Nanotechnology and its applications in Medical Science

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Nanotechnology: A Growing Field in Science and Technology

Nanotechnology: A Growing Field in Science and Technology

Nanotechnology plays an important role in medical science, agricultural science, IT sector, food processing etc. Scientists are working in the field of nanotechnology throughout the world to discover new applications. Although this field has some disadvantages also, but still it finds lot of applications due to its size and surface area.

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Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Science for Photodynamic Therapy

Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Science for Photodynamic Therapy

Because of its potential of non-toxicity, zinc oxide (ZnO) is also a candidate for the materials applicable for biomedicine. Furthermore, among the PDT agents, ZnO is a material of particular interest due to its unique optical and electronic properties and has been widely used for device applications including transducers, phosphors and variators. Although ZnO nanoparticles have been intensively used in the cosmetic industry for many years, they have only recently been explored as active cancer therapy drugs themselves. ZnO nanomaterials are considered to be relatively biocompatible, with bulk ZnO being recognized as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substance by the FDA. ZnO has traditionally been used for photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants. For nanoscale ZnO, large numbers of valence band holes and/or a conduction band are available to serve in redox reaction. The holes are powerful oxidants and can split water molecules into H + and OH - . The conduction band electrons are good reducers
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A survey on Nanotechnology and Its Medical Applications

A survey on Nanotechnology and Its Medical Applications

diagnosing disease. Nanotechnology is a focal point in diabetes research, where nanoparticles in particular are showing great promise in improving the treatment and management of the disease. Nanotechnology offers some new solutions in treating diabetes mellitus. One of the developing usage fields of nanotechnology is cancer treatment. Nanotechnology can be also used in molecular imaging with tomography and photo acoustic imaging of tumors and therapy of cancer as photo thermal and radiotherapy. Finally, nanotechnology is still developing science can be defined as next generation techniques for cancer disease; at the same time it comes with many advantages to treat cancer patients.
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Nanotechnology Using Computer Science In Aeronautics

Nanotechnology Using Computer Science In Aeronautics

Fig 5 depicts, CNT are also at the heart of a new chemical sensor platform technology. These are easily manufactured the reusable sensors that can be designed to the accurately detect a wide range of the gases. And the volatile organic compounds is a battery powered handheld devices. These platforms that could be potentially support a large range of applications are included the monitoring systems for human space flight area, industrial chemical detection and also medical diagnostics.

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Recent Trends in Nanotechnology Applications in Surgical Specialties and Orthopedic Surgery

Recent Trends in Nanotechnology Applications in Surgical Specialties and Orthopedic Surgery

Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale. It has extensive range of applications in various branches of science including molecular biology, Health and medicine, materials, electronics, transportation, drugs and drug delivery, chemical sensing, space exploration, energy, environment, sensors, diagnostics, microfabrication, organic chemistry and biomaterials. Nanotechnology involves innovations in drug delivery,fabric design, reactivity and strength of material and molecular manufacturing. Nanotechnology applications are spread over almost all surgical specialties and have revolutionized treatment of various medical and surgical conditions. Clinically relevant applications of nanotechnology in surgical specialties include development of surgical instruments, suture materials, imaging, targeted drug therapy, visualization methods and wound healing techniques. Management of burn wounds and scar is an important application of nanotechnology.Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various orthopedic conditions are crucial aspects of technology for functional recovery of patients. Improvement in standard of patient care,clinical trials, research, and development of medical equipments for safe use are improved with nanotechnology. They have a potential for long-term good results in a variety of surgical specialties including orthopedic surgery in the years to come.
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Applications of Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment

Applications of Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment

The principal way nanotechnologies might help alleviate water problems is by solving the technical challenges by removing water contaminants, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, harmful chemicals arsenic, mercury, pesticides, insecticides and salt pose etc., altogether, instead of dumping from one resource to another, as environmental issues have global impact, destroying every component of atmosphere at an alarming rate. The presence in the environment of large quantities of toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc or others, poses serious health risks to humans, and this threat puts the scientific community under pressure to develop new methods to detect and eliminate toxic contaminants from wastewaters in efficient and economically viable ways. Utilizing nanotechnology for wastewater treatment would certainly help the human being, our environment as well as industry too as it has shown amazing results in every fields [3].
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Applications of Nanotechnology in Agriculture: An Overview

