National Health and Nutrition Survey

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Prevalence of Non Communicable Diseases and Number of Comorbidities According to Differences in Household Income Levels in Japan: Analysis from National Health and Nutrition Survey

Prevalence of Non Communicable Diseases and Number of Comorbidities According to Differences in Household Income Levels in Japan: Analysis from National Health and Nutrition Survey

Though it has been reported that in Western developed countries socioeconomic status is associated with non-communicable diseases (NCD), there are sparse evi- dence from Japan, midst an income gap that has been pointed out in recent years. Therefore, we examined the presence or absence of NCD and the number of comor- bidities according to household income in Japanese, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2010. 1287 men and 1659 women aged 20 - 79 years from households at 3 income levels (<2, 2 - 5.9, ≥6 million yen) were analyzed. Par- ticipants completed questionnaires regarding whether they had been diagnosed with NCD, as well as undergoing clinical laboratory tests. Logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis with adjustment for age, gender, household size, and population of municipalities. The prevalences of participants with high, medium, and low income were 22.3%, 57.6%, and 20.2%, respectively. Participants with the lowest income had the highest odds of hypertension (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.71 [1.29 - 2.26], p < 0.001), diabetes (1.50 [1.02 - 2.20], p = 0.041), and stroke (5.07 [2.04 - 12.60] p < 0.001). Additionally, prevalences of participants with 2 or 3 NCD (hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia) were 15.0% and 33.0% in high and low income levels, respectively. A low income could contribute to a high prevalence of NCD and large number of comorbidities among Japanese. Establishing a health policy in Japan is needed to enable an optimal health condition and lifestyle regardless of socioeconomic disparities.
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Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life in Koreans aged 50 or older using KNHANES 2013–2014

Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life in Koreans aged 50 or older using KNHANES 2013–2014

This study is based on an analysis of adults aged 50 and older using data derived from the 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2013–14. KNHANES is a series of cross- sectional national surveys of the noninstitutionalized Korean population administered by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance of the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), and consists of a health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. KNHANES used a complex, stratified, multi- stage cluster sampling method based on geographical area, gender, and age to secure a representation of the Korean population. Primary sampling units (PSUs) were drawn from a sampling frame of all census blocks or resident registration addresses, and then households were sampled for each PSU using systematic sampling. In the selected households, individuals aged 1 year and over were targeted. This study was approved by the insti- tutional review board of KCDC (2013-07CON-03-4C, 2013-12EXP-03-5C), and written informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants.
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Are participant characteristics from ISCOLE study sites comparable to the rest of their country?

Are participant characteristics from ISCOLE study sites comparable to the rest of their country?

rather than across the United Kingdom, wherever possible. Data from England came primarily from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), with additional data coming from HBSC. According to the MCS (children aged 7–8 years), boys averaged 10 739 steps per day and girls averaged 9699 steps per day. 16 This was very similar to what was seen in ISCOLE with boys averaging 10 675 steps per day and girls averaging 9435 steps per day. Self-reported data from HBSC showed that 33% of 11-year-old boys and 20% of 11-year-old girls met the physical activity guidelines, 4 whereas in ISCOLE, only 19% of boys and 11% of girls self-reported that they met the guidelines. With respect to sedentary behavior, results from the HBSC showed that 64% of 11-year-old boys and 60% of 11-year-old girls exceeded the screen time guidelines on Figure 1. Proportion of children considered overweight or obese from ISCOLE study sites and their representative countries. Dark gray bars indicate data from ISCOLE participants; white bars represent country-level data. If no white bar, then country-level data are not available. Where available, data are presented for both boys and girls. Data were analyzed as per BMI cut-points available in each country as follows. World Health Organization: Portugal, Colombia, Brazil; International Obesity Task Force: Canada, Australia; Center for Disease Control and Prevention: the United States; other: the United Kingdom (British 1990 growth reference 17 ), China (China BMI criteria, overweight ⩾ 19.4, obese ⩾ 22.2). 44 Country-level data sets included: the United Kingdom: National Child Measurement Programme; 17 Portugal: Plataforma Contra a Obesidade; 45 Canada: Canadian Health Measures Survey; 46 the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Colombia: Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional; Brazil: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics; 25 China: China Health and Nutrition Survey; 44 Australia: Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. 35 See Additional fi le 3 for additional study
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Aims, design and preliminary findings of the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)

Aims, design and preliminary findings of the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)

