The builtheritage belongs to the past civilization and the natural environment in which people live, requires a special attention due to several reasons. Although they belong to different cultural areas and different historical periods they represent a valuable asset for modern society. They are the physical embodiments of the past history. For example, the remains of ancient cities provide valuable testimony about architecture and concepts of town planning. Such ancient concepts have greatly helped in nurturing the theories of modern town planning and design principles of architecture. On the other hand it is evident that a large number of properties are religious or cultural monuments. . The value attached to such properties is of spiritual, aesthetic and cultural and these values are important to that particular society which it belongs to. The aesthetic value represents the artistic heritage of mankind. The cultural imprints associated with those properties display the salient features exist in that society and their cultural identity. It is also well known that those were the things that were appreciated at that time.
2. HOMOGENIZING HERITAGE BUILDINGS: THE CASE OF GEORGE TOWN The justification of homogenizing heritage buildings is applied with the understanding that ‘groups of buildings’ in the same block share the same historical and architectural styles/ significance. The only differentiating factor would be the levels and magnitude of dilapidation of each individual building within the same block. This method of grouping buildings together is in line with the definition provided in Article 1 of the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and NaturalHeritage. According to Article 1, ‘groups of buildings’ are considered as “cultural heritage” if they constitute “groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of history, art or science.” 4
3. Examples of energy efficient practices in builtheritage of Gwalior Gwalior is rich in heritage and culture and are energy efficient there were many energy efficient practices and techniques that can be visualised in the heritage of Gwalior such as the planning concept like badas and many architectural elements like jali patterns and the jhilmil windows and some techniques like using the reflection principal to lighten up the entire room with less energy consumption, the natural cooling of air, use of energy efficient materials having low thermal conductance (U value) high specific heat capacity and high resistance value (R value) like stone (red sand stone) natural colours the traditional lime mortar and some other metal and reflective materials like emerald, mirrors and are used according to the place and orientation of the building in very well manner. The building envelop and the overall dimension of the building is also plays an important role which makes the principal workable and the building energy efficient
Salt weathering is dependent on fluctuations in tempera- ture and relative humidity (RH). The physical effect of salt crystallisation cycles will depend on the type of salt (crys- tallisation pressure), the pore size and distribution within the substrate, and the depth at which crystallisation occurs . Very small pores do not absorb water, there- fore water absorption characteristics, when combined with porosity and saturation coefficient, can be used to build a picture not only of the quantity of pores but also the pore size . The resistance of stone to salt damage decreases as the proportion of fine pores increases . When considering the characteristics of the tested sam- ples, it would appear that concrete is the material most at risk from salt damage, as it has the highest saturation coefficient and a relatively low absorption. Concrete is an aggregate material however which makes this interpreta- tion less reliable than it would be for natural stone. Of the materials tested (Table 2) brick is by far the most porous yet has a saturation coefficient similar to the other mate- rials, suggesting that many of its pore spaces are large and not likely to be affected by salt crystallisation pressure.
Funding: This research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China , grant number 51878440 . Acknowledgments: This paper is partially supported by following institution: the Palace Museum, China; Jiayuguan Academy of Silk Road (the Great Wall) Culture, Gansu; Cultural Heritage Administration of Jizhou District, Tianjin.
A heritage asset is “a building, monument, site, place, area or landscape identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions, because of its heritage interest” (DCLG, 2012, p.52). Many of such assets suffer from dilapidation as a result of negligence, natural disasters and anthropogenic activities. Bullen and Love (2011), in their study on adaptive reuse of heritage buildings, identified the conflict of opinion amongst architects, developers and building managers as to whether heritage buildings are icons that should be conserved or whether they are eyesores and unviable for adaptive reuse. Adaptive reuse of such dilapidated heritage assets for beneficial purposes requires restoration. According to the Historic England (2008, p.72), the purpose of restoration is “to return a place to a known earlier state, on the basis of compelling evidence, without conjecture”. Forsyth (2008, p.7) noted that “minimum intervention” must be ensured when working on heritage assets in order to preserve their values. Maintaining minimum intervention makes restoration projects highly challenging and sensitive, and often determines the position of stakeholders involved in the projects. While some stakeholders want no alteration in the heritage assets, others want flexibility in their design to meet their needs, an example of which can be found in a study by Shipley, Utz, and Parsons (2006) in Toronto. In the UK, different Acts and policies are being enforced to ensure the protection of heritage assets. The first of such Acts was the 1882 Ancient Monuments Protection Act which was followed by the formation of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) in 1887 (Forsyth, 2008). There has been series of reviews of the heritage protection Acts which could partly be as a result of the different ways interest groups define heritage assets in a bid to achieve their interests. These interest are attracted by the perceived cultural, aesthetic, social, economic, political, educational values, and other values in heritage assets (Feilden & Jokilehto, 1993; English Heritage, 1997; Riegl, 1902; Roders, 2007; Throsby, 2006; UNESCO, 1995, 2008).