Applications of Nanotechnology in Agriculture: An Overview

One among the new approaches to combat the climate change is the nanotechnology. Possible areas identified to intervene through nanotechnology to reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions are: a) the development of hydrogen powered vehicles; b) enhanced and cheaper photovoltaics or solar power technology; c) new generation of batteries and super capacitors; d) improved insulation of buildings; and e) fuel additives to enhance the energy efficiency of motor vehicles (Oakdene Hollins, 2007). These technologies are being developed elsewhere in the world contemporarily to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and consequently begin the process of decoupling carbon dioxide emissions from energy. In addition, these technologies are likely to have a positive impact in reducing the concentrations of NOx and SOx in the atmosphere by reducing the quantity of fossil fuels used in the generation of electricity. For electricity generation, hydrogen fuel cell is an efficient, non polluting source (Anonymous, 2009). Besides hydrogen fuel cell, yet another technology which converts solar energy, renewable, unlimited source of emission free, to electricity is photovoltaic technologies. Nanotechnology is widely used in current R&D in photovoltaics. Some of the main areas of research include: nano particle silicon systems; use of non-silicon materials such as calcopyrites to develop thin film technology; molecular organic solar cells; organic polymer photovoltaic systems and III-V nitride solar cells (Oakdene Hollins, 2007). Several different types of photovoltaic panels available in the market are highly expensive and have limited period of life time. Attempts are being made to circumvent this problem through nano technological approach. One such approach attracted considerable attention is the so called Crystalline Silicon on Glass and use of alternate materials such as cadmium telluride. Next important area which could alleviate the climate change is energy storage. The next generation batteries, more relevant to climate change will be more suitable for use in electric cars and other vehicles, is being attempted using nanotechnology. The next generation batteries like lithium ion and nickel metal hydride batteries having more capacity than those already used in hybrid electric vehicles (Autobloggreen, 2007).
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Applications of Nanotechnology Field of Medicine

Applications of Nanotechnology Field of Medicine

popular areas of scientific research, especially with regard to medical applications. We've already discussed some of the new detection methods that should bring about cheaper, faster and less invasive cancer diagnoses. But once the diagnosis occurs, there's still the prospect of surgery, chemotherapy or radiation treatment to destroy the cancer. Unfortunately, these treatments can carry serious side effects. Chemotherapy can cause a variety of ailments, including hair loss, digestive problems, nausea, lack of energy and mouth ulcers.
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Applications of Nanotechnology in Reconstructive Surgery

Applications of Nanotechnology in Reconstructive Surgery

During an angle-reduction ostectomy, fracturing or causing a defect in the mandibular condyle proves to be one of the most serious complications. During reconstruction of the condylar defect, it is necessary to maintain the function of the temporomandibular joint and uniformity anatomically. Autologous bone grafting is the standard method of treatment of mandibular reconstruction currently but in order to do this a large amount of bone must be acquired and shaped into the correct size to then be inserted into the defective area [9]. The use of the nanos- cale hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) in a recent study was shown to be a probable alternative for mandi- bular reconstruction. This is because the n-HA/PA composite has a close relationship to that of collagen and bone in a normal human bone matrix [10]. Hydroxyapatite on its own is not compatible due to the brittle nature of the mineral. The addition of the polyamide allows for mechanical properties that resemble bone. The study customized and designed an implant based on the patients computed tomography data. This was made by com- puter-aided design and manufacturing using a three-dimensional printer producing a perfect fitting condylar im- plant (Figure 2). Because of the computer design, there is a restoration of the facial contour and symmetry thus simplifying surgical planning, the manufacturing and significantly reducing the operating time itself. Operational
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<p>Nano-curcumin&rsquo;s suppression of breast cancer cells (MCF7) through the inhibition of cyclinD1 expression</p>

