The motivation behind this article is to suggest some locations where people who come to the joint ARS/ASA Convention in Asheville in May of 2012 can find nativeplants in bloom if they want to do some exploration on their own in conjunction with the meeting. The convention garden tours will be wonderful, of course, but if attendees can add some extra time to their travel schedules there are many beautiful wild places nearby that deserve a closer look.
Settlers and American Indians).
3. Ask students to describe how people lived at that time. Mention that they lived without cars, grocery stores, and electricity.
4. Ask students if they know the names of any American Indian tribes in North Carolina at that time. If they don’t say it, mention that in 1729, about 50,000 Cherokee lived in the SouthernAppalachians, including North Carolina. 5. Inform students that the Cherokee had many villages, each with 30-60 homes.
Although other work utilizing Classification and Regression Tree models has successfully predicted habitat requirements for rare plants (Englers et al. 2004) and animals (Andersen et al. 2000, Dettmers and Bart 1999), species’ response to climate change (Iverson and Prasad 1998), coral distributions (De’ath and Fabricius 2000), and the distribution of California oak species (Vayssieres et al 2000), this is the first study to utilize these models to predict exotic species habitat. Just as the above studies have shown the utility of CART models for native species management and research, this work demonstrates the same potential for invasive species. In both instances knowing where to locate a species is very helpful for management and research and the CART derived habitat models are tractable to application across a landscape in ways that linear regression analyses are not. The agreement of CART derived habitat model with field observations demonstrates that it provides an accurate picture of the areas within Linville Gorge susceptible to Paulownia invasion. The change in habitat over time illustrates the difference between Paulownia’s recruitment niche and its persistence niche. Like many species, Paulownia is able to
wind direction are extracted at the time in which the spatial extent of snowfall (event maturation) is greatest across the region. Lastly, this automated approach is useful for exceptionally long time series of data, such as the one utilized in this study, where a manual synoptic typing using weather map analysis is unwieldy. One caveat of this methodology is that some of the major snowstorms that affect the SouthernAppalachians may be classified as NWFS, even though they are associated with Gulf Lows of the Miller Type A variety (Gurka et al. 1995) with a prolonged period of NWFS on the back side of the surface cyclone. For example, using this methodology, the Blizzard of ’93 exhibited an 850-hPa northwest flow at event maturation, but a substantial amount of the storm total snowfall was also tied to low-level south and southeast flow prior to backing of winds to the northwest. Therefore, the amount of snowfall occurring in conjunction with low-level northwest flow may be over reported. Due to the limited temporal resolution (i.e. 24-hr totals only) of the coop data, it was unfortunately impossible to assign snowfall accumulations to specific low- level wind directions in these events. Nonetheless, even in the extreme snowstorms such as the Blizzard of ’93, the bulk of the total snowfall at higher elevations and windward slopes occurred in conjunction with low-level northwest flow (e.g. Goodge and Hammer 1993).
With regard to urban areas, which are increasing worldwide, there has been a proliferation of papers recently on bee species richness and abundance in cities (Frankie et al. 2005, 2009a, 2013, 2014; Nates-Parra et al. 2006; Nemesio and Silveira 2007; Matteson et al. 2008; Pawelek et al. 2009; Tallamay 2009; Pardee & Philpott 2014; Baldock et al. 2015). Survey work has provided much evidence that urban areas can offer suitable habitat for reproduction and survival of many bee species. Frankie et al. (pg. xiv 2014 and unpublished.) opportunistically sampled 50+ urban sites for more than 15 years throughout California, and determined there were more than 400 bee species, which represents 25% of the known 1,600 bee species recorded from the state. Surveys in single small gardens also reveal relatively high species richness. Long-term monitoring in one small residential garden in Leicester, England yielded 51 bee species, which represents 20% of Britain's 256 native bee species (Owen 1991). Frankie et al. (2013) surveyed bees visiting 62 native and 40 non-native ornamental and weed plant species in two cities in NW Costa Rica over a 10-yr period and recorded 125 bee species, which represents about 18% of the 700+ bee species in the country. See other relevant studies by Jaime et al. (2009); Frankie et al. (2009b). Some papers have Received 3 July 2018, accepted 30 January 2019