ARCHES: Arkansas Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey; BRFSS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; CAPI: Computer Assisted Personal Interview; CDC: Centre for Disease Control; CHD: Coronary Heart Disease; COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; DM: Diabetes Mellitus; EFSA: European Food Safety Authority; EPIC: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; FGID: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders; FPQ: Food Propensity Questionnaire; GSHS: Global School-based Stu- dent Health Survey; HDPA: Hellenic Data Protection Authority; HNNHS: Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey; IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire; ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; MI: Myocardial Infarction; MRC: Medical Research Council; NatCen: NatCen Social Research; NDNS: National Diet and Nutrition Survey; NDSR: Nutrition Data System for Research; NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NIAAA: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; OR: Odds ratio; QoL: Quality of Life; USA: United States of America
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Transformation Models for Survival Data Analysis with Applications

Transformation Models for Survival Data Analysis with Applications

In this section, we will illustrate the applications of the proposed generalized transformation models and compare the proposed models with the Cox proportional hazards model and the Zeng et al. [1] transformation cure model by analyzing data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHANES1). The NHANES1 data set is from the Diverse Populations Collaboration (DPC), which is a pooled database contributed by a group of investigators to examine issues of heterogeneity of results in epidemiological studies. The database includes 21 observational cohorts studies, 3 clinical trials, and 3 national samples. In the dataset NHANES1, information for 14,407 individuals was collected in four cohorts from 1971 to 1992. In this analysis, we use data from two of the four cohorts, the black female cohort and the black male cohort. After dropping all missing observations, a total of 2027 patients remains in these two cohorts, including 1265 black females and 762 black males. Survival times of the 2027 patients are used as the response variable. The endpoint is the overall survival time collected in 1992. In the two cohorts 848 patients, about 40% of the total number of patients, died at the end of followup with a maximum survival life time of 7691 days. There were 1179 patients whose survival times were right censored, among them 115 patients had survival time longer than 7691 days. We consider these 115 patients as cured subjects.
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Prevalence and risk factors of superior segmental optic hypoplasia in a Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Prevalence and risk factors of superior segmental optic hypoplasia in a Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

This study analyzed the data from a national health sur- vey (KNHANES) and determined the prevalence and risk factors for SSOH. SSOH prevalences have been re- ported in a number of Asian studies. Yamamoto et al. re- ported that prevalence of SSOH in Japan, as determined by fundus photography, was 0.3% among their subjects and 0.2% among the general population [4]. Han et al., reviewing photographs of 3,905 hospital-based Korean subjects, calculated a 0.08% prevalence [5]. However, those study subjects were not representative of the gen- eral Korean population but only of the one institute where they were examined.
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Implications of a New Definition of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiracial US Adolescent Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III

Implications of a New Definition of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiracial US Adolescent Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III

The data used were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988 –1994, which is a periodic survey conducted by the National Cen- ter for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NHANES III contains data on 33 994 individuals and was administered to a representa- tive sample of noninstitutionalized civilians aged 2 months and older who resided in the United States. The NHANES III data set oversampled persons who were ⬎ 60 years of age, black, or Mexican American and those who had low income.
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The association of overweight with allergy and asthma in children : findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006

The association of overweight with allergy and asthma in children : findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006

Table 15 shows the same set of asthma outcomes as predicted by weight category, but stratified by atopic status for the 2005-2006 survey years when specific IgE data were available. The prevalence of all of the asthma-related outcomes was higher for the atopic children. However, the obesity association was stronger among the non-atopic children, with important interaction effects (p < 0.15) seen for all outcomes except asthma attack and medical visits for wheeze. Very few emergency department visits were reported in this smaller population, so the data are not shown. Among non-atopic subjects, those in the obese category were more than twice as likely to have current asthma (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.21, 5.02), an asthma attack (OR 2.45, 95% CI: 1.31, 4.58), or wheezing (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.22) in the previous year than those of normal weight youth. In contrast, there was no appreciable association between overweight or obesity and asthma among atopic subjects. Figure 5 shows the relationship between continuous BMI percentile-for-age and the probability of current asthma, stratified by atopic status. The relationship between
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Mediating effects of metabolic factors on the association between fruit or vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Mediating effects of metabolic factors on the association between fruit or vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

consistent when stroke and ischaemic heart disease were analysed separately. Because the survey was conducted through a household visit and excludes people in the hospital, subjects with diseases might be the relatively less serious cases. Measurement error in FFQ survey or self-re- ported disease status may influence the results. In addi- tion, residual confounding factors such as physical activity may have influenced the association. Finally, because the number of participants with CVD was very low (1.8%), the study had inadequate statistical power that might explain some of the non-significant findings.
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Changes in Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Youth, 1997–2008

