The outstanding points of creative tourism in NakhonSiThammarat province include the cultures, traditions and local livelihood considered unique characteristics. This cultural heritage is brought to be the tourism cost. Furthermore, learning and knowledge skills are regarded as crucial factors of creative tourism because local community will pass through this knowledge and local wisdom by having the community which is the owner of cultures to tell the stories and transfer the experiences. The tourists are motivated to know and participate in such cultures and would like to have a try by self-doing. The cultures owners will be the persons who propose all knowledge and skills through their own experiences and transfer to the tourists such as from demonstrating, practicing, having a conversation and sharing opinions, and leading to the improvement and development. In addition, the tourists will feel safe when they enter into the tourist attractions and get a friendly welcoming from the hosts, with the facilitation in tourism from the folks and good hosts. Although getting public safety, some tourist attractions in NakhonSiThammarat still has a limitation in terms of tourism seasons such as rain from the rainy season, natural disasters from flood, which will become the obstructions toward the tourism activities. From the performance of creative tourism activities in some areas, there were some parts of tourists and communities that feel unsatisfied with the change of community influenced by this tourism, the lack of correct perceptions for developing the tourist attractions from the government and private sectors, the listening to opinions from the stakeholders, including the budgets allocation which lacked of clear declaration until the perceptions were distorted through the community members. Besides, the stakeholders in the creative tourism activities still had the level of satisfaction through the tourism activities happened in the community differently. Sometimes, the cultural activities are about to motivate the economy in the community such as folklore performance (Amalia and Doru, 2012), and promoting the folks to participate in the tourism plan and management which help originate the sustainable development in the locality because the host communities take important roles for the tourism orientation in the future (Buaban, 2016).
Apart from using strip test for urinary glucose measure- ment, the outpatient cards (Outpatient Department [OPD]) at the Ron Phibun Hospital were reviewed to identify DM patients. Questionnaires were used to obtain all needed information, and it was found that 2.94% of participated population or 0.58% of total population of these two vil- lages had ≥ 100 mg/dL of sugar level in urine. Until the year 2004, according to Ron Phibun Hospital’s record, there were 177 DM patients out of 24,477 people (0.723% or 723 people per 100,000 people) in the Ron Phibun subdistrict. When compared to the NakhonSiThammarat DM provincial rate of 146.59 people per 100,000 people, as reported in the year 1999, the DM rate of Ron Phibun subdistrict was 4.9 times higher. Moreover, the 1996–1997 second national health survey report indicated that the DM rate among Thais was 0.147%, whereas the rate in Ron Phibun subdistrict was 0.723%. Thus, it led us to focus our study on the investigation of determinants (including low-level arsenic exposure) of DM type 2 risk in the study area described earlier.
How to cite this paper: Preecha, C., Wi- sutthiphaet, W. and Seephueak, P. (2018) Occurrence of Canker Caused by Xantho- monas axonopodis pv. citri on Pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.) Cultivar. Tabtimsiam in NakhonSiThammarat Province, Thailand and Screening Fungi- cides, Antibiotics and Antagonistic Bacteria against X. a. pv. citri in Vitro. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 1-7.