<p>Nano-curcumin&rsquo;s suppression of breast cancer cells (MCF7) through the inhibition of cyclinD1 expression</p>

Conclusion: Nano-curcumin has a relatively high cytotoxic effect on MCF7 breast cancer cells, suppressing the expression of cyclinD1, a critical gene in the development and metastasis of breast cancer. The current study demonstrated that nano-curcumin can be an effective drug in the CAF regimen for the treatment of breast cancer. However, further in vivo research is needed for determining its efficacy and safety in clinical applications.

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Advantage of Nanotechnology in computer Science

Advantage of Nanotechnology in computer Science

as nanorobots, comprising an outer membrane, a metabolism, and peptide-DNA to encode information. Evolutionary modelling is being used extensively in PACE, to analyse real and simulated protocell dynamics, their possible evolution, and the evolution of (potentially noisy) protocellular networks. In addition to this work, computer modelling of embryogenesis and developmental systems is becoming increasingly popular in computer science [27]. Should artificial cells become a reality, such models will provide a method for their genes to be programmed in order to enable the growth of larger, multicellular forms. Apart from genetic algorithms and other evolutionary algorithms that have promising potential for a variety of problems (including automatic system design for molecular nanotechnology [7]), another emerging technique is swarm intelligence, which is inspired by the collective intelligence in social animals such as birds, ants, fish and termites. These social animals require no leader. Their collective behaviours emerge from interactions among individuals, in a process known as self- organisation. This collective intelligence in social animals often cannot emerge from direct interaction among individuals. Instead, indirect social interaction (stigmergy) must be employed. Each individual may not be intelligent, but together they perform complex collaborative behaviours. Typical uses of swarm intelligence are to assist the study of human social behaviour by observing other social animals and to solve various optimisation problems [28,29]. There are three main types of swarm intelligence techniques: models of bird flocking, the ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm, and the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. Different techniques are suitable for different problems.
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New Applications of Nanotechnology for Neuroimaging

New Applications of Nanotechnology for Neuroimaging

agent, indicating that it is confined to the vascular compartment for hours after administration and will not extravasate in the pres- ence of a compromised blood-brain barrier. Ferumoxytol was recently investigated for its potential superiority to gadolinium to distinguish pseudoprogression from true tumor progression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme by comparing relative ce- rebral blood volume estimated from dynamic susceptibility- weighted contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Ferumoxytol was sig- nificantly more sensitive in detecting tumor progression and differentiating pseudoprogression compared with gadolinium (Fig 1). 17 There are several clinical trials currently evaluating the
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Plzt Composite Synthesis to Study the Material Characterstic

Plzt Composite Synthesis to Study the Material Characterstic

Sumanda. Vinay Kumar student of M.Tech Nanotechnology in Centre for Nano Science and Technology (CNST), Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad. He received B.Tech degree in Electronic communication and Engineering from S.R Engineering college, Hanamkonda.

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Nanotechnology and Green Nanotechnology: A Road Map for Sustainable Development, Cleaner Energy and Greener World

Nanotechnology and Green Nanotechnology: A Road Map for Sustainable Development, Cleaner Energy and Greener World

Abstract:-Imagine the chips embedded in the human body reporting every body movement and just waiting to strike at those nasty bacterial invaders, clothing smart enough to monitor out health and save us from environmental hazards, huge buildings and machines having the capability to repair and adjust themselves to the vagaries of the environment, or a regular wristwatch doubling up as a supercomputer. Thanks to nanotechnology, all of these wonders, and many more, are possible. Scientific discoveries and inventions have in fact propelled man to challenge new frontiers. And with his superior brain, man has been able to deliver most of these goodies. Nanotechnology is one such technological wonders that we are experiencing now. Scientists and engineers are working round the clock to achieve breakthroughs that could possibly be the answer to human misery. This paper is mainly about Nanotechnology, its synthesis, characterization and various applications. This also tells about the history of Nanotechnology and its necessity and also discusses how it will improve our lives. This will also explore the less explored field of Green Nanotechnology.
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Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

increases dramatically, which leads to significant changes in their physical, chemical, and biological properties. NSPs have been among the most commonly used nano- materials in our health care system for hundreds of years. Recently, NSPs have become of intense interest in biomedical applications (Figure 1), because of their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity. 5,6

