second half of the sixth century onward, these craft-based vera icons were replaced by magical imprints of Christ appearing on veils of fabric, etc. Because of their miraculous provenance, these touch relics, known as acheiropoieta, images that are said not to be made by human hands, vitalized images in times when their viability as tools of inculcation was threatened. 56 For Byzantines who grappled with the problem that divinity could only be depicted in bad faith, vera icons presented a workaround whereby the human hand was removed from the act of representation. At the second council of Nicaea (787), after Christian images suffered great loss at the hands of iconoclasts, acheiropoieta substantiated arguments for images' inclusions as pedagogical sources in the church. The formulation of a miraculous surrogate for the absent body of Christ gave credibility to representations of the invisible, and helped to solidify painting-craft as an authoritative source of spiritual guidance. Vera icons can be thus be
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theory (2002:47–52) which views the brain as two parallel sets of specialised processors, with consciousness as the gateway to brain integration, enabling access between otherwise separate neuronal functions. Viewed in this way, central information exchange allows some processors such as the sensory system in the brain, to distribute information to the system as a whole, making coordination and control possible. The psychological understanding of consciousness has its roots in Descarte’s (1595–1650) idea of radical dualism of the material body (res extensa) and unextended mind (res cogitans), man and world, as well as his method of rational doubt. His radical doubting resulted in bracketing the human body and the world, leading to his conclusion:
anatomy use such analogical methods to described organs in human body, e.g. Achilles tendon in the leg, named af- ter Achilles, the famous Greek mythological character. In western psychology terms like Oedepus complex, Nar- cisism etc. use Greek mythical characters as icons to ex- plain specific psychological phenomena. When such methods are entertained without any prejudice, the scien- tific fraternity considers the same technique to be irra- tional while it comes to Ayurveda. In Ayurveda, technique of explaining specific states of phenomena through anal- ogy with mythological icons was interpreted with a fla- vour of superstition, often tagged with almost all sorts of psychiatric discourses. The superstitions about psychiatric diseases are more deep rooted in the society, to consider psychiatric diseases as invasion of demons and supernatu- ral powers to the body. But, Charaka categorically de-
Just like the yoni, six other attributes beginning with āya (expenditure) - āyādi avarga are next discussed as being the features that influence the house. Similarly, the slope or cline of the terrain, the quality of the soil (taste, appearance etc.) and the grasses and trees that grow in it naturally are recommended differentially for house-owners as per their vaa. Even the scale of measurement (termed kól) is not a universal standard, but is determined by the body dimensions of the house-owner, again varying per his caste. It is not by accident that the owner is referred to as a ‘him’. All the VŚ texts are produced with a highly patriarchal bias, and no mention is made of female inhabitants or owners of the residences.
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Campbell talks of a widely prevalent myth, traces of which can be found in almost every culture. According to this myth, there was once “no distinction between female and male, or even between human beings and beasts. It flowed on, an undifferentiated, dreamlike epoch, until at a certain moment--- the end moment--- a murder was enacted. In some of the myths the whole group slew the victim. In others the act was of one individual against another. In all, the body is cut up, the pieces are buried, and out of those buried parts grow the food plants by which human life in this world is now supported. We are living, that is to say, on the substance of the body of the sacrificed god. Moreover, at the moment of the sacrifice, when death came into the world and with it the flow of time, there occurred also a separation of the sexes; so that with death, there came also the possibility of procreation and birth” (Campbell, 2013: xvii).
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The early twentieth-century anthropologist Margaret Murray is most famous for her much criticized theory that the witchcraft of the Inquisition was not only real, but the surviving remnant of an organized pre-Christian “fertility cult, in the tradition described by Sir James Frazer in The Golden Bough.” 1 Indeed, Murray’s work has always been noted as the launching pad for the neo-pagan religious movement despite sharp and convincing arguments against her theories. Despite her detractors, whose arguments are outside the scope of this thesis, Murray did make significant contributions to the study of religion and mythology. According to Margot Adler, “[t]he primary value of Murray’s work was her understanding of the persistence of Pagan folk customs in Britain and her realization that Witchcraft could not be examined in isolation from the comparative history of religions or from the study of anthropology and folklore.” 2 Though the belief that paganism survived until the Middle Ages in any form other than in folklore has been almost completely, if not universally, denied, Murray’s thoughts concerning the
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De Chirico’s use of other myths within his oeuvre has been widely explored. A 2002 exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art entitled, “The Myth of Ariadne and De Chirico,” examined the figure within de Chirico’s work in great detail. Ariadne was the daughter of the Knossian king Minos. Minos had locked the Minotaur in a vast labyrinth, and ordered that seven Athenian young men and women be sacrificed to the beast each year. The hero Theseus volunteered to embark upon a quest into the labyrinth to kill the Minotaur, a feat no man had ever accomplished. Ariadne fell in love with him upon first sight, and gave him a spool of magical thread so that he could find his way out of the maze. He succeeded in killing the beast and returned to the palace by using Ariadne’s thread, thereby saving the island of Knossos from further bloodshed. The infatuated Ariadne fled with Theseus, who abandoned her on the island of Naxos while she slept. She awoke and was raped by Dionysus, the god of drunkenness and physical love. Ariadne thus emerged as a central figure in Nietzsche’s writings as this metaphor for the relationship between love, body, soul, and intuitive consciousness. 61 According to Nietzsche, Ariadne was enmeshed within a love triangle between the Apollonian Theseus, hero of reason and logic, and Dionysius, the god of earthly love and the body. She stood in the midst of Chaos, represented by the labyrinth, and inevitability of Time, represented by the Minotaur. 62
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poetry in Britain, who have produced great influences on the literature world. Those romantic poets were inspired more or less by the French Revolution, and advocated to the people to pursue beauty and inner freedom in nature or art. The most extraordinary features found in their poems are the abundant Greek and Roman mythological figures. But two generations of romantic poetry have shown different purposes in employing the Greek and Roman mythology, which needs fur- ther reading and exploration. The present study centers on the comparison of characters prefe- rence in poems between the two generations and shed light on the critical difference in their pur- poses and impacts.