The red Chinese hibiscus flowers were collected from NakhonSiThammarat Rajabhat University, NakhonSiThammarat Province, Thailand. The calyx was removed and only the petals were rinsed with water and oven dried at 60 °C for 24 h. 10 g of dried petals and 80 mL DI water were mixed. The mixture was heated at 60 o C for 1 h and filtered through Whatman filter
Silicon nanoclusters (Si-ncs) embedded in silicon nitride films have been studied to determine the effects that deposition and processing parameters have on their growth, luminescent properties, and electronic structure. Luminescence was observed from Si-ncs formed in silicon-rich silicon nitride films with a broad range of compositions and grown using three different types of chemical vapour deposition systems. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments revealed broad, tunable emissions with peaks ranging from the near-infrared across the full visible spectrum. The emission energy was highly dependent on the film composition and changed only slightly with annealing temperature and time, which primarily affected the emission intensity. The PL spectra from films annealed for duration of times ranging from 2 s to 2 h at 600 and 800°C indicated a fast initial formation and growth of nanoclusters in the first few seconds of annealing followed by a slow, but steady growth as annealing time was further increased. X-ray absorption near edge structure at the Si K- and L 3,2 -edges exhibited composition-
Figure 1.1: Transistor density and feature size as a function of years (Reference: ). Although the first transistor was built on germanium (Ge), Si has been the dominating base material of semiconductor devices for the past decades. Even in our most up-to-date generation 14 nm technology CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) devices, the fin shaped (vertical) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (FinFET)  (Figure 1.2) that comprise the integrated circuits are still Si-based . However, since several years ago, semiconductor physicists have started to discuss a critical question: will Si continue to survive Moore’s Law?  Forecasting from our current position, the answer is very likely to be no, or not for long. At Semicon West 2015, Jo De Boeck, senior vice president of IMEC (Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center), argued that future Si-based device scaling to 10 and 7 nm is beginning to reach practical and fundamental limits . Intel also said at the 2015 international solid-state circuits conference (ISSCC): “new materials will be required to hit 7 nm, looks like 10 nm (next generation following 14 nm) will finally be the end of the road for Si.” 
In this report, we have investigated the feasibility of using P-doped Si-NCs/SiN x films as emitters on p-type sc-Si substrates for fabrication of Si-based heterojunction solar cells. From XPS analysis of the P-doped Si-NCs/SiN x films, the P 2 p signal only attributed to Si-P or P-P bonds indicates that the P atoms may exist inside Si-NCs. The electrical and optical properties of the P-doped Si-NCs/SiN x material are strongly influenced by its chemical composition (N/Si ratio). The optical gap E 04 is
alloys are described in Table 1. The alloys were DC-cast, and then the alloy billets were extruded to 2 mm thickness at 500°C at Sumitomo Light Metal company (now, UACJ). The specimens contain different Mg (0.31 to 0.91 mass%) and Si (0.20 to 1.14 mass%) concentration in order to investigate the inﬂuence of the Mg/Si ratio. The letters of M and S in the ﬁrst column in Table 1 are abbreviation of Mg and Si. The numbers in front of M and S represent mass% of Mg and Si, respectively. Three kinds of specimens with the different Mg/Si ratios as well as constant total solute concentration (Mg + Si) of about 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 mol% are shown in Fig. 1. The cold-rolled to the thickness of 1.3 mm specimens were solution heat treated at 560°C for 1.8 ks in a salt bath, followed by quenching into ice-water at 0°C for 60 s. These specimens are called as the as-quenched (this is abbreviated to A.Q.) alloy in this paper.
A Shirley background function, which is proportional to the integrated photoelectron peak area, was sub- tracted from all of the XPS spectra to correct for the inelastic photoelectron scattering effect . Band alignment extraction was based on Kraut method [15,16]. As to characterize the leakage characteristic and electrical breakdown field of the film, MOS capaci- tor test structure was formed by thermally evaporated a 100-nm thick aluminum (Al) film, acting as a gate elec- trode, on top of the films. The area of a capacitor was photolithographically defined at 9 × 10 -4 cm 2 . In order to obtain an Ohmic back contact, a 100-nm thick Al film was thermally evaporated on the backside of the Si substrate after removal of native oxide. I-V measure- ments were performed by a computer-controlled Agi- lent HP4155-6C semiconductor parameter analyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA).
Based on the reason mentioned previously, Phutthamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand is the case study area. There are many vegetables that can be grown in this area. An area unit in the experiment is equal 1,600 square meters (1 Rai, a Thai area unit). In order highlight the major contribution to general farmers, Pareto principle is utilized to focus only important types of vegetables. In the Table I and Table II, the information of selected vegetables including plantation costs, whole sale price during a month, time to harvest, for instance, is summarized.
