodied in the formation of musicteacher identity. Finally, I consider the effectiveness of body mapping as a tool to assist teacher candidates in understanding their narratives of musical experiences, in both informal and formal contexts, and how, subsequently, such experiences are central in shaping future teaching practice.
teachereducation preparation, it appears that regardless of the tradition chosen as most important, early-career music teachers’ preferences for the teachereducation traditions were framed within the context of the music classroom and therefore did not neatly fit any of the teachereducation traditions. For example although they may have identified the social efficiency tradition as most important, they may have described the importance of music knowledge and skills and the importance of sequential, developmental classes with equal passion. Consequently, despite the apparent diversity of preferences (as evidenced by the questionnaire responses), there emerged from the interviews a consistent understanding regarding the way effective musicteachereducation programs should be designed.
Other research studies, on GTE in more contemporary settings, identify similar and additional tendencies and challenges in the neighbouring countries Sweden and Denmark. Lindgren and Ericsson (2011) carried out 19 focus group interviews (groups of four to five participants) with art teacher educators and student teachers at ten Swedish higher institutions offering generalist programmes. The study, which is theoretically based on post-structuralist and discourse theory, is particularly relevant, both because of the focus on generalist programmes and because empirical data obtained from teacher educators is included. The researchers found three dominant discourses in the material: an academic discourse, a therapeutic discourse and a discourse characterized by subjectivity and relativism in relation to the conception of quality of musical expression (p. 22). The first discourse represents a general shift from a focus on subject skills and how to teach such skills, to a focus on text and academic knowledge. This tendency toward academization is also identified and discussed by Nielsen (2010, pp. 17-19), on the basis of several included descriptions and research studies into Danish musiceducation (compulsory school and music schools) and musicteachereducation programmes. The tendency is characterized by the increased role of research and academia in higher education and of the comprehension of didactics as a field of reflection, which is also supposed to professionalize and qualify for the practical side of teachereducation. Lembcke (2010) suggests that, since the 1950s, music in Danish generalist teachereducation has experienced five important developmental tendencies (p. 104): a great increase of content areas; increased academization (first regarding the subject and subsequently regarding the profession); increased inclusion of the field of practice; dramatic decrease regarding time and resources; and institutional centralization. At the same time, Lembcke identifies stable issues, notably a stable number of student teachers electing music as a part of teachereducation, and a continuous, stable focus on performance-oriented, practical-musical content areas (piano as accompaniment instrument, singing, and playing instruments).
Abstract This study aims to determine the art need levels of musicteacher candidates with regards to sex and grade level variables. The data of the research were obtained from 102 musicteacher candidates studying in the Department of MusicEducation at Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Faculty of Education. Descriptive screening method was used in this study. The data was gathered through a 'Scale of Need for Art Education' developed by Taşkesen (2014). The data were analysed by using SPSS Statistics 22 Programme and shown in tables. The data findings given in the tables were commented fastidiously. As a result of the study, no significant difference was found between the scores of need for art education with regards to students' grade levels. As well, there was no significant difference between the scores of the need for art education with regards to sex despite the fact that the number of female students was higher than the number of male students.
Various education commissions and a number of expert committee have discussed the aims of teachereducation in India. Unfortunately, barring a few exceptions, our universities and institutions of higher learning have largely not been able to live up to these great expectations. On the contrary, they have just become bodies for conducting stereotyped examinations and degree - awarding centre. The quality and reliability of such exams and degree is also sometimes questionable. One of the main reasons is the inadequate academic, Professional and pedagogic preparation and insufficient level of knowledge and the skills of the faculty. Besides this, traditional versus modern method of teaching, outdated knowledge and information and lack of skills, teacher attitude, aptitude and authenticity of their source of knowledge are some of the other core issue. Owing to knowledge explosion and tremendously fast changing ICT, the teacher sometimes find it rather difficult to cope with the new intellectual challenges being through up by the changed global and local context. Therefore they need to acquire new knowledge, and reliable and authentic information. ICT especially in the 21st century context of teachereducation fulfills the following objectives.