7 Movements and planning a range of activities to make their settlements more resilient to different types of external economic pressures and potential environmental threats, including climate change. Residents’ participation comprises a range of communication methods aiming at including as many people as possible in the collective plans and actions. Along with meetings, Transition Movements often set up websites to keep the residents informed about local actions for more sustainable development. The Scottish Government recognises the value of joint efforts of local communities directed towards more sustainable development and supports citizens’ participation through its policies and the forthcoming Community Empowerment (Scotland) Bill. As sound decision-making can only take place if information required is provided, availability of data related to the settlements for which decisions need to be made is crucial. Information required for decision-making about a settlement and a set of decision-making tools related to sustainable development are key to the empowerment of residents to understand and evaluate potential local development options. Data and tools can be provided on an online portal and accompanied with an area for voicing residents’ opinions and contribution of data. Local data collection and 3D online presentation can raise awareness of communities about the local natural environment and builtheritage, and empower them to participate in decision-making about the responsible use of resources and the protection and sensitive reuse of the builtheritage. The increased awareness should lead to a wider, active involvement of citizens in the activities of the groups such as Building Preservation Trusts and a long-term community care for their builtheritage.
Since the 1980s, even more of the Jewish builtheritage has crumbled away or been the victim of the vandalism of property speculators. Nevertheless, the restoration and re-use of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue has acted as an inspiration to others across the British Isles. If there have been further heritage disasters, there have been some positive stories in the listing and conservation of Jewish buildings and in raising awareness in the Jewish and non-Jewish worlds. English Heritage, especially, has proved sympathetic and sensitive to the need to incorporate buildings that are not Christian and has proved a formidable ally in the work of Sharman Kadish, now director of Jewish Heritage UK. It is perhaps appropriate, given Bill Williams’ pioneer work in this field, that Sharman Kadish's indefatigable efforts to preserve the built Jewish heritage and to provide an architectural history of it should be based in the University of Manchester's Centre for Jewish Studies, to which Bill has contributed so much in the later part of his career. 28
found in New South Wales. A study in Queensland of stakeholders in small catchments found that there was little trust in the state government over natural resources management (Rickson 2006). The CEO’s also reported low levels of trust in relation to the relevant state government. There was also a massive variation between corporate governance types, as well with statutory boards, and government-owned corporations were most trusting and local government least (Figure 6). In support of the above, the CEO’s also reported that they don’t generally feel nested in a mutually supportive policy environment, except in Victoria, and this related directly to the corporate governance type of government-owned corporations (Figure 7). In relation to whether the CEOs feel that all sectors of their community understand the viewpoints of others, the results suggest that they are neutral, so they are not confi dent and this does not vary by state or corporate governance type. Despite all the effort to facilitate broad community involvement (Figure 2), the CEO’s see little change in the
Some organizations like UNESCO and ICOMOS have some recommendations and guidelines for intervention in historical context as cultural heritages to conserve and prevent damage to them. According to Torres (2009: 5) “usually these guidelines or recommendations for adding to a historic area are not clear guidelines or recommendations. None of these regulations give suggestions on what should be the key elements to address, more than general indications of mass, scale and materials, in order to design”. In addition, according to Alderson (2006:26), “preservation standards and lead organization policies supported by a regulatory-enforcement process can protect historic buildings, encourage sensitivity to historical contexts, and allow for new contributions but cannot make a less- creative architect more creative or be counted on to bring about outstanding design solutions”. Alderson believes that preservation standards alone encourage, but cannot cause, either preservation or design excellence in historic-context response. Also in UNESCO’s conference on "World Heritage and Contemporary .Architecture - Managing the Historic Urban Landscape" which was held in 2005 Australia, it was widely discussed “the criteria and guidelines for conservation management of the historic uiban landscape are urgently needed and that existing charters and recommendations in this regard are no longer sufficient” (UNESCO’ newsletter, 2005: 1). Therefore, a notable gap could be seen where new design parameters are necessary in order to form a guideline for new intervention in urban historical context.
