Two research questions were addressed. First, what are the differences between internet search- ers and non-searchers for health-related infor- mation among current and former smokers? Second, does searching the internet for health- related information predict current smoking status in a multivariate model that controls for varia- tions in sociodemographic and family charac- teristics? Data collected from 10,929 current and former smokers who participated in the 2009 NationalHealthInterviewSurvey showed sig- nificant differences in sociodemographic and family characteristics between searchers and non-searchers. Importantly, searching the inter- net for health-related information made an in- dependent contribution to the prediction of cur- rent smoking status in a multinomial logistic regression model. This study is significant in that it utilized a nationally representative sample to examine the correlation between internet use and smoking behavior and supports ongoing efforts of public health advocates to continue their efforts in developing and delivering online smoking cessation programs.
Methods: We collected demographic data, socioeconomic information, and details about lifestyle and health behaviours from the 2001 Taiwan NationalHealthInterviewSurvey. The medical records of interviewees were obtained from NationalHealth Insurance claims data with informed consent. In this study, MP was defined as using both Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) services in 2001. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for factors associated with adopting MP in univariate and multiple logistic regression. Results: Among 12,604 eligible participants, 32.5% adopted MP. Being female (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.30 - 1.61) and young (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15 - 1.66) were factors associated with adopting MP in the multiple logistic regression. People with healthy lifestyles (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.19 - 1.53) were more likely to adopt MP than those with unhealthy lifestyles. Compared with people who had not used folk therapy within the past month, people who used folk therapy were more likely to adopt MP. The OR of adopting MP was higher in people who lived in highly urbanised areas as compared with those living in areas with a low degree of urbanisation. Living in an area with a high density of TCM physicians (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.69 - 2.84) was the strongest predictor for adopting MP.
In addition to mental retardation, the survey included questions on other developmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and cerebral palsy (ascertained by using comparable ver- biage as for DS and mental retardation), blindness (as- certained with the question, “Is [child’s name] blind or unable to see at all?”), hearing impairment (respondent indicated that “deaf or a lot of trouble hearing” best described the child’s hearing without a hearing aid), and recent (in the previous 12 months) stuttering or stam- mering. We combined these conditions into a single “any other developmental condition” outcome and separately assessed the individual disorders with ⱖ 3 cases in the DS and comparison groups.
Figure 2A–D shows the relationships between the nine combinations of pain persistence and bothersomeness and measures of health status and health care use. Those with “a lot of pain” either “most days” or “every day” had the high- est mean K6 scores, 6.28 and 6.23, respectively (Figure 2A), indicating they were in more psychological distress then individuals with other combinations of pain persistence and pain severity. Conversely, those individuals with “a little pain” “some days” had the lowest mean K6 score (2.07) and least amount of psychological distress. Similar patterns were seen
The NHIS is a repeated cross-sectional household survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in the U.S.  Its primary functions are to monitor the prevalence and distribution of disease and disability in the U.S. and assess patterns of health care utilization. Every week, interviewers from the U.S. Census Bureau conduct face-to- face interviews to gather information from "responsible family members" residing in randomly chosen house- holds across the nation . Households and the individ- uals within households are selected via a complex, multistage sampling design that involves both clustering and stratification. On average, Census personnel com- plete interviews at about 94% of the households selected. This study merged NHIS data from 1976–2002 into a sin- gle database consisting of approximately 1.7 million Illustration of the larger-than-expected increase in BMI, NHIS 1976–2002
and NVNMDS. These sections collected detailed follow- up information for up to two specific vitamins or mi- nerals or NVNMDS supplements and an expanded list of reasons for using these. Although the sections on vita- mins and minerals and NVNMDS were identical, cogni- tive testing revealed problems unique to the NVNMDS items [10,62]. First, it became apparent that respondents lacked a consistent, agreed-on definition of an herbal supplement. Respondents held wide-ranging and varying definitions of NVNMDS and efforts to craft a definition that met researchers’ criteria and was understandable to respondents fell short. Ultimately, the best approach was to simply ask respondents about taking specific sup- plements listed on a flashcard. This made the survey response task concrete and less reliant on shared defini- tions, although, the tradeoff was the loss of information about supplements not listed on the card. Second, some respondents viewed themselves as having or not having a “complementary medicine identity” and this perception affected the way they interpreted and answered ques- tions, such that response error occurred even when the term “natural herbs” was understood as intended. To mitigate this, the description of “a typical herb user’s” lifestyle was removed from the lead-in statement [10,62].
The NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS) has annu- ally asked about CHD status in a large sample of the US population . Starting in 1997, it has included the fol- lowing question for a random sample of individuals younger than 18: “ Looking at this list, has a doctor or health professional ever told you that (selected child name) had any of these conditions? … (9) congenital heart disease? ” We used positive response to this ques- tion for years 1997 to 2011 to calculate the sex-/year- specific measurements of prevalence for single-year age groups, which we referred to as “ recalled CHD ” and interpreted as a surrogate for the prevalence of moderate to severe CHD. Recalled CHD is a vast underestimate of the overall CHD prevalence but reflects the public knowledge of CHD and potential cases that will encoun- ter the health care system. In order to answer yes to the question, the participant had to be familiar with the term “ CHD ” and remember that their child had a heart condition that is classified as a CHD. Recalled CHD is likely biased to those with more moderate and severe disease since these require multiple follow-up appoint- ments or surgery. However, it is also possible that cases of simple CHD were captured by this question. To avoid age-differential nonresponse bias, we excluded age group zero from the primary analysis.
Modalities) is one approach that has been reported to have several benefits to enhance physical, mental and emotional human wellness. However, as per the data of 2012 from the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS), which indicated that the highest percentage (17.7%) of the Americans used dietary supplements as a complementary health approach as compared with other practices in past years. The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a CAM health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, and cranial sacral therapy. Human Biofield Energy has subtle energy that has the capacity to work in an effective manner . CAM therapies have been practiced worldwide with reported clinical benefits in different health disease profiles . This energy can be harnessed and transmitted by the experts into living and non-living things via the process of Biofield Energy Healing. Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [16, 17], microbiology [18-21], biotechnology [22, 23], pharmaceutical science [24-27], agricultural science [28- 31], materials science [32-35], nutraceuticals [36, 37], skin health, human health and wellness.
In the early 1980s, eligibility for Medicaid was determined by participation in Aid to Families with Dependent Children, a cash transfer (welfare) program for very low-income families. By 1992, federal Medicaid rules required states to expand coverage to groups of children in poor families with incomes higher than the AFDC limits (ages 0-5: up to 133% FPL, ages 6-19: up to 100% FPL; optional coverage for infants up to 185% FPL). Currie and Gruber exploit the variation in the timing and specific eligibility criteria employed by each state to assess the impact of Medicaid eligibility on health care utilization in children (J Currie & Gruber, 1996). Using data from the Current Population Survey, they first estimated that the takeup rate, or enrollment in Medicaid as a result of the expanded eligibility criteria between 1984 and 1992 had an upper bound of 71%, indicating that nearly 30% of those eligible were not enrolling. The CPS data were used to impute income for similar households in the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey, where incomes are only reported within a range and are missing for some households. Medicaid eligibility was associated with a 9.6% drop in likelihood of not having a doctor visit in the last year, nearly halving the baseline probability, and a 4.0% increase in likelihood of hospitalization within the last year, nearly doubling the baseline probability. Their analysis indicates that Medicaid expansions, even with less than perfect uptake by those newly eligible, results in increased use of health care services by children.
A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted using mixed-methods approach. Routinely available data pre- and post crisis was analysed to monitor social determi- nants of child health. Periodic Spanish NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS) and the Minimum Data Set of Hospital Discharge (MDHD) was used to check changes in health behaviours and mental health indicators during the study period, and synthesis of data on key policies that have influenced families with children was analysed to describe government responses. We sought to analyse trends in key social determinants affecting children (poverty and material deprivation); and child health out- comes. A content analysis of the data sources on legisla- tion and a recent supplement published by the Spanish Society of Public Health  was used to describe auster- ity measures. Where possible we sought to identify any differential effects of policies on the basis of socioeco- nomic status, to test the hypothesis that more vulnerable groups have been disproportionately affected by the cri- sis, and some of the policy responses in Spain.
The quality of neonatal intensive care constitutes only one factor among many that determine the functional health and quality-of-life of survivors of neonatal inten- sive care. These include genetic disposition, intrauterine events, the effects of sociodemographic factors on the health and development of the child, and on the parents’ assessment of their child’s functioning. To obtain health status, functional and quality-of-life measures, parents need to act as proxy for the child during infancy and childhood. The parents’ cultural, social, and educational background and the specific experience of the parent with children may influence their responses. Further- more, their perspective may differ from that of the child. Measures that have been used or have the potential to measure health status, functioning, and quality-of-life include the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey, the Na- tional Health Insurance Study, the Functional Status II, the Multi-Attribute Health System, the Functional Inde- pendence Measure for Children, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Adolescent Child Health and Illness Profile, and the Child Health Questionnaire for children, infants, and toddlers. Knowledge of the validity of the use of these measures among survivors of neonatal in- tensive care is, however, sparse.
In 2005, the NationalHealth Research Institute and the Bureau of Health Promotion of Taiwan conducted the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS) using face-to- face questionnaire interviews. The population of Taiwan is approximately 23 million and is distributed through- out 7 cities and 18 counties. The 2005 NHIS included a representative sample of 24,726 interviews from the non-institutional population. The interviewees were all residents, and each interview was performed in the sub- ject’s home. All subjects interviewed were selected from the household census. With the standardized face-to- face questionnaire interview, the NHIS used a multi- stage, stratified systematic sampling scheme to interview a nationally representative sample of the population of Taiwan. The response rate was 80.6% for individual sub- jects. At the end of the NHIS, the participants were asked for permission to access their NHI records for re- search purposes. All study participants signed the in- formed consent to link their information with the NHI claims data to retrieve information on medical service use in 2005. This study analyzed 16,756 study partici- pants aged 20 years and older. Our study was evaluated and approved by the Joint Institutional Review Board of E-DA Hospital (EDA-JIRB-2017002).
