Native Trees and Plants

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Drought resistance of native pioneer species indicates potential suitability for restoration of post-mining areas

Drought resistance of native pioneer species indicates potential suitability for restoration of post-mining areas

The high R : S of the native tree saplings can be seen as a major morphological adaptation to drought since a study with Mediterranean shrub species found a positive relation between biomass allocation to roots and seedling survival (Lloret et al., 1999). However, a shift of R : S in favour of root during water deficit as a mechanism maintaining func- tional balance between root and shoot (Ericsson et al., 1996) could be verified neither for native trees nor for exotic trees. The generally lower SRL (thicker roots) of the native trees, except for Rhus, compared to the exotic trees sug- gests a lower effectiveness of the water uptake system. How- ever, thicker fine roots are able to penetrate soil more easily and anchor plants more effectively, which is particularly ad- vantageous for the restoration of coarse-grained waste rock dumps. Moreover, through the greater diameter of the vascu- lar bundle, thicker roots have a higher water (and nutrient) transport capacity than thinner roots (Hutchings and John, 2003). Therefore, and since the exotic trees also showed no significant response to drought for both R : S and SRL, the native trees displayed a similar suitability to drought condi- tions to the exotic trees regarding these root parameters.
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Apparent competition between native and exotic plants mediated by a native insect herbivore

Apparent competition between native and exotic plants mediated by a native insect herbivore

plants and snails in island forests, primarily through foraging. In areas where the crab populations were diminished in size or extirpated by the ants, several species of non-native plants and land snails were able to establish. As a further result of the ant’s proliferation, nine different species of exotic, honeydew-producing scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were able to establish where they were tended and protected by the ant. The scales were ultimately found to be dependent on the yellow crazy ant since they fail to persist in locations where ants were experimentally removed (Abbott & Green, 2007). Presence of these scales mutually enhanced the fitness and fecundity of the ants by supplying them with an abundant supply of carbohydrates (honeydew) thereby further increasing the range and abundance of both taxa on the island. However, the trophic cascade on Christmas Island reached a crescendo when sooty mould (Fungi: Ascomycota), which thrives on the excess honeydew produced by the scales, began to blanket these areas. The overabundance of sooty mould more negatively affected indigenous vegetation and caused native canopy dieback, which in turn increased the amount of light that reached the forest floor. The dramatic increase in light to the ground favoured exotic flora over native vegetation. In combination with the demise of the red crabs, the increase in sunlight ultimately and dramatically changed the composition of the jungle to predominate with non-native trees and shrubs. In retrospect, the arrival of a single ant species effectively facilitated numerous invasions of the Christmas Island ecosystem by non-native plant and arthropod species, fundamentally altering the community composition of the island. Another example of invasion facilitation was detailed by Power and Mitchell (2004) where a grassland plant and pathogen community was manipulated to better understand how the constituent species interacted. Plots that contained native and non-native grasses were manipulated to control for presence of the generalist pathogen, barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). From some of the plots, an exotic host plant, wild oats (Avena fatua), was also removed. An important characteristic of A. fatua is that it is able to tolerate higher loads of the pathogen than the native grasses and carries a much higher titre. From this, a picture emerged that showed there was strong virus spillover from A. fatua to all three of the other grass species monitored with significant, negative impacts on growth and production of the populations of two of those native species. By acting as a reservoir of BYDV, virus
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Mosquitoes breeding in phytotelmata in native forests in the Wellington region, New Zealand

Mosquitoes breeding in phytotelmata in native forests in the Wellington region, New Zealand

The only native tree species that was an important source of tree hole habitats in the Wellington region was mahoe, which is one of the most common lowland native trees in New Zealand in both forests and scrublands (Salmon, 1996). The few mountain beech trees inspected suggested that this species may be also a common source of tree holes. The investigation at Lewis Pass National Reserve has indicated that mature trees of mountain, red and silver beech do form large numbers of tree holes, but they seem to occur mostly above 15 m (T. Blakely and R. Didham, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, unpubl. data). It is not known whether tree holes are also more common in the canopy of other mature native trees, but it is possible that many tree holes might have been missed due to the height limit (c. 2.5 m) imposed in this study. However, mosquitoes are known to display oviposition height preferences and many species clearly favour particular forest strata (e.g. Corbet 1961; Scholl and DeFoliart 1977; Tikasingh et al. 1987). It is therefore uncertain whether New Zealand mosquitoes oviposit in canopy tree holes. Culex asteliae larvae have been collected from C. hastatum plants at 18 m and O. notoscriptus adults were also recorded biting at the same height (Derraik, 2005a), but C. asteliae has never been recorded in tree holes.
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The effects of the invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) on amphibians and aquatic invertebrates