Several methods have been developed to determine body composition (BC). However, there is still hesitation regarding the best technique to be used. Well-known meth- ods include assessments that might be more or less com- plex, such as the skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), hydrodensitometry, neutron activation analysis in vivo, total body potassium, nuclear magnetic resonance, and, more recently, computed tomography. 12–16 Moreover, simple anthropometric
In Morountodun and No More the Wasted Breed, the mythic consciousness is unmistakably visible. It foregrounds the ethical, sociopolitical and socioeconomic underpinnings in the plays. In the relationship between mythology and literature, Ernst Cassirer has observed that myth is “a mode of human perception and expression” which does not isolate image from entity, the ideal from real, but provides for the literary critic “more than a rhetorical ground for literature’s link to metaphor” and becomes useful for contemplating humanity (The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics 811). This observation has inspired in this discourse the choice of a mythic critical approach which Craig White describes as a literary investigation which demonstrates how “literary works draw upon a common reservoir of archetypes or recurrent images” (par 11). Similarly, E. W. Ward asserts that: “modern authors have been fascinated by the possibilities of myth in literature, and it is, therefore, necessary for the literary critic to examine the ways in which those possibilities are exploited and developed” (70). The mythic reading in this discourse, to borrow Ward’s words, exemplifies the use of mythology “as a means of literary allusions, intended to attract the attention of the reader and to add significance to a theme or situation by means of illustration or parallel” (71).
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43 The principle runs through all life from top to bottom. Give up yourself, and you will find your real self. Lose your life and you will save it. Submit to death, death of your ambitions and favorite wishes every day and death of your whole body in the end: submit with every fibre of your being, and you will find eternal life. Keep back nothing. Nothing that you have not given away will ever be really yours. Nothing in you that has not died will ever be raised from the dead. Look for yourself, and you will find in the long run only hatred, loneliness, despair, rage, ruin, and decay. But look for Christ and you will find Him, and with Him everything else thrown in. (190) Orual finally comes to terms with this when she reads her complaint against the gods. The complaint becomes its own answer (294) because it opens the door of confession to and acceptance of the gods. Lewis felt that there was power in confession (although not necessarily in Catholic confession to a priest but instead personal confession in prayer): “there is the gain in self-knowledge; most of us have never really faced the facts about ourselves until we uttered them aloud in plain word, calling a spade and spade” (Letters 250). Because Orual for the first time speaks with her “real voice” (292), she realizes that she has finally been able to say what she meant all along and confess the words “which [have] lain at the center of [her] soul for years” (294). Through this confession she realizes the truth of both herself and the gods. Her complaint becomes a confession; her confession becomes the means though which the gods can enter her heart; the gods in her heart
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This study addresses Samuel Beckett’s most celebrated play, Waiting for Godot, in an effort to analyze its characters from a novel perspective. Since Greek mythology has been undisputedly influential on Western culture and literature, the researcher attempts to investigate a connection between Greek mythology and the play. This study aims to reveal that even after more than fifty seven years of writing criticisms, analyses, interpretations, and reviews on Beckett’s Waiting for Godot there are still some new points in this masterpiece that have not been found. Godot can be interpreted as Zeus, Pozzo as the disguised Zeus, Lucky and the Boy as Atlas and Hermes, and finally Vladimir and Estragon as the human beings living in the last years of the Golden Age. Although Beckett has not directly pronounced to be influenced by Greek Mythology, traces of mythological characters, as the researcher examines, are seen in Waiting for Godot.
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Myths have attracted almost all the major English poets, from Chaucer to the present. Mythology allows taking a journey into an exciting and mysterious world. In the first place, myths are stories. In every culture and every country, during every period of time, people have told stories. There are sacred stories handed down as a part of religions, as well as legends that explain and define the great acts of nations and peoples. Throughout history we find stories, riddles, proverbs and fables for adults as well as children. Some of these stories educate, some mystify. All are meant to entertain. It is an inseparable part of literature thus. Now and then every literature uses myths. Thus the proper study of the origin of myth is highly alluring. Keep this in mind, the research paper analyses the origin, growth and development of myths in literature.
