Teaching – Musictherapy, music, and psychology/medical subjects are aligned with the respective topic and are combined with opportunities for the students to develop their therapist personality (e.g., musictherapy experiential and self experience groups) Practice – The musictherapy outpatient center on-campus and clinical placements (in
Having considered improvisation’s function as a marker of distinction in the articulation of musictherapy as professionalised practice, I now examine a story that the profession itself often tells about improvisation. It is a story rooted in a system of values that sees classical Freudian psychoanalysis as the ultimate form of therapy: other therapies therefore claim authenticity by asserting their bloodline to Freud. Freud’s work spanned many years, and it would be fallacious to consider it an unchanging continuum of unidirectional thought. Tere is, as Twaites (2007, p. xi) puts it, “a multiplicity of Freuds”. Nevertheless, it would probably be acceptable to all his various proponents to suggest that underpinning Freudian psychology is a desire to open up the hitherto occluded unconscious to conscious examination. Freud’s frst technology for attempting this was, with Breuer, the use of hypnosis (Breuer & Freud, 1974). Later, hypnosis was replaced by ‘free association’, whereby analyst and analysand make an impromptu chain of words that permits a view of the analysand’s unconscious. Te analyst’s ‘blankness’ facilitates the development of transference, through the interpretation of which the analysand’s unconscious processes can be explored. Te claim made by many music therapists is that ‘clinical improvisation’ is a musical analogy of free association (Odell-Miller, 2001; Darnley- Smith & Patey, 2003). Siegal (1984, cited in Penfeld, 2001) makes the same claim for the improvisation that occurs within Dance Movement Terapy, and Austin (1998) develops the idea further into her concept of ‘Free Associative Singing’. Terefore, the claim goes, improvisation opens up access to the client’s unconscious, lending musictherapy legitimacy as a psychoanalytic therapy. It’s an intriguing claim, and a professionally convenient one. However, there are at least three clear diferences between verbal free association and musical improvisation.
musictherapy, that is, a sadder face was selected at the end of the session compared with the beginning. b Frequency of responses where the response after musictherapy was higher than before musictherapy, that is, a happier face was selected at the end of the session compared with the beginning. c Frequency of responses where the response after musictherapy was the same as before musictherapy, that is, no change.
Alternately, others may choose to verbally reflect about music’s meaning in their life, and supportive counseling may be offered. In the final weeks of one patient’s life, the patient wrote a song describing the context of her marriage and reflected about her choice of husband. Within the song lyrics she resolved that the marriage was acceptable. Another patient talked about concerns related to dying and a need to express a message of thanks to god and others. the author helped her to write a hymn thanking god and a local church group which was recorded by the author for her to take home to play for her community. In this way, musictherapy can help to validate and celebrate one’s life and living. similarly, one’s relevance in meaningful relationships is often celebrated in musictherapy as patients and their families choose memory laden songs, talk about what is elicited and share laughter, crying and touch. Families and other people who care about the patients can also find it helpful to witness the help that palliative care patients receive through musictherapy 42, 43 and can
Throughout the execution of this study it became possible to state that music or musictherapy have a great effective potential in the anxiety and stress levels reduction in ICU’s patients, and that effect should be applied to all hospital context, in the aspect that it’s seen as a physical and spiritual patient’s recovery alternative therapy. Therefore, due to the fact it reaches every single person present in these environments, it is possible to recognize a relation to a more humanized care that reflects on the sedation period of time reduction, pain perception reduction, and also it does not promote any patient loss, being side effect free, consequently seen as a non-pharmacological measure.