The effects of the invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) on amphibians and aquatic invertebrates

The effects of invasive plants on invaded communities are poorly understood (Soulé and Orians 2001). Studies of the effects of invasive species across trophic levels or ecosystem boundaries are rare. I propose to research the effects of leaf litter from invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera [L.] Small) on amphibian diversity in temporary ponds. This research will encompass three questions that are active areas of ecological and conservation research: 1) How do invasive terrestrial plants affect aquatic detrital food webs? 2) How do they affect the structure of a native faunal community? 3) What role do they play in amphibian declines? These topics will be addressed in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana where Chinese tallow is invading temporary ponds used by amphibians for reproduction and completion of larval life stages. Many of these ponds are small and shaded, making them dependent on detritus for energy and nutrients. As Chinese tallow displaces native trees, the type and quality of detrital inputs to the ponds will change. Such shifts may alter competitive interactions or cause local extinctions of amphibians due to changes in the rate of nutrient cycling or the disturbance regime (Soulé and Orians 2001).
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Store Selection for Gardening and Landscaping Products: Chain Stores or Garden Centers.

Store Selection for Gardening and Landscaping Products: Chain Stores or Garden Centers.

highest value of difference and shrubs/trees had the lowest difference. Difference between purchases made in chain stores and garden centers is a relative measurement of preference for chain stores over garden centers. In particular, as plant value and the potential longevity of the landscape products increase, from bedding plants to perennials to shrubs/trees, the difference between percentage of purchases made in chain stores and garden centers become smaller. Day’s research in 1994 gives an explanation for this phenomenon: consumers feel less qualified to assess the quality of perennials and woody plants than bedding plants (Day 1994). When purchasing long-lived landscape plants, consumers are compelled to purchase at garden centers where they perceive that plant quality is better and less likely to make purchasing mistakes (Brand and Leonard 2001). There is one exception to the pattern mentioned above: vegetable plants’ difference between percentage of purchases made in chain stores and garden centers is relatively small, though vegetables do not belong to long- lived plants. This may be due to the quality requirement of vegetable plants for serving as food. In a nutshell, the popularity of chain stores exceeds independent garden centers in all six products, but independent garden centers can still win part of the market back, such as shrubs/trees market, by reinforcing their features of plant quality, plant selection and knowledgeable staffs.
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Back Matter 6 (4)

Back Matter 6 (4)

"Its Nature: A botanic garden of the native plants of California, herbarium and botanical library, containing living and/or preserved specimens of trees, plants[r]

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Vitamin D Content of Australian Native Food Plants and Australian-Grown Edible Seaweed

Vitamin D Content of Australian Native Food Plants and Australian-Grown Edible Seaweed

content of Australian native food plants and Australian-grown edible seaweed may be justified. 215[r]

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Three snails in a slugfest

Three snails in a slugfest

The presence of A. inversus in Singapore has been mentioned in lit­ erature as far back as the 1800s (von Martens, 1867; Tenison-Woods, 1888; Fulton, 1896). Recent authors (Chan, 1996; Maassen, 2001; Chou & Tan, 2008; Lok & Tan, 2008; Tan et al, 2012) have also described its presence in Singapore, but all texts, past and present, do not specifically mention SBG as a habitat. The first known written record of this species as occurring in SBG came from the 1961 Annual Report of the Gardens: "During the year the Director of the National Museum, Singapore, found a thriving colony of Amphidromus inversus (Muller) on the trees by the Potting Yard. This snail known to occur in the Riau islands is but dubiously reporred from Malaya in a
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In addition, many lyrics and melodies of Pastaay Ode of Saisayat aboriginals rhyme with the names of plants. The Pastaay Ode is like an ode of the forest. It is a memory of the distant woodland. But many of the plants the elders speak of “carry many meanings that are now hard to discern” (00:15:07-00:15:30). Thus the respect toward plants is expressed in the ode that draws a parallel between human beings and plants in hope of humans being “like plants and gentle to all” (00:14:27). The plants in the Saisayat oral tradition are treated as autonomous beings that are capable of releasing meanings mysterious to human beings, whereas some of which carry political impolications. For instance, another ode mentions that the now distinct Saisiyat and Atayal at the present day came “from the same root and are inseparable” (00:14:34-00:15:06). Formosan Sugar Palm in Pastaay Ode, for instance, was once “a full leaf but when the dwarf spirits left, they tore it so now its leaves are cloven” (00:15:39-00:15:55). According to this Saisayat saying, the cloven leaves serve as a reminder of the human conflicts. The Pastaay Odes do not deny the imaginary connection between the Saisayat people and the world of plants, but prove an accumulation of plant imagination through oral tradition. Another literary depiction of Plant is represented in the works of the Taiwanese writer Wu Chuo Liou, a Hakka born in the Japanese period of Taiwan. 3 His
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DNA barcoding the native flowering plants and conifers of wales