completed a previous postgraduate degree in another field of study exhibited slightly higher levels of discomfort than did those who had not undertaken any other study since leaving school. Conversely, those who had taken an elective unit in special education as part of their pres ervice course indicated less discomfort than those who had not done so. At this stage only 81 of the preservice teachers in this cohort had undertaken any compulsory units on teaching children with special needs. This is too small a number to consider any differences in means to be predictive of the effect of compulsory education on preservice teachers' attitudes towards children with special needs. It should be noted, however, that for those who had completed a compulsory unit their levels of discomfort as measured by the General Discomfort Scale were minimally greater than the levels indicated by preservice teachers who had not undertaken any compulsory units. The development of compulsory units for
The more or less generalized context of devaluation experienced by teaching-related careers is a source of worry, because it constitutes cause and effect of a lot of difficulties related to teacher formation, in a kind of vicious circle. Accordingly, the low perceived status and the low remuneration rates of these careers, usually lacking professional associations that may strengthen them, conform to the inadequate job supply for present and future teachers. Inequality between these and other careers is considerable and extends over time. Many of the problems experienced in the daily process of teaching education and practice – despondency, shortage of material and academic resources to complete a course, limited political bargaining power – originate in this field.
Attracting Talent: - Attracting talent into the teaching profession remains one of the major challenges before us today. The number of merit holder students opting for teaching profession is very few. We need to reflect this situation. There is always a talk that the teachers have to keep themselves abreast with the latest trends, knowledge and skills through self study, be innovative and creative through participation in varied academic activities and research. This is possible only if we can attract talented people in the profession who are self motivated and self inspired. Evaluation system: - Generating a reliable evaluation system is another important challenge before us. Teacher educators need to look into innovative, objective, open and transparent methods of evaluation which will test the application of knowledge along with the comprehension. We should encourage pupils to face competitive exams effectively.
Teachers cited several reasons for the improvement. Most teachers claimed that working closely with an expert in music over the course of the term positively influenced their enthusiasm for music and consequently, their confidence. This finding supports research findings from Hallam et al. (2009) and de Vries (2015), which indicated that increases in enthusiasm for music brought about increases in teacher confidence in teaching music. In every area except one, teachers gained considerable confidence with the professional skills associated with teaching music. The one area where confidence declined in the first year, was in relation to guiding other teachers to support music learning (this decline was reversed in the subsequent two years). Teachers at interview recalled being nervous and apprehensive at the prospect of coteaching with a musician coteacher but most reported that after the first residency all such fears were assuaged as teachers became more confident in their role as pedagogy expert (TI/2-3). Congruent with findings reported by Gallo- Fox and Scantlebury (2016, p. 199) which suggest that ‘through coteaching, teachers found themselves developing professionally’ a number of participant teachers (6/20) in the coteaching music study indicated a new awareness in the value of their pedagogic expertise and their skills as mentor as well as teacher indicating a development in their professional identity which perhaps impacted their confidence. Four teachers said that multiple years coteaching afforded them the opportunity to observe how the same basic concepts or music elements were developed progressively at the various grade levels in the school. Others mentioned that reflection amongst coteachers and teacher colleagues, stimulated by discussions around teacher experiences of weekly
If John’s behavior mirrored that of mainstream children his empathetic response to the residents was significantly magnified. It is not unusual for some mainstream children to show some shyness at first with residents they don’t know. John exhibited no such reaction, even though he is seen as being ‘shy’ by his class teacher. He, quite literally, reached out strongly, enthusiastically and repeatedly, to take residents’ hands, to hug and stroke them while smiling broadly and making eye contact. He was noticeably gentle and showed an ability to adjust his contact to suit what he perceived to be the level of disability of each resident. For example, on one occasion he is seen moving a woman’s arms gently and then with increasing strength until he has his and her arms linked over their heads. On another occasion he picks up one hand of a woman and begins moving it with the music. After a few moments, he reaches for the other hand that appears to have been affected by a stroke. The woman responds slowly and John carefully picks up this somewhat paralysed hand and begins to move it as well but more gently than he is moving the other hand and arm. He adjusted the movement he made which each of the woman’s hands to reflect what she appeared able to do, and his movements were less vigorous than with the previous woman. He consistently showed attentiveness and awareness of the individual needs of each resident and receives an equally attentive response in return…
Foundations of Spiritual Upbringing of Future Mus ic Teachers based on Karakalpak National Mus ic Traditions”, M.B. Kasymova “Aesthetic Education of Students Through Music Folk Songs” This is an example of such research. However, this research does not specifically address the problem of educating students and students in the spir it of national ideology and ideology in terms of national musical her itage or some of them (folklore, classical and maqom). We choose to fill this gap in choosing the topic of our research, namely identifying the educational potential of Uzbek c lassical songs, exploring their educational potential in terms of national ideas and ideologies, We have tried to demonstrate the theoretical and practical characteristics of positive elements in the formation of leading elements of the mind and the mind.
