The use of musictechnology, whether desktop-based or mobile, has transformed the crea- tion and consumption of music. Young people have access to an unprecedented range of music and a multiplicity of platforms upon which to create their own music. In Scotland, Music educators have readily adopted technological innovation within their classrooms and there is general recognition of the advantages that it can bring, especially to creative work. There is a route at Higher level to allow pupils to focus on Music with Technology. However, this demands resource in terms of equipment and, more critically, in terms of training. There remains a key requirement for teachers to receive up-to-date, eff ective and classroom-focused training on contemporary technology. Otherwise, the danger is that classroom music and out-of-school musical experience will remain dichotomous for many young people in Scotland.
In this digital age students are spending time using technology outside of school to experience music. The students of today do not know a world without the digital technologies associated with music making and listening – among them computers, electronic keyboards, MP3 files and players, compact discs, the internet, and a range of other digital music devices and formats (Webster, 2002). Students are listening to more music, creating more music, and playing more music then ever before, but we as educators are not involved. It’s happening at home, on the students’ personal time, on their personal computers, tablets, and now phones. (Demski, 2010). We need to rethink our music curriculum. Musictechnology must play a larger role in music teaching and learning if we hope to keep musiceducation in schools and attempt to reach the aforementioned 80%.
composition using a combination of traditional and electronic instruments, and learnt how to use musictechnology software to arrange and edit their work. They mixed and refined the final composition at a professional recording studio using industry standard techniques, and also worked with a professional film maker to create and produce a video to accompany their composition. The final stage of the project required the young people to write strings parts and collaborate with a forty-piece Youth Orchestra which they then performed with at a large regional arts festival. As well as gaining musical and production experience, the project also instilled important social, educational and personal skills such as team work, personal confidence, positive self-expression and decision making.
participation because their musics are not seen as valuable by the dominant culture (Green, 2012; Small, 1998). Noting the social privilege required to secure the training and musician identity necessary to become a music therapist or music educator (Gonzalez, 2010; Zubrzycki, 2015) it is no wonder that professionals within these disciplines are disproportionately White (AMTA, 2011; Bradley, 2007; Elpus, 2015; Hess, 2017, 2018). In turn, this contributes to a colonial agenda within schools of music, where particular musics are reproduced—thereby validating particular students—and many others are omitted (Bradley, 2007). Race scholars recognize that race is a social construction, performed, not unlike Butler’s notion of gender (Koza, 2008). Whiteness, then, as a “dominant ideology”, is “reinscribe[d]… through superficial engagement with diversity and through failing to engage discourses of race and power” (Hess, 2017, “Interrupting What?”, para. 5). I acknowledge this ideology’s troubling impact upon musiceducation, music therapy, and our clients and students, and recognize that our disciplines must continue to engage critically and reflexively with these themes. Participants in my research were largely Caucasian,
The administration within the Conservatory of Music, National University, Philippine’s success factor include a clearly defined development and administrative guideline, objective to produce high quality scholars and students by creating support programs to extend and gain knowledge through education, professional services and technology, continuous development activities to motivate students and staff, quality and international standards in research studies through a systematic development and center to coordinate and support research studies, creative and innovate study programs in which interested individuals from the community can apply and study, cultural conservation and development programs of indigenous music and traditional arts and effective and sustainable development of educational programs and staff development through efficient fund raising and capable budget planning by highly efficient administrators.
Technology can be used for individuals to practice their skills and for groups or group lessons to get better results when making music together. Zhou et al  discuss the implementation of MOGCLASS in an elementary school class. MOGCLASS is a multimodal collaborative music environment that improves the musical experience of children by taking away obstacles during music lessons and it provides an easier way to manage the lessons for teachers. According to Zhou et al, there are four reasons to implement this system in a class, (i) limited range of instruments, (ii) lack of time to gain basic skills with instruments, (iii) ineffective practicing due to sound pollution and (iv) management of young children. The system uses mobile devices for the children and teacher. The teacher is completely in control of who is playing together, which students can hear each other and what their tasks are. The mobile device the children use is omnipotent and easy to use, also are they able to play with headphones so that everyone can practice simultaneously without disturbing others.
Music psychology asks questions about music cognition and behaviour: • Why can music move us to tears or to feelings of ecstasy? • What is the relation between music, sex and cheesecake? • Can music make you smarter, and what is the Mozart Effect? • How do people learn music and become musicians?
The first concern is the “participation gap”, where youth do not all possess the same skills and abilities to navigate technology, nor do they all possess identical access to these new technologies, which lead to a “digital divide” (Jenkins, 2009, p. 16). In response, many teachers do not incorporate these mediums into their classrooms, or if they do, they require that all students have equal access to the computers or media. By implementing equal access to all students, this reduces the possibilities for creative expression for the youth already engaging with these technologies in advanced ways. This also increases the knowledge gap for students who have little to no experience with these technologies, as they may not be able to keep up to the same pace as their peers. The role of the music teacher is then essential, in creating opportunities for more advanced learners to flourish, and to enable new learners of these technologies the ability to increase their knowledge. Music educators can play the role of a facilitator for peer-to-peer learning opportunities, where their advanced students can take on leadership roles in sharing their expertise with their classmates.
