Nagabhasma (Incinerated Lead) even though having potent qualities is rarely used by the physicians as a medicine due to the fear of toxicity. Marana is a procedure which is followed after the Shodana (cleansing) to remove the ill effects caused by the Naga (Lead) and to make it easily absorbable and assimilable in the body. As various methods are adopted in the preparation, it is difficult to know if the NagaBhasma prepared by different methods is identical or not. In the current era analysis with the help of current technology is mandatory to study the difference in the properties of NagaBhasma, hence the present work is being undertaken. Naga necessary for the study was procured from Bangalore and Udupi and Hyderabad. Preparation of NagaBhasma was done as explained in Rasa Ratna Samucchaya by Jarana (roasting) method (Sample 1) and Ayurveda Prakasha by Puta (enclosed heating) method (Sample 2). In the Analytical study, various parameters such as Bhasma Pariksha, Organoleptic Characters, Physical Constants, Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis were measured. The NagaBhasma prepared by Puta method was more convenient and cost effective based on the labour work, number of drugs used and the pH of the sample.
The Ayurvedic drugs may be categorized in three groups viz. herbal, animal and metals / minerals.  The metal / mineral category includes mercury, gold, copper, silver, tin, lead, iron, gems and precious stones etc. Metals are well known and used for therapeutic purpose since from ancient time i.e. since the time of Charaka Samhita.  The pharmaceutical processing techniques and their internal use remained same for the long time without much changes and progress. From 8 th to 9 th century A.D. the beginning of Rasashastra had taken place in the field of Ayurveda. Many new pharmaceutical processing techniques along with many equipment and drugs were evolved and developed which have revolutionized Ayurvedic pharmaceutical technology to such an extent that metals could be converted to such a form which is considered to most suitable for its internal use. The converted form of metals is less toxic, highly absorbable and therapeutically very effective. Jarita Naga is considered as lead oxide (PbO), while NagaBhasma is found as lead sulphide (PbS).  There have been questions raised about quality, standardization and often about the safety of Ayurvedic medicines in recent past.  Standardization of Rasaushadhis can be defined with the number of processes, involved in the production of a drug. The standard protocols are mentioned in the literature. 
(with lime water, decoction of nirgundi leaf, turmeric powder and chichiri) and stirring with neem stick associates the organic macromolecules with the lead sample and give rise to the formation of different organometallic compounds along with lead sulfide. Neem (stick) possesses bitter juice of astringent quality which is benefi cial in diabetes. The process is further facilitated by the juice of vaasa leaf used during trituration for several hours. Thus it may be hypothesized that the Nagabhasma acts as the carrier of the medicinal property of nirgundi, turmeric, vaasa and neem. Nirgundi leaf which is used as analgesic, antiinfl ammatory, carminative, diuretic, anthelmintic. Turmeric powder which exhibit a wide range of biological activity e.g. antibacterial, antiinfl ammatory, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and vaasa leaf which checks pitta, sleshma, blood diseases. Neem stick is beneficial in diabetes [16,17] . Presence of carbon and
Based on the AAS results, it was observed that all marketed Nagabhasma sample formulations are rich source of essential elements Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu and Al. Presence of these essential elements may play an important role in maintenance of health and as true revitalizer and energizing formulation. Also, the difference in the presence and absence of arsenic and mercury in different formulations clearly show that these Nagabhasma are prepared by different methods. Percentage of lead in formulations A, B, D, G and U are 1.5, 3.0, 2.0, 4.6 and 5.5% w/w, respectively which are quite variable and sufficient to affect the quality of a drug. However, previous studies suggest that Nagabhasma contains approximately 5% w/w of lead (Pb) when prepared in laboratory [9,14] .
softening of the material transforming ductile lead to a brittle form, enabling ease of subsequent processing. The characterisation of bark of Tamarindus indica and Ficus religiosa is essential to identify the key organic components present in them and their possible role in the preparation of Nagabhasma. The LC‑MS/MS spectra of aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica are shown in fig. 3. It was observed that the aqueous extract contained characteristic markers (proanthocyanidin B1 Dimer, proanthocyanidin C1, catechin and bergenin) reported for Tamarindus indica (fig. 3a‑d). Bergenin has been reported to possess immumomodulatory effects. Also the polyphenols from Tamarindus indica possess excellent chelating ability that can serve to form complexes with metal ions.