This case study research explores the impact of a musical performance event—the Coffee House—held bi-annually at an adolescent mental health treatment facility in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Any client or staff member is welcomed to perform at this event, which is organized by the facility’s music therapist and framed here as an example of community musictherapy. Drawing upon Turino’s (2008) ethnomusicological perspective on performance, I will argue that the Coffee House’s success within this context is due to its participatory ethos, wherein success is primarily defined by the act of participation. Here, performance takes place within an inclusive and supportive atmosphere in which participants can overcome anxiety, engage in the risk-taking of performance, and experience increased self-efficacy and confidence. This ethos also naturally affords a “levelling” of institutional relationship dynamics. Resonant with Aigen’s (2004) vision that “performances as community musictherapy can forge a new type of art, one that creates meaning and invites participation” (p. 211), the Coffee House
This study provides my findings on the issue of co-therapy in musictherapy practice with children and young adults, based on my personal experience in placement during my final year as a student practitioner for musictherapy. The study discusses co-therapy from the point of view that, like any other example of team work, co-therapy has advantages and benefits, as well as disadvantages, difficulties and challenges. The study looks at the practice of co-therapy in detail, to reach conclusions about those benefits and challenges. It uses examples of co-therapy with small groups of clients with a range of different needs, to provide a wide picture of how co-therapy could be used effectively in musictherapy, but also to discuss the issues that occurred when co-facilitating. The results of the analysis are presented in the findings section and discussed in the subsequent section. It is important to note that these results, as in other qualitative research studies, are based on personal interpretations and should not be viewed as facts. They can, however, serve as
Purpose: To investigate the effects of musictherapy on depressive mood and anx- iety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregiv- ers. Materials and Methods: Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group partic- ipated in the musictherapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after musictherapy. Satisfaction with musictherapy was evaluat- ed by a questionnaire. Results: BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after musictherapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Musictherapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion: Musictherapy has a posi- tive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood im- provement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are need- ed in this field.
Concluding; which therapeutic instrumental music performance exercises are the best candidates to be adopted by an interactive installation? A variety of exercises are performed during TIMP sessions. It doesn’t really matter which are chosen, as long as there is a variation between which muscle groups are stimulated. All these exercises should be performed to simple (metronome) or more complex music, as long as it doesn’t become too cognitively demanding. For certain exercises the use of arpeggio’s or scales can be used as a guiding help. Conventional musictherapy is effective in increasing gait speed and step length etc. in Parkinson’s patients. As an extension to this, research has been done on the effect of visual cues on therapies for Parkinson’s patients. Most of these studies shown that visual cues can help increase step length, gait speed and range of motion in Parkinson’s disease, with only some studies claiming a decline in walking speed. Studies agreed, however, that some patients found visual cues challenging to use, therefore they should be kept simple. Most studies are positive about the use of visual cues and therefore it is feasible to improve TIMP exercises by adding visual cues.
Many branches of musictherapy make use of improvisation sessions for client and therapist. It’s therefore important that the client has access to a device which enables real-time musical inter- action. Traditional acoustic musical instruments are customarily used, but have limitations when clients’ movement is restricted. In this situation, the use of electronic music technology devices becomes important. It’s possible to use the elec- tronic systems we describe later to control (for instance) large, expansive sounds with small physical movements. By extension, we can con- figure musical instruments to match an individ- ual’s physical and cognitive requirements. It thus becomes possible, for example, to perform a flute improvisation using sensors placed on the head- rest of a wheelchair, triggered by the player’s head and neck movements.
Musictherapy trainings in the UK share the belief that the process of relating rather than the musical product is essential to therapy and all use primarily improvised music. However there are differences of emphasis and in the perspective from which the relationship is viewed. Despite these differences a core syllabus has been agreed and the profession stipulates this as the pre-requisite for qualifying. This syllabus can be put under 6 headings: MusicTherapy theory and practice, clinical studies in related disciplines, music skills, personal development, clinical placements and research studies.
1.1. Unit Mission Statement: The mission of the University of Kentucky MusicTherapy Program is to advance cutting edge, evidence-based musictherapy practices within the contexts of research, education, and clinical care. Our goal is to provide high quality, comprehensive academic training for graduate students within the context of a combined research and practice-oriented framework.