Perhaps one of the most well-established theories in British musiceducation is the ‘Spiral Model of Musical Development’ proposed by Swanwick and Tillman (1986; also Swanwick, 1988). This model is made up of eight ‘developmental modes’ and was developed from a starting point of exploring children in the role of composers because the “idea of play, a very important human activity, is intrinsically bound up with all artistic activity” (Swanwick & Tillman, 1986: 306-7). The eight developmental modes are ‘matched’ to approximate ages from birth through to age 15+ and, within them, there is the suggestion that young people develop through 4 levels of understanding: (1) developing a mastery of materials, (2) developing a recognition of the expressive nature of music, (3) developing an understanding of musical forms, and (4) developing an understanding of the intrinsic value of music and its place in society. The concept of the spiral is an important part of the developmental model: “we do not merely pass through one of these modes but carry them forward with it into the next. At times it is necessary to begin again. For example, if we handle a new instrument… we are sent back to the problems of mastery… these transformations are both cumulative and cyclical” (Swanwick, 1988: 63). Bamberger (2006) would support the concept of the spiral when she suggests that “musical development is a spiralling, endlessly recursive process in which multiple organizing constraints are concurrently present, creating an essential, generative tension as they play a transformational dance with one another” (Bamberger, 2007: 71). It is generally accepted (according to Philpott, 2009) that this model was a strong influence on the early development of the National Curriculum Orders for Music in England, in particular upon the inferred development of expertise laid out in the Attainment Target Level Descriptors (QCA, 2007). If one considers a model such as this, then it becomes clear how education, family support, environment, and so on, as suggested earlier within this chapter, can play a large part in the development of the musician. Mozart, for example, no doubt reached the final, ‘meta-cognitive’ stage at a considerably earlier age than Swanwick and Tillman’s suggested age 15 for the average child 32 ; whilst many, suggests Swanwick (1988), may never reach that level of musical thinking and skill (Dalladay, 1993).
Music as a work tool used by PM and MT has an important didactic effect and can be used in various activities and by various means: musical instruments, singing, dancing, rhythmic games, among others. Thus, when asked if they perceive that individuals with ASD improve social interaction through music and musical activities there was relevant agreement of the interviewees: 54 (91.5%) 46 (73%) of the PEB, 28 (80%) of EE and all 25 (100%) MT claim that yes. There was a marked divergence in relation to the MT and the other respondents regarding the existence of people who like or dislike music. The MT mostly disagree that all individuals like music, which reflects the knowledge that the MT have in relation to the existence of people with disturbances or deficiencies that result in this dislike of music (Mas-Herrero et al., 2014; SACKS, 2007). It is noteworthy that these same MT were unanimous in answering that the use of musical activities improves the process of inclusion of students with sensory, cognitive, affective and/or motor difficulties, being possible to deduce, therefore, that there was no contradiction between these two responses. Of course, the MT understands that the use of music with a group of students who do not have characteristics of amusia or specific musical anhedonia can really be, a paramount to the process of inclusion
The Conservatory is a secondary/high school where pupils prepare to become either professional interpreters (instrument players, singers, composers, conductors, dancers, actors), or music teachers. Also, after graduation from the Conservatory, they are prepared to proceed in their studies at the university with either artistic or educational focus. Pupils usually enter the conservatory after completing the primary general education school, i.e. at the end of the ninth grade (and in exceptional cases, after the 8th grade). They are accepted after succeeding in the admission exams. The overall time of studies here is usually 6 years. After the first four years and together with the successful completion of graduation exam (Maturita), the pupil may continue his/her studies at the University. If (s)he decides to stay at the Conservatory for two more years, (s)he receives after final exams the title DiS. art. (Certified specialist of art) and the qualification for teaching instrument/singing at Primary Art School.