In the wake of the present surge of increased global, curiosity regarding safety and efficacy of various metallic and mineral preparations in Rasashastra, there is an imminent need to pay attention towards standardization of each preparation. Nagabhasma (incinerated lead) is one of Ayurvedic incinerated metallic preparation claimed to possess some extraordinary property. Some recently published research work emphasized its antidiabetic and aphrodisiac property. Different media has been found mentioned for preparation of Nagabhasma but till date no work has been published regarding pharmaceutical standardization of Nagabhasma prepared by using herbal media. Pharmaceutical standardization is necessary for batch to batch consistency, reproducibility and for good manufacturing practices. In present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for Nagabhasma prepared by using Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Nees.) as herbal media. Present study was planned to standardize Nagabhasma prepared by using Vasa as herbal media. Prepared Nagabhasma subjected to tests mentioned in Ayurvedic texts Varitar, Rekhapurnatva, Niruttha, Apunarbhava tests and physico-chemical analysis such as pH Value, Total Ash, Loss on drying and acid insoluble ash. Twenty eight days are required to prepare Nagabhasma with 3.76% weight loss. Jarana is the principal step in Nagabhasma preparation as it assist maximum surface of Naga for further chemical reaction.
carbon) possess a short-range order (non-crystalline, amorphous structure) and material get stabilized by terminating dangling-π bonds with hydrogen resulting in a hydrogenated amorphous carbon structure. In conclusion, presence of carbonaceous material (hydrogenated amorphous carbon) has been identified in the Indian traditional biomedicine NagaBhasma. The volatile organic compounds (derived from the natural precursors used in the preparation of the medicine) get converted into gaseous form, hydrocarbon gases, which are first physisorbed and then chemisorbed on to the metallic-particles. Chemisorbed carbon atoms catenate to form chain like isotropic structure in different possible hybridizations sp, sp 2 and sp 3 containing hydrogen. Present work
Singh et al. (2010) has synthesized and characterized nagabhasma. Their x ray diffraction analysis shows the presence of nano crystalline structure of drug. Sub- micron size particles are also detected in transmission electron microscope analysis of the prepared bhasma. These submicron particles are formed due to agglom- eration of nano size crystalline particles. Nano size crystalline particles get agglomerated due organic mate- rials being used from the herbal sources during prepa- ration of bhasma. Presence of lead, sulfur, carbon and oxygen were detected at the surface of bhasma using X ray photon spectroscopy analysis. Element analysis was 99.20% including oxygen.
using mullika is the best and that using kajjali is of second grade. Maran using gandhakadi is not effective. Wadekar et al. 13 established the composition of TB by using various characterization techniques. The results were compared with those of standard copper oxide samples. Major phase of TB was observed to be copper in +2 oxidation state and the particle size was seen to increase due to agglomeration of small particles due to repeated calcinations processes. An attempt has been made to characterize various bhasmas such as Swarnamakshika, vanga and nagabhasma by several researchers 14a-c while physicochemical changes during the TB preparation were investigated by Tripathi 14d . The results clearly indicate that the complete process of bhasma preparation (shodhan and maran) leads to the removal of free copper from the sample. Copper bhasma is selected for the present research work, as it is used for the liver disorders, biliary duct diseases and ascites and even for diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, in the European community and Australia/ New Zealand, copper recommendations for adults, range from 1.1 to 1.2 mg/d, as one of the necessary micronutrient for the normal functioning of vital organs. Inadequate copper produces adverse effects on the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, blood pressure control, heart function, mineralization of bones and immunity 15 .
X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions of the molecules present in the sample. The most widespread use of powder diffraction is in the identification and characterization of crystalline solids, each of which produces a distinctive diffraction pattern. The XRD of Vanga Bhasma showed its crystalline structure. The major component (over 95%) was Tin Oxide, possibly Cassiterite. The predominant peaks in the sample (Vanga Bhasma) corresponded to major phase comprising SnO 2 . During the
11.42%, Sulphur % - 6.97%, Calcium % - 32.81%, From above concluded that calcium percentage was more in the preparation which will reduce the toxicity of arsenic caused due to its deposition in nails and hairs. For the exact effect of calcium to reduce arsenic toxicity in that bhasma further animal study will be required. In XRD analysis, Claudetite(As 2 O 3 ) and Arsenolite (As 2 O 3 ) were compound formed with monoclinic
The Nano is the newly used word but in Ayurveda in the form of Bhasma, the Nano particle of metals& minerals are being used as an effective medicine. It is the need of the moment for Ayurveda to conduct the researches to extend the use of our Nano medicines (BHASMA) in various aspects like detection& diagnosis of the diseases to make them more effective in serving the society.