DNA barcoding the native flowering plants and conifers of wales

Nevertheless, use of herbarium specimens does add extra considerations compared to fresh material. Herbarium specimens often require more attempts at amplification with more primer combinations. This potentially increases the possibility of obtain- ing incorrect sequences through increased chances of samples becoming mixed up or contaminated. For matK this does not appear to be the case but for rbcL levels of incorrect sequences were higher using herbarium material than freshly collected specimens, most likely due to its greater primer universality and ease of amplification. Some types of specimen also required greater caution; for example contamination of aquatic species with algae was difficult to detect when sampling herbarium specimens. Some orders of flowering plants do not sequence well using herbarium material for either rbcL or matK, most notably Oxalidales, Liliales, Myrtales, Saxifragales and Asparagales, and the collection of fresh material is recommended for these orders.
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THE MEXICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES ARE AN  ECONOMIC AND HEALTH OPPORTUNITY AREA

THE MEXICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES ARE AN ECONOMIC AND HEALTH OPPORTUNITY AREA

Some metabolites produced by plants have been employed with success in the control of phytopathogenic fungi. For example, anethole extracted from seeds of Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae) has shown antifungal activity against A. niger, when applied with sesquiterpene dialdehyde polygodial isolated from several plants. This is an example of synergistic antifungal effect, where two or more compounds exhibit grater potency than that of one alone [43]. Also, there have been isolated two isoflavonoids, the colutequinone and the colutehydroquinone from the root cortex of Colutea arborescens, which have shown activity against 38 strains of Aspergillus sp. This fungus was also sensible to nyasol, a compound obtained from Anemarrhena asphodeloides [44,45]. Commercial formulations of extracts and essential oils of Cassia sp. mixed with Capsicum sp. and Sinapis sp., were applied in soil with melon crop, demonstrating antifungic activity against the fungus causing of fusarium wilt of melon, F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis [46]. Other studies indicate a fungitoxic effect of vegetal extracts against Aspergillus spp, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum spp, Helminthosporium oryzae, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, among others (Table 3).
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PA Native Plants High Wildlife Value (Sugarbush)

PA Native Plants High Wildlife Value (Sugarbush)

Viola pedata Birdsfoot violet yes yes limited S Central and. SE PA[r]

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Native woody plant recruitment in lowland forests invaded by non-native ground cover weeds and mammals

Native woody plant recruitment in lowland forests invaded by non-native ground cover weeds and mammals

other New Zealand studies where mammals were excluded using similar mesh cages have yielded similar results. Wotton and Kelly (2011) demonstrated significantly higher native seed germination and seedling survival when mammals were excluded. Overdyck et al. (2013) showed that seeds and fruits accessible to mammalian seed predators suffered significantly greater loss (58%) than those protected by cages (4%). Burge (2015) found that protecting seeds and seedlings from predation and herbivory increased native seedling recruitment by more than 100%. Wilson et al. (2003) monitored natural seedling establishment over 2 years, and reported 3.6 times more seedlings at one site where possums and rats had been excluded. In the current study, rats, possums and red deer are likely to be the main drivers of these effects because they are the species most likely to be present at all sites (Fraser et al. 2000; King 2005), and all have been shown to significantly reduce native seedling numbers through herbivory (Wilson et al. 2003; Husheer et al. 2006). Pigs and goats could also be reducing native plant cover, species richness and regeneration (Atkinson 1964; Campbell & Donlan 2005; Krull et al. 2013), and seed predation by rats and mice could be reducing seedling establishment (Murphy 1992; Moles & Drake 1999; Ruscoe et al. 2005; Overdyck et al. 2013). It is also possible that mammal- exclusion cages have other positive impacts on native seedling survival, for example by providing additional shade or wind protection. Despite this growing body of knowledge on the effects of non-native mammals on native seedling establishment and survival in New Zealand, it remains uncertain how these impacts ultimately affect the structure and composition of native vegetation. Interestingly, a recent New Zealand study showed reduced establishment and growth of seedlings of some native woody plant species, in part because the biomass of grasses and sedges was greater (and may have reduced establishment by woody plants) when possums were excluded (Bellingham et al. 2016). If mammalian herbivores reduce biomass of climbing asparagus, plectranthus or tradescantia, the same may apply.
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CORRELATES OF SUCCESS IN JAVA PROGRAMMING: PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF 
STUDENTS IN A JAVA COURSE FROM THE RESULTS OF LOWER LEVEL COURSES