This study used data from the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS), a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized, adult US population to investigate the association between COPD and CVD. Our aims were: 1) To measure prevalence of CVDs in COPD patients; 2) to determine if the diagnosis of COPD is an independent risk factor for CVD after adjusting for major sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity risk factors, including physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking; 3) to stratify COPD as a CVD risk factor in different age and gender groups; 4) to determine in a case-control study whether COPD plays a role as an independent risk for cardiovascular morbidity amplifying effect of smoking. We hypothesized that the diagnosis of “COPD” increases the risk of having CVD, independently of smoking history, age, gender, and lifestyle risks known to lead to CVD.
In recent years, several scientific reports and clinical trials have revealed the useful effects of Biofield Energy Treatments, which have shown to enhance immune function in cases of cervical cancer patients via therapeutic touch , massage therapy , etc. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies are now rising as preferred models of treatment, among which Biofield Therapy (or Healing Modalities) is one approach that has been reported to have several benefits to enhance physical, mental and emotional human wellness. However, as per the data of 2012 from the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS), which indicated that the highest percentage (17.7%) of the Americans used dietary supplements as a complementary health approach as compared with other practices in past
Given the above data, it is important to understand the ways in which co-occurring conditions, including those characterized as social and emotional difficulties, can lead to various types of poor outcomes and functional impairment in children with ADHD, so that caregivers and providers can target interventions appropriately. In this study, we used data from the United States (U.S.) NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS) to explore the association between social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and select outcomes. Available measures included both parent report of social and emo- tional difficulties (the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]) and parent report of physician-diagnosed depression, anxiety, and phobias. Unfortunately, teacher ratings and physician diagnoses were not available, and thus independent validation of parent reports was not possible. Available outcomes of interest included school days missed and emergency room (ER) and healthcare provider (HCP) visits over the past 12 months. We hypothesized that the presence of social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD would be associated with increased school absenteeism and increased healthcare utilization, compared to ADHD children without these difficulties.
The MEPS is a national probability survey of the noninstitu- tionalized civilian population of the United States, conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The MEPS col- lects data on the financing and use of medical care and is designed to provide nationally representative estimates of health care use, expenditures, sources of payment, and insurance coverage. The 3 components of the MEPS include the Household Component (HC), the Medical Provider Component (MPC), and the Insurance Component (IC). The MEPS-HC survey uses the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey (NHIS) as its sampling frame. The NHIS is a multipurpose, nationally representative survey of the noninstitu- tionalized civilian population of the United States administered by the National Center for Health Statistics and the Centers for Dis- ease Control and Prevention. The MEPS-HC draws on the previ- ous year’s NHIS sample through an overlapping panel design; therefore, 2 calendar years of information are collected from each household through in-person interviews (eg, the 1999 MEPS col- lects information from the 1998 and 1997 NHIS). The MEPS-HC collects detailed self-reported data in-person using a computer- assisted personal instrument. These data include demographic characteristics, household income, health and functional status, health insurance coverage, and access to care. The MEPS-MPC supplements and validates information on medical care events reported in the MEPS-HC by contacting medical providers iden- tified by respondents. Weighted sequential hot-deck imputation is used to estimate missing data on the basis of responses from similar respondents. The MEPS includes detailed data on insur- ance coverage that allow for estimates of monthly insurance status and type of insurance coverage (eg, private, Medicaid, Medicare) for each respondent in a given survey year.
METHODS: We used national data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey linked to the NationalHealthInterviewSurvey and a study-speci ﬁ c survey to estimate the annual utilization and costs for health care, school, ASD-related therapy, family-coordinated services, as well as caregiver time in children aged 3 to 17 years, with and without parent-reported ASD. Regression analyses estimated the association between ASD diagnosis and cost, controlling for child gender, age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, household income, country region and urban/rural classi ﬁ cation, and non – ASD-related illnesses. RESULTS: Children with parent-reported ASD had higher levels of health care of ﬁ ce visits and prescription drug use compared with children without ASD (P , .05). A greater proportion of children in the ASD group used special educational services (76% vs 7% in the control group, P , .05). After adjusting for child demographic characteristics and non – ASD-associated illnesses, ASD was associated with $3020 (95% con ﬁ dence interval [CI]: $1017 – $4259) higher health care costs and $14 061 (95% CI: $4390 – $24 302) higher aggregate non – health care costs, including $8610 (95% CI: $6595 – $10 421) higher school costs. In adjusted analyses, parents who reported that their child had ASD did not have signi ﬁ cantly higher out-of-pocket costs or spend more time on caregiving activities compared with control parents.