Changes in Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Youth, 1997–2008

26. de Ferranti SD, Gauvreau K, Ludwig DS, Neufeld EJ, Newburger JW, Rifai N. Preva- lence of the metabolic syndrome in Amer- ican adolescents: fi ndings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation. 2004;110(16):2494 – 2497 27. Deboer MD. Ethnicity, obesity and the met- abolic syndrome: implications on assessing risk and targeting intervention. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2011;6(2):279 – 289 28. Johnson WD, Kroon JJ, Greenway FL,

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2018 Korean Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension: part I-epidemiology of hypertension

2018 Korean Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension: part I-epidemiology of hypertension

Relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure according to metabolic syndrome status in the Korean National Health and nutrition examination survey. Blood Press Monit[r]

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Use of dietary supplements among US adults with asthma

Use of dietary supplements among US adults with asthma

In conjunction with the documented limited disclosure about supplement use by patients, the lack of therapeutic effi- cacy, and the concern for side effects and interferences with use of standard medical therapies, the specific information from this study about the prevalence and type of supplement use and characteristics of users among adults with asthma is likely to be helpful for health care professionals working in the field of asthma management. These findings suggest that health care providers should proactively elicit informa- tion from their asthma patients about dietary supplement use, the reasons why they choose to do so, the ways they are using the product in relation to their prescription asthma Table 6 Percent distribution and mean number of supplements* taken by supplement users among US adults with asthma, by gender and age, National health and Nutrition examination Survey, US, 2005–2006
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Folate-receptor 1 level in periodontal disease: a pilot study

Folate-receptor 1 level in periodontal disease: a pilot study

the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that a low serum folate level was inde- pendently associated with periodontal disease in older adults [26]. It’s known that folate deficiency is common in older adults and the prevalence of deficiency can increase with age. Even if smoking patients and older adults were not included in our study, it might be feasible to find simi- lar results when serum folate level is measured. However, serum levels of vitamins may not be good at reflecting tis- sue levels, even though folic acid deficiency is associated with gingival inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated localized folate deficiency that oral tissues need greater folate for maintaining its function in spite of the normal serum folate ranges [27]. Given the importance of folate for periodontal disease, it is reasonable to evaluate trans- port of folate. In this study, we determined elevated levels of the FOLR1 in GCF released from periodontal tissue. However, this increase was minimal, therefore it did not effect blood levels of FOLR1. On the other hand, GCF FOLR1 level does not totally reflect the degree of clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. We only found a positive association between GCF FOLR1 and BOP. This finding is in agreement with previous studies demonstrating a negative association between folic acid intake or level and BOP [26, 28]. Therefore, we assume that the potential increased metabolic requirements for folate could contribute to a rise in FOLR1.
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The Application of the Korean Dietary Pattern Score; KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2007

The Application of the Korean Dietary Pattern Score; KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2007

The aim of this study was to apply the Korean Dietary Pattern Score (KDPS) to Korean subjects based on traditional Korean-style meals. The KDPS is based on the 3-Chup Bansang (the traditional Korean daily table setting) and consid- ers the intake of 6 major food groups according to the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (KDRIs). The KDPS consists of 2 parts: the Korean-Style Meal Score (KSMS) and the Food Group Score (FGS). The KDPS was applied dietary data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007. Socio-demo- graphic status, gender, age, and body mass index are all factors that have been shown to be meaningful predictors for the KDPS. When the effect of the KDPS on risk of disease was evaluated, a higher total KDPS was associated with a decreased risk of elevated systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.05). In addition, as the KSMS increased, the risk of central obesity (p < 0.05) and hypertension (p < 0.01) significantly decreased. A higher total KDPS suggests a greater diversity of food intake, and therefore greater dietary diversity appears to lower the risk of disease. The KDPS is relevant because it integrates scores for Korean-style meal patterns and meal evaluation from a nutritional perspective. In conclusion, the KDPS is appropriate for evaluating the quality of diet, adherence to Korean- style meal patterns, and risk of related diseases. These results will be useful for evaluating the nation’s dietary patterns, nutrition, and health status when planning nutrition policies and programs.
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Blood lead is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: an analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008

Blood lead is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: an analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008