CORRELATES OF SUCCESS IN JAVA PROGRAMMING: PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN A JAVA COURSE FROM THE RESULTS OF LOWER LEVEL COURSES

With the advent of satellite technology and the high capability of computers, information about cropping areas and covering types over the ground surface, including resource management and environmental issues has been updated rapidly. Several studies have been conducted by using the traditional pixel-based image analysis (PBIA) of vegetation indices to discriminate rubber-planted areas. One study investigating the potential of Pléiades data and three selected vegetation indices (the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)) for discriminating mature rubber plantations from the high vegetation density [5]. Another study used SAVI, EVI, and NDVI in Kedah, Malaysia to determine different stages of rubber trees, and it concluded that some remained misclassifications might cause under- or over- estimation [6]. The study applied the NASA Landsat GeoCover product by developing NDVI and tasseled-cap transformation for the Mahalanobis Typicality classifier. They claimed that well-matching with provincial statistics for mature and middle-age rubber tree growth areas. The estimation of young rubber tree areas was difficult for performing this method to coarse resolution satellite data. Improvements could be produced to map young rubber trees more accurately with intensive high-quality training information [7]. Moreover, the investigation extended their applications to Southeast Asia by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra) time-series NDVI data, and it claimed that the earlier problem was successfully overcome [8]. In Mindanao island of Philippines, the six bands of Landsat 8 OLI data and satellite-derived indices Tasseled Cap (Brightness, Greenness and Wetness), the Wetness- Brightness Difference Index (WBDI), NDVI and the Normalized Difference Structure Index (NDSI) were used to classify rubber tree plantations by using Mixture Tuned Match Filtering (MTMF) method. The results indicated the capability of the method to differentiate young from mature rubber plantations, with an overall accuracy of 73% [9]. In China’s Xishuangbanna Prefecture, where a tropical forest is abundant, the forest areas were converted
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Vegetation Profile for Forest Rehabilitation in Arjuna Mount, East Java, Indonesia

Vegetation Profile for Forest Rehabilitation in Arjuna Mount, East Java, Indonesia

Based on the survey results and socialization in group discussions, the target to be carried out to improve the preservation of the taxon wealth of Arjuna mount forest in the second period of 2019-2020 was the planting of 18,000 trees in the area of Curahtangkil springs-Dayurejo, Puthukbunder-Jatiarjo and Talangwatu-Leduk. Some tree species planted include: (1) endemic plant species, namely: bendo (Artocarpus elasticus) 1000 trees, kluwek (Pangium edule) 1000 trees, breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) 1000 trees, candlenut (Aleurites mollucanus) 1000 trees, gondang (Pangium edule) 1000 trees, breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) 1000 trees, candlenut (Aleurites mollucanus) 1000 trees, gondang (Ficus variegate) 1000 trees; (2) springs plant species, namely: petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus sp) 2000 trees, sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) 1000 trees, banyan (Ficus benyamina) 2000 trees, epek (Ficus elastica) 1000 trees; (3) fruit plant species, namely: avocado (Persea americana) 1500 trees, oranges (Citrus sp) 1000 trees, coffee (Coffea sp) 1000 trees, soursop (Annona muricata) 1500 trees, durian (Durio sp) 1000 trees and guava (Psidium guajava) 1000 trees. One biological component in the forest was a plant. If biodiversity refers to all living things in the forest, the diversity of trees was all types of trees that were in the forest. Natural forests tend to naturally have various types of plants. Biodiversity was used in the assessment of forest health indicators caused by three things: (1) sensitive to change; (2) ecological system indicators; and (3) spatial, temporal and trophic heterogeneity. In the assessment of forest health, parameters that could be used for biodiversity indicators were the index of diversity, the index of similarity, the index of diversity, and the index of species evenness [9].
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The effect of post harvest handling on selected native food plants