Most models of species invasions assume that invaders influence native species through direct mechanisms like (resource) competition (Callaway & Walker, 1997; Case, 1990; Corbin & D'Antonio, 2004; Kupferberg, 1997; Procheş, et al., 2008; Stachowicz & Byrnes, 2006; Tilman, 2004) and predation (Carlsson, Brönmark, & Hansson, 2004; Didham, Tylianakis, Gemmell, Rand, & Ewers, 2007; D. F. Fraser & Gilliam, 1992; Kenis, et al., 2009; J. M. Levine, et al., 2004; Snyder, et al., 2004; Taniguchi, Fausch, & Nakano, 2002; G. Woodward & Hildrew, 2001) or by altering an ecosystem’s nutrient cycling (Allison & Vitousek, 2004; Bohlen et al., 2004; Ehrenfeld, 2003; Hawkes, Wren, Herman, & Firestone, 2005; Hobbie, 1992; Stadler, Müller, & Orwig, 2006), fire regime (M. L. Brooks et al., 2004; D'Antonio & Vitousek, 1992; Keeley, 2001; Simberloff & Von Holle, 1999; Zedler & Kercher, 2004) or hydrology (Bunn, Davies, Kellaway, & Prosser, 1998; Calder & Dye, 2001; Caraco et al., 1997; Crowl, et al., 2008; Décamps, Planty-Tabacchi, & Tabacchi, 1995; Ford & Vose, 2007; Maerz, Brown, Chapin, & Blossey, 2005; Stromberg et al., 2007; Tickner, Angold, Gurnell, & Mountford, 2001). My results suggest a more complex effect from the introduced plant invader, J. vulgaris. They are consistent with apparent competition is occurring between J. vulgaris and the endemic S. wairauensis through their shared, endemic consumer, N. annulata. Where it is present, J. vulgaris leads to increases in native herbivore abundance which, in-turn, leads to increased herbivory on the endemic host plant. Evidence for this includes higher levels of N. annulata herbivory on S. wairauensis samples that are positively correlated with their proximity to J. vulgaris infestations. Likewise, the majority of larval N. annulata larvae captured in the survey on both native species were also positively correlated with their proximity to J. vulgaris infestations. Association of high N. annulata densities with J. vulgaris incidence matches historic accounts linking population eruptions of these two species (Chapter 2).
(Acari: Tetranychidae), a pest of the Fraser fir Christmas trees (Boyne and Hain 1983). There is variation among ground cover species in their ability to provide appropriate harborage for the phytoseiids that prey on tetranychid mites (Flaherty 1969), due to specific requirements of the predators (Barbosa 1998) such as temperature and humidity tolerances (Kramer and Hain 1989). Physical characteristics of ground cover plants, e.g., the microhabitats formed by leaf structures (Grostal and O'Dowd 1994), also may play an essential role in the enhancement of phytoseiids in perennial cropping systems. Several researchers have demonstrated that the presence or absence of leaf hairs (“acrodomati”) may influence phytoseiid mite abundance (Kaban et al 1995; Walter and O’Dowd 1992a; Walter and O’Dowd 1992b; Walter 1996). Pollen availability may also be a factor, as many phytoseiid mites feed on pollen as well as their prey (Chant 1959, Chant and Fleschner 1960, McMurtry and Croft 1997), and pollen from leguminous cover crops is known to serve as a carbohydrate source for certain phytoseiids (Grafton-Cardwell et. al. 1999).
This is a contribution of the Regional Oak Study (ROS). Funding was provided by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS) and North Carolina State University Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program. This research was initiated by the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) in partnership with the USFS Northern Research Station, the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC), the Stevenson Land Company, and the Mark Twain National Forest. We thank the many individuals who assisted with drift fence installation: K. Frick, T. Wait, A. Paoletta, R. Medford and M. Williams as well as fieldwork and sampling: C. Matthews, A. Tschirley, S. Smith, K. Dziwulski, J. Fields, D. Moffitt, J. Golden, S. Ogburn, J. Trammel, J. Sullivan, P. Helm, E. Greene, A. Warner, M.B. Howard, and F. Raybuck. We thank site manager Tara Keyser and the many individuals from NCWRC who assisted in the project, most notably Dean Simon and Gordon Warburton. Additionally, we thank Jacqui Adams at Bent Creek for arranging volunteers to assist on the project.
