interventions such as sensory integration therapy are a common method in dealing with motor impairments (Karim & Mohammed, 2015), musictherapy can also be used as an effective approach to motor rehabilitation. The rhythmic structure of music can engage areas of the brain responsible for movement such as the dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (Bengtsson et al., 2009; Chen, Penhune, & Zatorre, 2008). Despite a large amount of studies linking musictherapy to improve- ment of motor efficiencies (Bradt, Magee, Dileo, Wheeler, & McGilloway, 2007), there seems to be very little investigations into its application to developing gross motor skills in ASD. To date only one randomised trial researching music interventions in the treatment of motor deficits for children with autism can be found. Compared to a control group who took part in non-musical movement activities. Eleven children with low functioning autism who received musically synchronised movement exercises over an 8-week period showed significant improvements in motor skills, such as balance and upper limb coordination as measured by the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (Atigh, Akbarfahimi, & Zarei, 2017). This study therefore suggests that musical accompaniment during phy- sical exercises enhances motor skill learning of children with autism. Further to this, a randomised controlled trial involving 36 children with autism who displayed significant behavioural and language impairments, received an integrated 10 week rhythm and movement program. Following the inter- vention, participants demonstrated significant improvements in gross motor performance and inter- personal synchrony skills (Srinivasan et al., 2015).
Autism is a developmental disorder which is dif Þ cult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of musictherapy intervention based on impro- visational techniques with the elements of Creative MusicTherapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frame- working, dialogues, holding) on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagno- sed with autism - case 1. and case 2), especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two musictherapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Rela- tionship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the musictherapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns). The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a signi Þ cant effect of improvisational musictherapy. The important Þ ndings from the ana- lysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and conÞ dence in interpersonal musical relation- ship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.). The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and conÞ dence in interpersonal musical rela- tionship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that musictherapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism.
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately one in 68 children, substan- tially affecting the child’s ability to acquire social skills. The application of effective interven- tions to facilitate and develop social skills is essential due to the lifelong impact that social skills may have on independence and functioning. Research indicates that musictherapy can improve social outcomes in children with ASD. Outcome measures are primarily assessed using standardized nonmusical scales of social functioning from the parent or clinician perspective. Certified music therapists may also assess musical engagement and outcomes as a part of the individual’s profile. These measures provide an assessment of the individual’s social functioning within the musictherapy session and generalizability to nonmusical settings.
Interactions between children were rare, and I think this reflected the children’s early developmental level, of interaction dependent upon an interested adult. In the morning music group, activities were designed to draw attention to each other in the group, and to encourage peer interaction: for example, my naming, counting and touching the arm of who was present; the use of shared instrument or object; turn-taking; celebrating individual vocal sounds. Children „bumped into‟ each other when joining in, there were times of waiting their turn, and allowing the „slinky‟ to slide down the elastic to the next person, and often children put themselves in the hoop when another child was there already. In the afternoon group there was more conflict between children wanting an adults‟ attention or the same piece of equipment, which, although infrequent, it was a change from usually keeping their distance from one another. There were some instances of peer modeling. In the afternoon music group, Liam led me to the bench requesting the play form I had developed with George; Susanna, although not expected to wait for her name to be called before leaving the morning music group, twice seemed to wait and perhaps waved goodbye. Although I can’t be sure what the children meant repeating the behaviour of another child, these behaviours could not be “taught” by an adult, and points to the potential of a group to provide peer modeling. Facilitating interactions between children with autism in group musictherapy was identified as an ongoing question and need by Barnes (2010).
Objectives: Motor skills play an important role in language, play, academic and adaptive behaviors of individuals. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of musictherapy along with play therapy in rising motor coordination of children with autism. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design, Autism Evaluation Scale and Motor Development Scale were administered to 30 randomly selected male students with autism spectrum disorder aged between 6 and 11 years before and after the intervention. The experimental group attended 15 sessions (each lasted 60 minutes), twice a week and were trained by musictherapy along with play therapy program. However, the control group did not receive such programs. One-way analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data.