The subjects were subdivided according to the character- istics of each variable to determine differences based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The Modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used for subjects with a diagnosis of MS [10]. However, waist circumference measurements of ≥ 90 cm in males and ≥ 85 cm in females were selected in the MS diagnosis based on the criteria of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity [11]. The 10-year CVD risk of subjects was also assessed using the Framingham risk score [12]. Based on these results, subjects were clas- sified into low-risk (< 5%), moderate-risk (5% to < 10%), and high-risk groups (≥10%) [10]. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked more than five packs of cigarettes during their lifetime and were smoking at the time of the survey; all others subjects were defined as non-smokers. Regular alcohol drinkers were those who currently drank alcohol more than once per month, and all others were defined as non-drinkers. The 16 residential areas of the KNHANES were classified into two groups: 1) urban areas, including metropolitan cities such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan, as well as metropolitan areas such as Gyeonggi province; and 2) rural areas, comprising Gangwon, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Jeonnam, Jeonbuk, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongnam, and Jeju provinces. Educational status was categorized as follows: 1) graduation from elementary school or lower; 2) graduation from middle school; 3) graduation from high school; and 4) graduation from college or higher. Seven occupation types were recognized: 1) managers, profes- sionals, technicians, and associated professionals; 2) cler- ical support workers; 3) service and sales workers; 4) skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers; 5) craft and related trades workers, plant and machine operators, and assemblers; 6) elementary occupations; and 7) house- wife, student, or unemployed, based on the 6th Korean Standard Classification of Occupations from the Korean National Statistical Office, which was created by following the International Standard Classification of Occupations of the International Labor Organization [13]. Physical ac- tivity of the subjects was investigated by evaluating their participation in recreational physical activity during the 1 week prior to the survey and categorized as follows: 1) none, no or minimal activity; 2) mild, > 30 minutes of walking more than 5 days per week; 3) moderate, > 30 minutes of physical activity in which the subject was tired compared to normal or breathing slightly hard more than 5 days per week; and 4) vigorous, > 20 min of vigorous physical activity in which the subject was exhausted com- pared to normal or breathing hard more than 3 days per week.
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Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort.

Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort.

This research was not directly funded. SVA was supported in part by NIH National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Training Grant R25 CA094880, and an ASPO/ASCO Cancer Prevention Fellowship sponsored by the Prevent Cancer Foundation. Public-use NHANES data were previously collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Introduction: Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults. Method: We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross- sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders. Results: Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status.
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Lack of awareness of health promotion messages in a group of New Zealanders over the age of forty living in the Manawatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, Ne

Lack of awareness of health promotion messages in a group of New Zealanders over the age of forty living in the Manawatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Comparison of physical characteristics of subjects who responded to the Health Promotion Awareness Questionnaire with the Health Promotion Study and the National Nutrition Survey.. Nutri[r]

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Assessing alcohol intake & its dose-dependent effects on liver enzymes by 24-h recall and questionnaire using NHANES 2001-2010 data

Assessing alcohol intake & its dose-dependent effects on liver enzymes by 24-h recall and questionnaire using NHANES 2001-2010 data

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur- vey (NHANES), a large nationally representative survey of the U.S. population, is designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of adults and children [18]. The NHANES data are currently released every 2 years with data from approximately 5000 adult volunteers and in- clude an in-home survey and physical examination con- ducted in a mobile facility. Food consumption, body composition, health status, multiple blood chemistry measures, and various other health-related parameters are assessed. Because the NHANES is conducted regu- larly using the same standardized procedures, very large data sets can be obtained by combining multiple years of data. This provides an opportunity to examine, in a large nationally-representative data set, self-reported alcohol use and its association with various markers of liver function. In addition, the NHANES employs two methods that can be used to independently estimate al- cohol, collection of two days of 24-h recall data which then can be used to estimate usual intake and an alcohol intake questionnaire.
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Significant predictors of medically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with preserved ratio impaired spirometry: a 3-year cohort study

Significant predictors of medically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with preserved ratio impaired spirometry: a 3-year cohort study

We used the cross-sectional the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data of 2007–2009 and KNHANES-matched Health Insurance Re- view and Assessment (HIRA) cohort data of 2006–2012. A total of 11,922 subjects were available in KNHANES. Among them, never- or light-smokers (< 10 pack-years), young subjects (< 40 years), and patients already medically diagnosed with COPD (based on the ICD-10 code and pre- scribed medication in HIRA), were excluded (n = 9256). We categorized the remaining 2666 subjects into 3 groups based on spirometry (Fig. 1). The normal group (n = 1666) had a normal FEV 1 /FVC ratio (≥ 0.7) and normal spirom-
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