In examining the contexts in which musicians learn their craft, participants ranked ‘regular practice’ as essential in the development of musicianship – in 2nd place. In observation of actuality, pupils having the opportunity to practise or rehearse their music for any length of time over a series of lessons was less evident. It has been widely attested that a professional musician will accumulate as many as 10,000 hours of formal practice by the age of 21 (Ericsson et al. 2006; McPherson et al., 2012). There is a general acknowledgement that serious development as a musician can be a time-consuming task. Yet, not only were regular opportunities over a period of time rarely provided for the development of performing and composing activities within this research but, even within a single lesson, the average time spent on the development of any one or more of the musical competencies was just 57%. It would seem that time for a genuine development of musicianship in schools can be highly restricted, both by a reduction in the amount of time in a school timetable devoted to the subject and by a range of policies and routines within a school which take away from the main musical learning focus. The latter include an increasing focus on evaluation of progress and setting targets for development, with young people frequently having to spend time away from practical musical activity by writing these down. In the observation of one
The end of 1990‘s witnessed the emergence of MP3 technology. MP3s had large storage space and was less costly. A CD contains a maximum of 10 to 12 songs, but an MP3 can store up to 200 songs or more. As compression technology is used in MP3s the quality of songs is affected. Though CDs could not make much of a dent in the cassette industry, the spread of MP3s challenged the existence of cassette industry. Cassette sales began to decline by mid- 2000 and by 2010 cassettes almost disappeared from music shops. Music shops which were filled with cassettes began to stock only CDs and MP3s.Cassette players disappeared. New and improved versions of CD players emerged. The ‗destruction‘ was creative: between 1998 and 2010 the yearly output of the music industry has increased by 40% and this positive trend has not been affected by the economic crisis. Digital technology has revolutionised the way music is bought and sold .They provide information and also an opportunity to experience and purchase music. Traditional record shops have closed or have been confined to small portions of other shops like mobile shops. There is a large unexploited demand for music from lesser known artists or new artists and dynamic pricing may help the artists and reward the hard core fans. The major protagonists in the music business have lessons to learn from thirty years of creative destruction. The value chain of the industry has changed: there is more competition at the end of the value chain for music lover‘s attention. Users can actively experience the same music in different forms and therefore the sale of records become lesser compared to the pre digital era. The varietyof forms of packaging has contrived to make the industry more dynamic. Music industry as a thriving a business provides a variety of music
completing an undergraduate musiceducation degree. A conventional content analysis was used to examine the data with key words noted from participants’ responses. When participants included more than one skill in their response, the key word assigned was that which seemed most emphasized by the participant. When a most emphasized word was not clear, the first key word of the response was used and the remainder of the response was discarded. This was done in an attempt to reduce the effect of verbose responses receiving more weight than succinct responses. In some cases, the example that the participant chose to describe in the final portion of the survey helped clarify their initial response. As themes began to emerge from key words, similar themes were combined into larger categories. These larger categories were established as the coding system, which was then reapplied to the original data using a directed content analysis. Musical Skills
Music; joy, sadness, etc. it is an important tool in expressing emotions, recognizing different cultures, and communicating socially and culturally, but it is a cultural resource and a scientific research area(Babacan, 2011). Music, feelings, thoughts, impressions and designs, and other facts with the contribution of certain situations, facts and events, a certain purpose and method, according to a certain understanding of beauty by combining, processing and explaining with formatted sounds is an aesthetic whole. It is the only language that everyone can understand and understand (uçan, 2005). Music is considered as one of the most effective and important tools that should be used in the education of All children and it is seen as an important tool that affects the language development, emotional and social development of children positively (canakay, 2006; yıldız, 2002).
Information is one of the unique factors that serve as pivot for the existence and survival of man in both his micro and macro environment. As a matter of fact, an individual who is not informed may soon discover himself or herself deformed. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2004), information refers to facts or details about something or somebody. Such facts or details have influence on how people relate with one another and how they react to situations and circumstances. Challenges in musiceducation as a discipline or career are adequately tackled depending largely on information that music educators/experts in music technologies, and researchers in the field of music have at hand.
• For me, this discussion raises fundamental questions of what diversity should look like that goes well beyond a token response to crude, supposedly measurable, quotas set by government. We need to be talking about the barriers and enablers to diversity. Music HE faces particular challenges, given that many of our students arrive equipped with skills, some of which they have only acquired through a relatively privileged education. We know that a significant barrier to diversity is inequality of opportunity that starts in early childhood and which is particularly exacerbated in relation to music … such inequalities continue among on-course students when those without parental support are obliged to work long hours alongside their studies in order to pay their rent, etc. And this impacts disproportionately on underprivileged students, BME and other. Clearly, there are some things we have the power to change, others that we can influence and yet others that we have no power over at all. We may have limited influence on government policy on musiceducation or social inequality but there are things that we do have control over.
The need of the integration of performing art in teacher education curriculum is a new focused toward learning without burden. The Kothari Commission Report of 1964- 66 emphasized that “in an age which values discovery and invention education for creative expression acquires added significance. Adequate facilities for the training of teachers in music and the visual arts do not exist. The neglect of the arts in education impoverishes the educational process and leads to a decline of aesthetic tastes and values”. The National Policy of Education 1986 emphasized that the important school education is to foster understanding of cultural and social system of different parts of the country. Follow up taken in 1986 and program of action prepared in 1992 and mentioned cultural perspective interlinking education promotes personality development and helps to enhance potentialities of the child. It is also supported in the three previous National Curriculum Framework(NCFs)of 1975,1988 And 2000 that to encourage and arouse students curiosity it is important to the principle of the teaching is focused on drama, music and drawing etc. Paradigm shift toward the art education integrate in school curriculum.
Cover letters and the questionnaire were emailed to the director of each music department from the first draft group on January 17 th , 2011. The cover letter explained the purpose of the questionnaire and asked that the di- rector please forward it to the faculty member in charge of assessment. Only one university returned a com- pleted survey, so a second questionnaire was put together with an on-line program called Qualtrics, which makes the process of filling out and submitting the questionnaire much more efficient. This questionnaire, along with a new cover letter was sent again to the six campus draft group on March 11 th , 2011.