Music can be present to a greater or lesser extent during musictherapy. The therapist decides, through adaptation to the client, which role music should play at any given moment. The versatile characteristics of music make it a suitable medium for working with children and young people with autism. It offers the possibility to move and change quickly, both within and between the various musical elements. It allows the therapist to adapt to the client quickly and to vary between connecting and challenging. Music is a very flexible medium. One example is when the therapist and the client play a djembe together. The therap- ist can adapt to the client by playing the same rhythm as the client, using the same volume, tempo and rhythm. When the client notices this adaptation, the therapist and the client are connected. In order to then encourage and challenge the client to take on new skills, the therapist could for instance play a strong variation in volume. When the therapist notices that this variation is too extreme for the client and that the connection is dwindling, the therapist can transform the strong variation once again to the level where the connection was estab- lished.
The next fruitful direction will be to understand the basis of generalizing the effective results obtained in the therapy sessions within the lab to everyday functioning. One likely candidate in this regard is to understand the effect of musictherapy on the recognition of emotions from speech prosody. Studies with children have shown that music sessions are effective at promoting recognition of happiness and sadness as compared to other emotions from speech prosody. The future studies should concentrate on understanding the mechanisms of such generalizations and it might be likely that, again, the tonal variations of pitch are responsible for such effects. If such effects are obtained with prosody, and music lessons are shown to aid in the recognition of happy and sad emotions from prosody in the context of foreign languages for autism, we could be more confident about this potential mechanism. Once generalizations for prosody are understood, other elements could be brought in to understand how benefits obtained in the laboratory could be generalized to facial expressions, for example. Here again we need combinations of cognitive theories with brain imaging tools to help us understand such interplays. As music treatment with autism progresses, additional music tools such as group singing could be incorporated to target the improvement in the recognition of other emotions and the basis of further generalizations.
Initially he was curious about what musictherapy entailed and asked many questions. He was very interested in my idea that music could potentially be an expressive outlet rather than just an educational one, as he had initially thought musictherapy might have been more like the music subject at his school. Sometimes he would bring music theory questions that I would answer, and then we would incorporate his new knowledge into an improvisation or familiar song. He appeared to enjoy taking turns copying rhythms on the large conga drums and discussing the use of different chords to create different moods in improvisations. We found connections through familiar songs that he and I both shared with each other, mostly from the ‘Top 40’ genre, but including some older ‘classics’ too. Playing even a small part of a song that he had asked for without preparation, created a genuine connection and he gradually became less hesitant to engage musically. Our therapeutic relationship was building, and I was beginning to see Hayden’s strengths and how we could work towards his focus areas. As our sessions progressed, Hayden became very interested in the ukulele, to the extent of acquiring one for his home use. His musical skills on a wide range of instruments developed quickly and we began exploring more expressive ways of using music including thematic improvisations and lyrical analysis, both of which Hayden reflectively articulated on during discussions. I introduced lyric analysis as a way of thinking about music expressively, which Hayden seemed to naturally engage in, and later he began analysing song lyrics that stood out to him without any prompting. Our sessions often involved a reasonably high amount of conversation in which Hayden was increasingly open and sharing of his experiences and feelings. Hayden began to reflect on his musical achievements in a positive way and responded well to constructive feedback. As his confidence developed he became more explorative and tried new instruments such as the piano as a way of changing the sound of familiar songs.
In the clinic, patients listen music or played it together with the therapists or other patients to build relationships, promote well-being, express feelings, and interact socially. Musictherapy works for strokes victims. It also helps aphasia patients. Musictherapy works for depression, anxiety, grief, abuse, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, cognitive disabilities, poor motor function, autism, strokes, Alzheimer‟s disease, chronic pain, heart disease, cancer, and seizure disorders. It can affect people of all age groups. Children, elderly, autistic children, pregnant women. Women who have listened to music tapes during gynecologic surgery have more restful sleep following the procedure and less postoperative soreness. Maternal movement is helpful to get the baby into a proper birthing position and dilate the cervix. The rhythmic auditory stimulation may also prompt the body to release endorphins, which are a natural form of pain relief. Everything from ocean wave sounds to jazz music have been shown to help mothers relieve stress and get comfortable in their delivery environment.