3) By standardisation of educational content, methods, and assessment through curriculum integration, sharing of teacher training and classroom materials, and development of standard systems of quality assurance, evaluation, accreditation, and accountability.
development to needs identified in an appraisal system and/or mak- ing professional development a requirement for salary increases; iii) linking professional development with school improvement needs. The main theme in the policy suggestions regarding initial teachereducation is to make it more “flexible and responsive”. This includes providing opportunities to train as a teacher after having completed other studies; an increase in the common components of teachereducation for different levels of education in order to increase the opportunities for teachers to switch between different levels during their career; alternative routes into teaching for mid-career chang- ers; as well as retraining and upgrading programmes for existing teachers to gain new qualifications to teach in other types of schools or in other subject areas. Improving the entry selection into teachereducation is also seen as critical, especially in countries with teacher shortages, given the risk of a higher number of graduates not properly motivated to enter the teaching profession if admission to teachereducation is unrestricted. As regards the content of teachereducation programmes, the OECD notes that the general impression from the country reports in the survey is that there still is a concern over whether teachers in primary school are sufficiently grounded in subject matter content and whether they have the skills for ongoing development, whereas in relation to secondary teachers the concern rather regards a lack of pedagogical skills, especially for new teachers. There is also a concern about limited cooperation between teachers, as well as too little sharing of experience between practicing teachers and teacher educators. In response, the OECD calls in general for an improvement of the practical field experience during initial teachereducation, especially more practical experience early in the programme, an improvement of induction programmes, as well as more partnerships between schools and teachereducation institutions and measures to encourage schools to develop as learn- ing organisations.
• Spiraled Curriculum (a constant revisiting of critical topics requiring new perspectives, data, and new approaches). Topics include special needs populations; motivating the unmotivated; reliable, valid & fair assessments; mastering multiple research-based teaching strategies; ability to plan and deliver effective instruction; using data to analyze teacher/student performance; teaching reading in your discipline; including appropriate technology; making effective use of writing in your discipline; challenging and engaging students; differentiating instruction; appropriate discipline/management strategies;
In this study, we focused on speci ﬁ c demanding and resource- based aspects of the job content (decision latitude and classroom overload) and interpersonal relationships (student behavior and principal ’ s leadership behaviors). We assessed two types of job demands: classroom overload and students ’ disruptive behavior, both of which have been considered as important determinants of teacher burnout (Hakanen et al., 2006). Classroom overload involves too many demands and not enough time to meet them (Byrne, 1999). Students ’ disruptive behavior refers to the negative attitude of some students, which is typically part of the classroom experience (Hastings & Bham, 2003). Although we focused on teachers ’ perceptions of students ’ disrespectful behaviors, other negative attitudes in the classroom, such inattentiveness and unsociability (Friedman, 1995) and student distrust (Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, & Hoy, 2001; Van Houtte, 2006) have been connected to job dissatisfaction and burnout in teachers. We also considered two job resources: teachers ’ perception of decision latitude in the classroom and the school principal ’ s leadership style. Decision latitude refers to the extent to which an occupation or activity provides opportunities to make decisions and exercise control over the tasks to be accomplished (Karasek, 1985). This job resource contrasts with autonomous motivation, which concerns the degree to which an employee engages in work activities out of choice and interest. Some studies have provided support for the crucial role of decision latitude in reducing burnout (Taris, Stoffelsen, Bakker, Schaufeli, & Van Dierendonck, 2005). There is also considerable evidence that interpersonal support at work, especially from the school principal, plays a major role in alleviating job stress and burnout in teachers (Leithwood, Menzies, Jantzi, & Leithwood, 1996). School principals can help teachers accomplish their work in different ways. For example, they can allocate minor administrative paperwork and assignments to other staff members, thereby freeing up teachers to focus on their main tasks. They can also provide instrumental support such as pedagogical resources. Most importantly, the manner in which school principals express their support (e.g., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling) may affect teachers ’ functioning. Deci, Connell, and Ryan (1989) showed that employees whose supervisors reportedly adopted autonomy- supportive behaviors presented much greater trust in the organi- zation, felt less pressure, and expressed greater satisfaction with their job. These ﬁ ndings are consistent with increasing ﬁ ndings in education that teachers ’ perceptions of trust in different sources, such as principals, colleagues, parents, and students, produce