The present study sought to provide a preliminary inquiry into the experiences of Irish music therapists employing verbal dialogue within their musictherapy practice. The self-reflective narratives that emerged in this study exposed verbal dialogue as a perti- nent clinical issue, which participants were eager to explore in more detail. Four pri- mary themes emerged, the content and function of verbal dialogue, the use of verbal dia- logue may contribute to professional ambiguity, returning to the music, and the dyadic re- lationship between verbal and musical exchange. Although the use of verbal dialogue may contribute to professional ambiguity emerged as a compelling individual theme, issues relating to professionalism maintained such a strong presence throughout each inter- view that the researcher found it challenging to consider it in complete isolation from other themes. The authors hope that the present discussion will illustrate this under- current of professionalism with greater coherence. Many of the concerns that emerged appeared to reflect hesitations regarding participants’ personal sense of professional identity, rather than revealing concerns about the professional community on a whole. However, issues surrounding professional identity have arisen previously within the Irish context (McCaffrey, 2013) and may warrant further attention. This may partly reflect the fact that, unlike their counterparts in the United Kingdom, Irish music ther- apists still await statutory recognition.
The Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine has offered clinical services in the hospital setting for nearly two decades. Support from The Louis Armstrong Ed- ucational Foundation, the Keith and Clara Miller Foundation, the Grammy Foun- dation, the Heather on Earth Music and Remo Foundations and various estates directed by the late hospital trustee Richard Netter have supported our growth and expansion in hospital and community clinical and research endeavors. The musictherapy program was originally housed in the Department of Social Work and Home Care Services. Starting with a relationship between Louis Arm- strong’s doctor Gary Zucker MD and Joanne Loewy, the program began with sup- port as a single grant in 1994. Loewy had come to Beth Israel Medical Center as a patient, and during that time, volunteered on the Peds floor. The Louis & Lucille Armstrong MusicTherapy Program began as a service offered on Beth Israel Medi- cal Center’s Department of Pediatrics. Loewy and her interns from New York Uni- versity and Molloy College conducted daily sessions with patients on Pediatrics. By 1996, with a grant from a medical foundation and a pharmaceutical company, a plan for a Pediatric Pain conference developed. Clinicians from neighboring hospi- tals in NYC and close-by states, such as New Jersey and Pennsylvania took inter- est in the first symposium in Pediatric Pain and MusicTherapy co-sponsored with NYU. This first conference was the seed for many conferences and trainings that have ensued within the past 19 years.
Music is long known to produce remarkable results for humans and other animal species, musictherapy appears to benefit for plant life as well. There are different opinions about the effect of music on plants, whether they feel or understand music. It has been noted that hu- man conversation in the vicinity of plants would cause accelerated and strong growth. Studies on the effect of music on plant growth began as early as 1968 with Dorothy Retal- lack. She compared the effects of different types of music on plant growth. She was the first to deliver this subject through her book: The sound of Music and Plants 1 . Her observa- tions were that plant life flourished when treated to classical music and withered when
When the participants were asked about whether there were any significant moments in the musictherapy sessions they could recall, their responses were interesting. They all seemed to try to pin point the particular things they saw their child did either during or between the sessions. Even though some could point out specific moments and things the child might suddenly achieve, the improvement happened incrementally and the child seemed to have come a long way. For example, Vicky, in case 2, thought that the significant moments came from those little moments of improvement in each session. Those moments were like “little windows” that let her realise Ryan was in fact making good progress. Musictherapy provided those little moments of achievement that made the intervention meaningful for the carers and their child. The musictherapy process offered the opportunity for carers to see what their child could achieve with the resources they had. In other words, it helped them to see beyond their child’s disabilities and discover their potential in the process of a shared music experience. Boxill (2007) stated that the music therapist helped the client progress with a “pattern of small successes, giving direct reinforcement, and identifying the client’s accomplishments in ways that can be received, understood, and assimilated, and the momentum for reaching objectives and goals is created”.