- P4-Roh: P4-Roh was our most interesting case. In the post-test, he showed progress in two joint attention items including pointing to the pictures on the back wall and gaze-shifting in the book game. This observation is in line with the improvement possibility of joint attention skills reported in a non-robotic musictherapy study done by Kalas , and Kim et al. , as well as some robotic- assisted interventions research . It should be noted that, following the notes played with eyes, eye-motor coordination movements and gaze-shifting from the robot to the instruments (and vice versa) are some examples of the joint attention situations provided for the subjects in this study. His failure in the items (especially in the pre-test) was due to his serious problem with \instruction perception" as well as his \low attention span". P3-Roham was a calm person with poor verbal and social communication. Based on his mother's report, P4- Roh usually refuses social contact with others in the early stages of communication; however, in our music classes, he communicated with two tools: the robot and the musical instrument; therefore, music was the interface between the child and the robot and, in this way, a foundation was built for a successful dyadic child-robot communication. He understood none of the instructions at the beginning of the music program. Slight improvement in his instruction perception, attention, and understanding what happened in the class was a positive note for P4-Roh over time. P4-Roh's attention span also increased somewhat, and he spent more time doing the music tasks. He participated in the class eagerly. Nima was a noticeable help as a communication tool; it raised the child's excitement level and motivated him to take part in the sessions eectively. As one of the interesting potential eects of the current robot-assisted interventions for our low-functioning subject and according to the psychologists' observations, P4-Roh's verbal skills increased somewhat and his stereotyped behaviors (especially his uttering ngers) decreased a bit. Music seemed to be eective in decreasing the stereo- typed behaviors of children with autism [12,13].
The time line of MT for ASD children begins around 1940 . In 1940s, music therapists and volunteers worked with ASD children in psychiatric hospitals, institutions, and public schools mostly funded by the government. Use of MT as a holistic treatment of psychiatric disorders has demonstrated improvements of socially acceptable behaviors. In 1944, Michigan State University started to offer the primaryMT degree program in the globe. MT became more widespread in the 1950s and 1960s in the UK. In 1950 the National Association for MusicTherapy (NAMT) has been organized, the music therapists standardized the protocol for MT and made it possible as a regular treatment for autism in the systematic music classrooms . In 1952, Gilman and Paperte reported MT as being successful in the psychiatric treatment of mental disorders by accomplishing the following: ability to grasp attention by rising its span, improves re-socialization, power of diversion and substitution, modifies the mood, motivates pictorially and intellectually, reduces internal tensions, facilitate self-expression .Sherwin (1953) noted that children with autism were keenly interested in music, revealed extraordinary ability to reproduce familiar musical sounds and fragments of music accurately and predisposition to sing differently from average children .In 1960s, musictherapy to recognize the need for establishing goals of MT for ASD children. Thaut wrote a protocol for treating autistic children, diagnostic criteria for autism and related MT and following this, standards were established for documenting musictherapy sessions .
This study provides my findings on the issue of co-therapy in musictherapy practice with children and young adults, based on my personal experience in placement during my final year as a student practitioner for musictherapy. The study discusses co-therapy from the point of view that, like any other example of team work, co-therapy has advantages and benefits, as well as disadvantages, difficulties and challenges. The study looks at the practice of co-therapy in detail, to reach conclusions about those benefits and challenges. It uses examples of co-therapy with small groups of clients with a range of different needs, to provide a wide picture of how co-therapy could be used effectively in musictherapy, but also to discuss the issues that occurred when co-facilitating. The results of the analysis are presented in the findings section and discussed in the subsequent section. It is important to note that these results, as in other qualitative research studies, are based on personal interpretations and should not be viewed as facts. They can, however, serve as
The equivalency program in musictherapy at Immaculata University provides students enrolled in music degree programs at West Chester University with the opportunity of becoming eligible to enter the field of musictherapy. This is accomplished by electing musictherapy course work and clinical training at Immaculata University, during or following study at West Chester University. The equivalency program involves 26 credits of course work in musictherapy, additional course work beyond musictherapy (credits vary depending upon where courses are elected), approximately 200 pre-‐internship clinical training hours (consisting of simulations, observations, and field work), and approximately 1000 hours of internship (see page 2 for details). This program provides West Chester Students with the experience and competencies required to become candidates for musictherapy board certification. Once a candidate, a student may take the certification examination administered by the Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT). Upon passing this examination, the candidate earns the credential Music Therapist—Board Certified (MT-‐BC), and thus attains professional status as a music therapist.