Liquid droplets on a solid surface can be induced to mi- grate via Brownian motion and/or under external forces, which can be created by gradients in surface tension or concentration. 8 –13 Droplet migration is important in a variety of coalescence processes. The migration of a M -Si liquid droplet on a Si surface is a complex phenomenon because the equilibrium composition of the droplets varies with tem- perature. From a fundamental point of view, M -Si droplet migration also involves a mass transport mechanism and chemical equilibrium at the liquid-solid interface. 14 –17 Previ- ously, the electromigration and thermomigration of various metallic droplets on Si surfaces have been described in terms of metal diffusion into the Si substrate. 13 However, without in situ, real-time measurements of these complicated pro- cesses, the theoretical aspects cannot be developed to consis- tently explain the observations.
The electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) from multilayered samples of Si/SiO are investigated. Si-nc are formed within Si and SiO layers after furnace annealing. It is found that the presence of Si interlayers creates extra carrier paths for EL emission. A comparative study is further performed on a multilayered Si/SiO sample and a single-layered one with Si and SiO homogeneously mixed. Both samples have the same ratio of Si to O and the same contents of Si and O. The multilayered sample is found to have higher EL intensity, less turn-on voltage, lower resistance, and higher current efficiency than the single-layered one. The results indicate that Si interlayers in Si/SiO may act as carrier channels, which promote carrier transport and enhance the EL emission of Si-nc.
The specimens used in this study were seven kinds of cast Al-Si binary alloys with the chemical compositions shown in Fig. 1. These specimens were prepared by melting of 99.99% pure Al and an Al-24.7%Si master alloy (all compositions in this paper are given in mass% unless otherwise stated) using electric furnace in air and were casted into a steel mold at 1033 K. Bars 45 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length were obtained. The heat treatment was performed at 733 K for 15 h in order to obtain granular eutectic Si having the same morphology primary Si. Meanwhile, cast Al-Si alloys in mass production were modiﬁed to improve their mechanical properties through reﬁnement of Si particles. Non-modiﬁed materials were used in this study to obtain data for alloys containing large Si particles. The chemical compositions of
of drain current fluctuations versus fre- quency in the range of 1 – 10 5 Hz is presented in Fig. 1. The spectra are dominated by a flicker, 1/f component, at LF and thermal noise in the high-frequency range. Over three times lower 1/f noise for p-Si 0.3 Ge 0.7 MOSFET is clearly visible from Fig. 1. We have not observed a generation– recombination 共 GR 兲 noise component at any gate overdrive voltage. This is usually manifested as bumps in the spectra. GR noise could appear in the spectra due to Sb diffusion into the Si 0.3 Ge 0.7 channel from the Sb-doped ‘‘punch-through’’
appropriate for the specific study setting. Moreover, many intervention programs are provided by research teams with no interaction between participants or between participants and study personnel. Thus, this program used a participatory approach in the community. Four elements were covered: 1) health education, 2) safety inspection, 3) safety com- munication, and 4) health surveillance. It was expected that this program could offer rice farmers an effective and efficient approach to improving safety behavior and their work environment. In 2010, Nakhon Nayok Province reported a morbidity rate of 6.8–10.2 per 100,000 popula- tion as a result of pesticide poisoning. 17,18 Few studies have
Fig.2 shows the results of a comparative cycling test for electrodes prepared with copper foil and 3D architecture. In the case of pure Si anodes, the selected discharge capacity is 1200mAh/g in the initial cycle and 800mAh/g during the following cycles. Common 2D electordes have finished only 39 cycles, and their coulombic efficiency steps down to 90%
viral titers, as evidenced by the reduced plaque count compared with counts observed in the siRNAs (si-1, si- 1 F) targeting the 115–133 nt sequence of the EV71 gen- omic 5 0 UTR at the same concentrations (Figure 6A). Conversely, RD cells transfected with si-1OMe, even at the concentration of 100 nM, showed only slight inhib- ition of virus yields with only a limited reduction in the number of plaques (Figure 6A). Transfection with scrambled siRNA did not result in a significant decrease in the viral yield, displaying a similar number of plaques compared with the mock transfection control (Figure 6A). These results reconfirm the sequence-specific inhibitory effects previously observed. RD cells treated with increased concentrations of effective siRNAs were found to have decreased virus yields (Figure 6B) consistent with the results obtained from the real-time TaqMan RT-PCR and western blot analysis.