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PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLES BY SOL-GEL METHOD FOR WATER TREATMENT

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLES BY SOL-GEL METHOD FOR WATER TREATMENT

She is the student of M. Tech Nanotechnology from Centre for Nano Science and Technology , Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad. She received B. Tech degree in Chemical Industry from ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

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LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

The third stage (quadrupole or TOF) then generates a spectrum of the resulting product ions. It can also perform selected ion monitoring of only a few product ions when quantitating target compounds. In ion trap and FT-ICR mass spectrometers, all ions except the desired precursor ion are ejected from the trap. The precursor ion is then energized and collided to generate product ions. The product ions can be ejected to generate a mass spectrum, or a particular product ion can be retained and collided to obtain another set of product ions. This process can be sequentially automated so that the most abundant ion(s) from each stage of MS are retained and collided. This is a very powerful technique for determining the structure of molecules. It is also a powerful technique for obtaining peptide mass information that relates to the sequence of amino acids in a peptide. A major advantage of multiple- stage MS is its ability to use the first stage of MS to discard nonanalyte ions. Sample cleanup and chromatographic separation become much less critical. With relatively pure samples, it is quite common to do away with chromatographic separation altogether and infuse samples directly into the mass spectrometer to obtain product mass spectra for characterization or confirmation.
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SIMILARITY MEASURE BETWEEN NEUTROSOPHIC REFINED SETS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS

SIMILARITY MEASURE BETWEEN NEUTROSOPHIC REFINED SETS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS

Neutrosopohic refined set is an important extension of neutrosophic set. In this paper, we focus on introducing similarity measure between neutrosophic refined sets based on the exponential operation. The proposed similarity measure provides a new way to handle the indeterminate and inconsistent information. Also we have examined some relevant properties of similarity measure between neutrosophic refined sets based on exponential operation. Finally, an application of neutrosophic refined set is given in medical diagnosis problems to illustrate the benefit of the proposed approach.
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Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and its Applications in
Medical Diagnosis

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and its Applications in Medical Diagnosis

symptoms of disease using intuitionistic fuzzy sets with extended modal operators for negation.. Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy relation, extended m[r]

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Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

Several studies have reported the use of gold nanoparticle as drug delivery vehicles. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), a cytokine with excellent anticancer effi cacy, is systemically toxic which severely limited its therapeutic applications (van Horssen et al 2006; Mocellin and Nitti 2008). A nanoparticle delivery system, consisting of PEG coated gold nanoparticle loaded with TNF- α , was constructed to maximize the tumor damage and minimize the systemic toxicity of TNF- α (Visaria et al 2006). Combination of local heating and nanoparticle-based delivery of TNF- α resulted in enhanced therapeutic effi cacy than either treatment alone. Thermally-induced tumor growth delay was enhanced by pretreatment with the nanoparticle, when given intravenously at the proper dosage and timing. Tumor blood fl ow suppres- sion, as well as tumor perfusion defects, suggested vascular damage-mediated tumor cell killing. Surprisingly, following intravenous administration, little to no accumulation in the RES (eg, liver and spleen) or other healthy organs of the animals was observed (Paciotti et al 2004). Subsequently, this nanoparticle conjugate has also been used to destroy the tumor within an iceball, again without signifi cant sys- temic toxicity (Goel et al 2007). Phase I clinical trials of this conjugate, subsequently termed “CYT-6091” (Visaria et al 2007), are currently ongoing to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical effi cacy.
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