SLO 1: Students’ ability to describe research findings and utilize, combine, or integrate these findings within the practice of musictherapy will be assessed via a student presentation as the culminating project in MUS 768. Students cannot enroll in MUS 768 until all other degree credits have been completed. This includes 12 credits in musictherapy, 9 credits in electives, and 3 credits in music coursework have been completed. Student competency will be assessed by the students’ thesis committee using a presentation rubric. Eighty percent of all students will receive a proficient or higher rating.
Due to the intensive nature of study on this training, applicants must have not only the basic entry qualifications but also some knowledge of the profession obtained by either reading recent publications, meeting and talking with qualified therapists or perhaps undertaking an introductory course. It is often helpful to have personal experience of being in therapy. Interviews will explore applicants’ knowledge of the profession and awareness of the nature of the training course before offering a place.
participation because their musics are not seen as valuable by the dominant culture (Green, 2012; Small, 1998). Noting the social privilege required to secure the training and musician identity necessary to become a music therapist or music educator (Gonzalez, 2010; Zubrzycki, 2015) it is no wonder that professionals within these disciplines are disproportionately White (AMTA, 2011; Bradley, 2007; Elpus, 2015; Hess, 2017, 2018). In turn, this contributes to a colonial agenda within schools of music, where particular musics are reproduced—thereby validating particular students—and many others are omitted (Bradley, 2007). Race scholars recognize that race is a social construction, performed, not unlike Butler’s notion of gender (Koza, 2008). Whiteness, then, as a “dominant ideology”, is “reinscribe[d]… through superficial engagement with diversity and through failing to engage discourses of race and power” (Hess, 2017, “Interrupting What?”, para. 5). I acknowledge this ideology’s troubling impact upon music education, musictherapy, and our clients and students, and recognize that our disciplines must continue to engage critically and reflexively with these themes. Participants in my research were largely Caucasian,
Some music therapists present at the meeting made positive, encouraging comments about the audiovisual system on questionnaires we asked them to fill out. Their responses indicated that the audiovisual instrument would be useful in musictherapy and community music, and that the instrument could be useful for work with children, teenagers, adults, and clients with phys- ical or mental difficulties. Music therapist Bianca La Rosa Dallimer commented that research would be needed on the suitability of an audio- visual instrument to particular client groups. For example, she wrote, in some cases the visuals may “distract the client from the music” whereas in other situations “… the visuals may be a ‘way in’ to a client who was previously struggling to become engaged in the music.”
Music is long known to produce remarkable results for humans and other animal species, musictherapy appears to benefit for plant life as well. There are different opinions about the effect of music on plants, whether they feel or understand music. It has been noted that hu- man conversation in the vicinity of plants would cause accelerated and strong growth. Studies on the effect of music on plant growth began as early as 1968 with Dorothy Retal- lack. She compared the effects of different types of music on plant growth. She was the first to deliver this subject through her book: The sound of Music and Plants 1 . Her observa- tions were that plant life flourished when treated to classical music and withered when
The present study sought to provide a preliminary inquiry into the experiences of Irish music therapists employing verbal dialogue within their musictherapy practice. The self-reflective narratives that emerged in this study exposed verbal dialogue as a perti- nent clinical issue, which participants were eager to explore in more detail. Four pri- mary themes emerged, the content and function of verbal dialogue, the use of verbal dia- logue may contribute to professional ambiguity, returning to the music, and the dyadic re- lationship between verbal and musical exchange. Although the use of verbal dialogue may contribute to professional ambiguity emerged as a compelling individual theme, issues relating to professionalism maintained such a strong presence throughout each inter- view that the researcher found it challenging to consider it in complete isolation from other themes. The authors hope that the present discussion will illustrate this under- current of professionalism with greater coherence. Many of the concerns that emerged appeared to reflect hesitations regarding participants’ personal sense of professional identity, rather than revealing concerns about the professional community on a whole. However, issues surrounding professional identity have arisen previously within the Irish context (McCaffrey, 2013) and may warrant further attention. This may partly reflect the fact that, unlike their counterparts in the United Kingdom, Irish music ther- apists still await statutory recognition.