Other research studies which recorded the usefulness of musictherapy include Hilliard (2001) examining the effects of musictherapy intervention on women suffering from eating disorders; Longhofer and Floersch (1993) who used drum ensemble to assist psychiatric patients to achieve a sense of competency; Gold, Wigram, and Berger (2001) who conducted a pilot study to examine the effects of individual musictherapy with children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders on their symptoms and quality of life; and Silverman (2002) who studied the benefits of musictherapy in both short and long-term mental health facilities. These studies all pointed towards the idea that musictherapy is useful in supporting patients to reach their treatment goals using a variety of musictherapy activities. For example, Hilliard (2001) found that by using song-writing, singing, drumming, and lyric analysis, patients seemed motivated as they engaged in their treatment and their views towards the treatment process also became more positive. Gold et al. (2001), on the other hand, found musical improvisation to be the most successful intervention in improving the patients‟ symptoms and competencies. Last but not least, Silverman (2002) found that by implementing a song-writing programme, the patient‟s was able to develop appropriate behaviour and that these behaviours were able to transfer from musictherapy groups to other settings on the unit.
This action research project examines the researcher’s journey of establishing a therapeutic relationship with a child with autism spectrum disorder during her practicum. Children with ASD present difficulty in communication and social relationship skills. As a student in training with a limited experience, the researcher had uncertainty and low confidence with regard to her clinical and professional skills which affected her work. In this project, the researcher has examined her own process of musictherapy with a child with ASD and shows how she was able to improve her practice and therefore establish meaningful and effective therapeutic relationships with this client population and obtain valuable learning through the training. The study was conducted at a dedicated therapy centre in New Zealand where the researcher was in placement. A total of seven, thirty-minute weekly individual musictherapy sessions and four
Lastly, as the musictherapy session always took place in the playroom, I shared space with other activities in the room; therefore sometimes these activities and the musictherapy sessions affected each other to some extent. As they were part of the playroom, my musictherapy sessions needed to be flexible, in accordance with the goals, themes or principles that applied in this room. For example, during the time coinciding with the 4 th cycle, the playroom was bedecked with Christmas decorations; and for my session to be in keeping with this atmosphere, I started to learn Christmas carols. I was able to feel part of the community not only because of the music I played, but also because I could engage other people in the playroom in celebration of the special occasion. During my playing, the mother of a patient encouraged the patient to sing along, and the play specialist joined in a conversation with the mother and me to suggest other popular Christmas songs. This would have made it possible for the mother to share her worry about her child with the play specialist. This example shows the importance of blending in with, or being flexible regarding, the room’s atmosphere, because my flexibility had the potential to influence other people and bring about a convivial, celebratory ambience.
According to Bunt (1994), in treating some children with cognitive disabilities or speech impairment, encouragement and stimulation of all kinds of vocal activity through musical interaction becomes an important feature of the musictherapy approach. To prompt communication, it is suggested that natural methods of achieving this (for instance vocalisation and eye directing) be used (Pennington, 2008). Gentle humming – which is an approach commonly used in early intervention (Schwarts, 2008) – may also encourage the child to try to match the sound, especially when working with non-verbal clients (Coulson, 2004). It could create the sense of a ‘home’ environment in which parents, especially hum and sing songs to their children. Bunt (1994) has stated that “synchronous vocal interaction with a young child often employs silences, switch-over points and other non-verbal cues that break up the sustained stream of vocal play into antiphonal turn-taking. The relaxed and child- centred setting of much musictherapy with this age-group often fosters playful exploration of vocal sounds” (Bunt, 1994a, p. 94). Thus, much stressing, pausing, repetition and differing durations are observable in these systems, but somehow this may lead to unclear patterns of interaction, so the music therapist must be proficient in responding nonverbally at the right time in order to maximise the musical responses of the child (Bunt, 1994b; Wheeler, Shultis, & Polen, 2005).