Over thousands of years, nativeplants have adapted to the climate, soils, and environmental conditions of our area. They have developed the ability to thrive in our humid summers and freezing winters and to entice local insects, birds, and other animals to pollinate their ﬂowers and disperse their fruits. Nativeplants are responsible for clean air, pure water, soil stability, ﬂood abatement, and wild animal habitat. Humans depend on these ecological processes every day. Thus nativeplants are the building blocks of our biological diversity and essential to healthy, functioning ecosystems.
forests. The rest of the plant species occurred in more cultivated areas like parks, gardens and rural areas. The non-native plant species sampled originated mainly from North America and Asia, a few originated from East or South-East Europe. Three collection methods were used. (1) Sweep netting: plants were sampled by sweeping through the branches with a net (50 cm diameter) for approximately 5-20 seconds. This method was used for all types of plants (herbaceous plants, shrubs, small trees and trees with low branches). (2) Beating: plants were sampled by beating or shaking branches above a 1 m 2 sheet for approximately ten seconds. This method was not used for her- baceous plants. (3) Visual searching: after collecting by either sweep netting or beating plants were checked for the presence
Inundation Tolerance gives information about frequency and depth of inundation that plant species can tolerate during the growing season. A “no” indicates plants that do not survive saturated soils or standing water during the growing season. These are typically upland plants. “Saturated” indicates plants that survive inundation and saturated soils, typically during greater than 50% of the growing season. “Seasonal” indicates that the plant is able to withstand occasional inundation and saturated soils, typically during less than 50% of the growing season. Available information on water depths tolerated by aquatic plants are provided where available. It is difficult to give the exact hydrologic requirements of plants in a general list such as this. As such, we suggest that further research be performed to confirm the requirements of particular species.
Some qualifications are appropriate for these results. Because the alternative landscape designs are mar- ketable goods, a typical economic assumption is that, if people are willing to pay for them, they should appear on the market. Nevertheless, they are not in common use. It is reasonable to wonder whether the results pre- sented here do not actually reflect consumer desires, or whether there are currently obstacles to the market availability of these designs. One possible reason that the results here may not reflect actual behavior is, as discussed earlier in this paper, hypothetical bias—the tendency of people to overstate their willingness to pay for a good in hypothetical situations. If people respond with hypothetical bias, then the results here may over- estimate people’s willingness to pay for these designs. Among possible reasons that there may be obstacles to their introduction include local ordinances or sub- division rules that limit the kinds of plantings used in yards, or lack of understanding about the instal- lation and maintenance of these designs, or lack of nativeplants in the wholesale and retail nursery trade. While the results presented here should not be con- sidered absolute evidence of the marketability of these
Cattle are most often affected. There are two forms of toxicity: acute and chronic. The acute form usually occurs within 24 hours after eating the plants with the animal exhibiting gastroenteritis with bloody, watery feces. Severe weakness and paralysis of the limbs are followed by death in three to four days. The chronic form is characterized by jaundiced mucous membranes, photosensitization, ulcerations of the mucous membranes of the nose and oral cavity. The skin may peel, leaving raw areas that are vulnerable to blowfly strike and bacterial infection. Severe keratitis may result in temporary or permanent blindness.
Forbs are the broadleaved plants in a prairie and often have showy blooms. Forbs may add color, texture, habitat for wildlife, and even scent to the planting. The choice between separate plantings and mixed plantings of forbs and grasses is situation- dependent. Gardeners should consider the intended use of the site. Mixed plantings generally require more space and an understanding of the differences in biology of the plants being used.
The species level resolution of 69.4–74.9% using rbcL and matK for the whole of Wales is comparable to some other studies using the same markers, although the number of species we have sampled is greater . Differences in the number of species examined, sample size and methods to measure discrimination make comparisons with other studies difficult, but discrimination figures of c.70% are often found when a broad taxonomic coverage has been used . The number of individuals and species we have DNA barcoded is similar in size to a recent study by the China Plant BOL Group . Comparing our dataset of 808 species for which we have multiple individuals DNA barcoded for both markers with their dataset of 765 species with multiple individuals, our levels of species discrimination are substantially higher. Our barcode gap analysis using pairwise alignments is the same as their ‘PWG-Distance’ metric. The China Plant BOL Group report species level discrimination of 26% for rbcL, 46% for matK and 50% for both markers, compared to our results of 55.8% for rbcL, 68.7% for matK and 69.7% for both . The difference in results can be attributed to the much greater number of closely related species included in their study. The native Welsh flora contains 455 genera compared to the China Plant BOL Group sample of 141 genera . This clearly demonstrates the large differences in discriminatory power of DNA barcode campaigns in parts of the world with greatly differing floristic diversity.
Some pond plants that are currently on sale are non-native and if they escape into the wild can quickly take over fresh water habitats, causing problems that are very expensive to remedy. Plantlife is concerned about the impact these plants are having on our native species and habitats.