The effect of post harvest handling on selected native food plants

Cyanogenic glucosides are found in wild plants which are attractive to animals and insect herbivores such as wheat, maize, oats, peanut and cassava (Hegarty et al., 2001). The toxin, hydrogen cyanide, is released when the plant tissue is damaged, for example damage of the cell wall by chewing, grinding, cooking and freezing. Also, the decomposition of the compound be glucoside can release toxic gas. Humans can consume small amount of cyanic acid (30-35 mg per day), but twice this amount is lethal for a 70 kg human. The way to minimise the amount of cyanide is to damage the cell wall of the plants and release the free cyanide harmlessly to the air.
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Productivity of cotton and sorghum in an agroforestry system of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa gaertn) in northern Benin

Productivity of cotton and sorghum in an agroforestry system of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa gaertn) in northern Benin

and outside the shea tree crown This study shows that the shea tree crown has a negative influence on plant height for cotton and sorghum, as well as bud yield for cotton plants. Soil type, water availability and the incidence of solar radiation are the three main factors that may ex- plain the observed variation between cotton and sorghum plants under the canopy and outside the canopy of shea trees. Indeed, there is a marked improvement in soil moisture and soil fertility under the shea tree canopy [1]. The rainfall is, in part, intercepted by the tree canopy and the amount of water reaching the soil under the canopy may not be sufficient, given that the tree and the under- lying crop absorb more water than the crop alone [11]. But, the canopy also helps conserve use of soil water [12], as temperatures are moderate under shea trees due to shading [1]. The decrease in crop yields under the shea crown is therefore strongly correlated with the steady decline in light intensity and water found beneath the canopy due to shading. This may be compounded by soil compaction under trees due to animals and men standing under them during the dry season, which can increase runoff and limit the development of cotton seedlings, especially in case of no-till seeding.
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Lists in a Lighthouse

Lists in a Lighthouse

The concept of international plant protection was originally conceived after the devastation of European grape vineyards by the North American invasive aphid Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (grape phylloxera) in the late 1800s (“History of the IPPC” 2014). The International Plant Prevention Convention (IPPC) is a legally binding international agreement developed in 1929 that creates standards for addressing world phytosanitary concerns (Lindgren 2012). The IPPC first began addressing invasive species in 1951, and defines a “pest” as any species, strain, or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. Subsequently, a “quarantine pest” is a pest of potential economic importance to the area, endangered and not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (FAO 2007). The IPPC includes pests, such as invasive plants, that may directly or indirectly adversely affect agriculture or the environment (Hedley 2004). At a regional level, the IPPC allows for the development of Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (RSPMs), providing guidelines for screening plants prior to import (Lindgren 2012). RSPMs are significant because they suggest modeling as a tool that should be used in pest risk analysis, such as with invasive plant species (Lindgren 2012). However, to model an area appropriately for future monitoring it must first be surveyed to the fullest extent.
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Field Performance and Seasonal Efficacy Profiles of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Vip3A and VipCot Against Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.)

Field Performance and Seasonal Efficacy Profiles of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Vip3A and VipCot Against Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.)

(0.7) on Bollgard II plants compared to those on Boll- gard (6.2) and non-Bt (7.7) plants. This reduction in fruiting form injury and larval survival on Bollgard II plants compared with that on Bollgard plants is directly related to the effects generated by the second protein (Cry2Ab). The combination of two proteins in Bollgard II has increased activity against several lepidopteran pests (Adamczyk et al., 2001a; Jackson et al., 2003). In the present study, the combined ef- fects of the Cry1Ab and Vip3A proteins enhanced the overall efficacy of the VipCot line against heliothines compared to the single protein in the Vip3A line. Simi- lar effects with these proteins have been observed in laboratory assays evaluating heliothine survivorship on cotton tissue (Bommireddy and Leonard, 2008). Limited field trials also have demonstrated that VipCot cotton lines have provided satisfactory control of he- liothines (Leonard et al., 2005; Micinski and Waltman, 2005; Parker and Livingston, 2005). Adamczyk and Mahaffey (2007) found H. zea mortality to be signifi- cantly higher on Vip3A terminal leaves compared to the non-Bt in laboratory bioassays. In the same study, no significant difference was observed in H. virescens mortality on Vip3A compared to non-Bt leaves.
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Naturalizing Your Property (Radell)

Naturalizing Your Property (Radell)

▪ Pesticides – reduced pollination and other interactions ▪ Invasive plants, pests, and diseases – no evolved defenses ▪ Climate change – direct effects and effects to partner organisms ▪ More than 37% of “wild” plant species in Pennsylvania are non-

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