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Hemichordates and chordates differ in many ways besides lengthening and signaling by the chordamesoderm. The tricoelomic organization of hemichordates and echinoderms, which is thought to be the basal body organization among deuterostomes, is greatly modified in chordates. Goodrich (1917) proposed that the large first and second coeloms of hemichordates have been greatly reduced in chordates, leaving only small cephalic and presomitic cavities in the head, whereas the large third coelomic cavity (the metacoel) is retained and expanded as the trunk coelom. However, if the new chordate body axis is really orthogonal to the old one of a hemichordate- like ancestor, the old protocoel may have become the heart/ blood cavities, the mesocoel the trunk coelom, and the metacoel the somite mesoderm (somites have cavities as they first form). In this realignment, the old anteroposterior axis of the ancestor would have become the new ventro-dorsal axis of chordates. The roles of chordamesoderm and prechordal (head) meso- derm in neural induction differ greatly in the chordate line. They have differentiated as the head and trunk-tail organizers, re- spectively. Whereas both are capable of neuralization, only the chordamesoderm has the posteriorizing activity that modifies neuralized tissue from the path of forebrain-midbrain develop- ment into the path of hind brain-spinal cord development. The short neural plate of hemichordates is presumed to be anterior- like (emx, otx expressing), that is, unposteriorized. It forms by a foreshortened neurulation. In the intermediates along the chor- date line, the neural plate must have greatly increased in length. Posteriorization of neural tissue presumably arose as the plate elongated. The new posteriorized part of the neural plate itself engages in convergent extension, a new morphogenetic activity for neural tissue.
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I belong to a national and religious mythology and I always see them together, as can be seen in the poem "a lot" (/ʈʃǝ/ /bǝsi:ʌr/). But "Lanthorn" (/fʌnu:s/) in my poetry is a special symbol - a myth. For me, this means an opening toward light. Lanthorn has been particularly interesting to me which is related to the memories of my childhood. At that time, we lived in the village with my mother and we had to go a long distance to town and go to the school. So, I always had a lanthorn with myself (an interview with Abdul Jabar Kakaiee, 2012).
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When mythologies describe all of the living beings on earth as enchanted or holy, that they are more than what meets the eye, it makes the reader give their due respect to them. This is something that humans have distanced themselves from through the centuries. We are more enamored with the daily news and gossip than with myth. I look at the pathways I create in my paintings as the invitation to go on a journey, in the same way that mythology takes the reader on a spiritual journey. I present the viewer with what I think inspires mythology. It is not to make the viewer believe in anything other than they already do. It is more of an exercise to remind myself of how magical the world is, which is easy to forget sometimes. As Joseph Campbell states, “Nirvana literally means “blown out”; the image is that once one has realized one’s unity with what is called the Buddha mind – this is the Buddhist conception of Brahman – then one’s individual ego is extinguished like a candle flame, and one becomes one with the great solar light . . . But when you get over there, you realize, I was here all the time.” 21 Attaining nirvana or
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A hundred years ago most of these mythical allusions in the OT texts would have passed unnoticed (Gaster 1969:xxv). However, as a result of archaeological discoveries from Mesopotamian, Canaanite, Hittite and Egyptian literature, it is possible to recognise that the OT is in fact saturated with the popular traditions of the Ancient Near East. For example, the notion that water preceded all things likewise occurs in Babylonian and Egyptian mythology. Both also attest the creation of man from clay. Another example can be referred to, namely Leviathan – the monster vanquished primordially by YHWH and destined to be vanquished again at the end of the present era (Isa 27:1) – is now known to be the Hebraization of Leviathan vanquished by Baal in an earlier Canaanite myth from the city of Ras Shamra-Ugarit.
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All the ancient mythologies are evidently nature-oriented. Among all Egyptian mythology is deeply naturalistic in its conduct. All the mythologies have a specific tendency apart from being nature-oriented in general. The strong impetus of nature surpassed everything including the immortal concept of the divine. The dominance of beasts and birds and their inseparable connection with the divine are stark. Nature even merges with the individual divine characters in Egyptian myths. Focus on mortality, sexuality and the cycle of conservation consumption is in the core of the manner.
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The cult of the dead: The king was the link to the gods. Egypt’s kings identified fully with the gods. Menes declared himself as the “two ladies,” that is, the goddesses who represented Upper and Lower Egypt. Since the king was divine, vast resources of the state were concentrated to glorify the throne and accord proper homage to the king. Egyptian social and religious life was pre-occupied with preparation for the afterlife. From the period of the Old Kingdom, Egyptians believed that dead bodies must be preserved to ensure the continued survival of Ka, the indestructible essence, or the vital life force of the deceased. In 3200 B.C., and at the peak of Egyptian civilization, the cult of the dead was established, which culminated into the process of mummification where pyramids were erected to house the remains of the kings. Philip Bishop writes: “The great pyramids at Giza were gigantic constructions of limestone block. The largest covered thirteen acres at its base, and was built of more than two million huge stone blocks. Shafts and rooms in the interior accommodated the pharaoh’s mummified body and the huge treasure of objects required for his happy existence after death” (32, 33).