CONCLUSION: Mukta is one of the aquamarine gems which is a rich source of calcium and used in medical practice since ancient times. To get quality of Mukta bhasma two Laghu- putas are required during the preparation of Mukta bhasma the yield was 160 gm and weight loss was 80 gm during the process Marana. There is a need for standardization by the ancient method and some analytical methods were performed and ensure the quality of prepared Mukta bhasma. The mean particle size of Mukta bhasma is 20-100 nm observed by SEM and also it gave the information of chemical constituent so from observation it shows that Mukta bhasma
Rasashastra is a science which mainly deals with metals and minerals. Most of the metals are considered to be poisonous when taken internally even though they have the therapeutic quality of healing. In order to overcome this, our Acharyas have unearthed the process such as Shodhana 1 (Purification) and marana 2 (Incineration). These processes convert the mineral into an absorbable and non-toxic form. Three arsenic compounds mentioned in our classics that are deadly poisonous are Haratala (Arsenic Trisulphide), Manahshila(Arsenic disulphide) and Gouripashana (Arsenic oxide). Haratala is an inorganic compound mentioned in uparasa varga 3 . Mythologically Haratala is considered as Harebijam. 2 varieties of Haratala are mentioned in classics i.e Patratala and Pindatala.Patratalais considered as the best variety of Haratala which is used for therapeutics 4 . Haratala bhasma is considered to be the best medicine in various skin ailments. Many procedures with different media’s have been mentioned in the classics for the marana of Haratala. One among them is MuktaShukti media which is therapeutically useful in treating the Kushta (Skin ailments) 5 .
leaders understood the ninth point to mean that the Naga people were quite free to decide their future status after ten years. But the Government of India, on the other hand, held that the ninth point did not give the Naga people any right to decide their future status beyond India, other than to join the plains districts of Assam, or adjoining areas to the Naga hills, or to have a separate status within the Indian Union” (Singh 1980: 818). With the rejection of the agreement new situation unfold in the hills as, NNC under the leadership of A.Z. Phizo, the Nagaland Movement, took away from “peaceful negotiation” to an aggressive campaign which also followed by boycott of 1952 election in Naga Hills.
PMY method: In this method, incineration was carried out in 3 steps. Preparation of Pishti, Bhavana and Marana (Puta). Parada Yashada Pishti (Zinc amalgum) is a Dhatu Pishti; one among the five types of Murchana  and a variety of Pishti bandha. Pishti posses Deepana, Pachana property (reactivity of resultant amalgam may be more than that of Mercury).  Later it was subjected to bhavana with lemon juice. Bhavana is also one type of Samskara responsible for transformation, having its utility in almost all pharmaceutical processing.  As the quantity of Bhavana Drava (levigating media) and duration of levigation are not mentioned, sufficient quantity of Juice of Kumari was used and triturated until the mass became dry. Lemon juice is a weak acid in nature, with average 5-6 % citric acid. Yashada bhasma (Zinc oxide) is amphoteric and partially soluble in organic acids.  There might be possibility of neutralization taking place when the two media inter-react during levigation. Here grinding was done in tapta kalwa (heated mortar), for augmenting the formation of Pishti. But care should be taken to keep internal temperature of Mortar bellow 357 0 C to prevent evaporation of Hg. To convert elemental mercury (Hg) in-to amalgam and to stop mercury vapours being emitted, citric acid and zinc is a wonderful combination.  During levigation, Zinc citrate may form. As Zinc forms amalgam with Hg, there is possibility of formation of amalgam of Hg too. Thus formation of organomercuric and organomercury metallic compounds ie., amalgams with ligands happens.  Though in traces, there is a possibility of formation of citrates of cast material from mortar like Iron citrate, Manganese citrate etc, which may further get amalgamated with mercury (except Fe). Grinding in lemon juice, helps in faster amalgamation of the Pishti and impart stability to mercury, may incorporate trace elements in-to formulation.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the haematinic effect of two ayurvedic preparations of iron on mercuric chloride-induced anemia in rats. Lauha bhasma and Mandura bhasma, two well-known ayurvedic iron preparations, are commonly used to treat anemia. In Charles Foster strain rats of either sex, anemia was induced by administering mercuric chloride (9 mg/kg). Lauha bhasma and Mandura bhasma (11 mg/kg) were evaluated for their haematinic activity. The observed results suggest that Lauha bhasma and Mandura bhasma possess signifi cant (P<0.05) haematinic and cytoprotective activity.
X-ray diffraction studies were performed at ‘Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility’, Nagpur. Vanga Bhasma coded as 77-B, Raw Vanga – 77 – R, Jarit Vanga 77 – J, were subjected to study. The powdered sample was spread onto a double-side tape with a spatula, which was then placed on an aluminum sample holder; it was covered & sealed with glass plate. It was then exposed to x-ray beam of intensity 35KV and 20MA. All the peaks were recorded on the chart, and the corresponding 2θ (theta) values were calculated. Results are shown in Figure 2-4.
Gulmakuthara Rasa-1 contains Kajjali which has Ushna Guna and Katu Vipaka that acts as Yogavahi and Tri- doshaghna. Tamra Bhasma does the Lekhana Karma which helps in Kaphaharana. Tamra Bhasma also acts as Rasayana. Shuddha Haratala has the property of Vata kaphaharana due to its Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa, Ushna