A 3D model, relying on an accurate metric survey, could provide a useful base on which other analysis can be carried out, especially in cultural heritage domain where high detailed information connected to models and descriptive model data that provide a more general view of the studied object are necessary. An important aspect, that is related to the wealth of the available data after a multi-sensor acquisition, is connected to the optimization phase where it is important to follow pre- defined pipeline in order to optimize the model, not only in terms of file dimension but according to the detail of the recorded object as well. High resolution of digital models must be harmonized to high accuracy and density of information, but on contrary this compromise the capability of visualization, requiring more efficient hardware or a simplification of the model is necessary . The creation of an accurate (level of detail depends on its final use) 3D model is the first step. The management of handy 3D model requires creation of ad hoc digital surface, this implies a series of reflections and choices referring to time and requirements both in acquisition and processing phases, geometric and radiometric aspects of final products, according to resolution and quality needs, but also weight and interoperability of files.
Focus is an overview on Robotics application for Cultural heritage and Built Cultural Heritage (a term that includes all the Architectural, Archaeological, and generally constructed artifacts). In the field of analysis and restoration of Cultural Heritage and Built Cultural Heritage it is interesting to have accurate and efficient operating methodologies. Indeed, robots and robotic systems can be designed and used for these applications. The join between DART (Laboratory of Documentation, Analysis, Survey of Architecture and Territory), LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics) of Cassino University and the LAREA (LAboratorio di Rilievo E Architettura) of Tor Vergata University, it was an example in sharing different knowledges and competences and in developing innovative robotic applications, which are able to operate in Cultural Heritage and Built Cultural Heritage.
One of the most significant contributions of the Games to the city’s tangible heritage is related to the improvement of the transportation system. The Olympics changed the metropolitan area of Athens by adding new transportation means such as the Athens’ tram, a means characterised as purely Olympic (Zografos and Deffner, 2007) that connected the centre of Athens with its eastern coast (and the Olympic Complexes of Faliro and Hellinikon) along the coastline. Also, a new underground railway system with an operation distance of 160km connecting more than 20 municipalities of Attica and a new suburban railway that connected the new Athens International Airport Eleftherios Venizelos with the city’s centre and three more cities were also constructed (Tziralis et al., 2006). Furthermore, an expansion of the city’s road network includes several avenues and motorways such as Attiki Odos a 65km motorway with 32 main interchanges, or the Kifisos Avenue that connects the national highway to the South of Athens (Potsiou and Zentelis, 2005). Moreover, for the implementation of the Transportation Plan for the Games, environmental protection issues were taken into consideration for the strategic decision process, even though they were not fully implemented (Zagorianakos, 2004). Undoubtedly, the Olympics were the milestone for the construction and improvement of the public transport system and became the motive to fulfil several tasks on time.
Cities with surrounding urbanized areas are distinctive ecosystems because of human-created structures and natural elements, and they are retained and evolved by complicated ecological and social interactions. The amount and degree of ecological impacts of present human settlement are huge as compared to early times. Therefore, present cities and towns facing a variety of environmental and social problems such as pollution of air and water, energy demands, lack of food and poor waste management, which is influencing human well- being Un-habitat . Furthermore, the developments and expansion of urban environments have significant impacts on native natural habitat which results in the degradation of local, regional, and global biodiversity. 
by Glover and colleagues (2012), with the establishment of the Chiquilá museum: the first being INAH with authority over the material remains from the archaeological site; the second is the municipal governance located in Kantunilkin that has been a major contributor to the implementation of the museum project; the third being the Secretaría de Turismo (SEDETUR) that provided the proposal and funding for Chiquilá’s Tourist Parador Project (CTPP); the fourth is National Commission of Protected Natural Areas (CONANP) which manages the Yum Balam protected area; the fifth group would consist of any future artesanos or vendors who wish to sell their goods and services; the sixth being the members of the various sub-groups of the Chiquilá community where this museum will reside and whose constituents will be most affected by it; the seventh stakeholder is made up of the ejido members of Chiquilá and the neighboring town of San Angel who donated some of the land the tourist parador constructions were built on; the eighth is tourists as a transitory and heterogenous group of people that pass through Chiquilá and whose preferences are a determining factor in how the constructions are used: and the ninth is the members of the PCE who have built relationships with the other groups, have worked in the area for more than a decade, and wish to continue working in the local area. Due to the close connections between towns, the people of Solferino (a separate ejido from Chiquilá) could be considered another stakeholder group depending on their interest and involvement in the project whether as a community participant or as artisanal vendors.
According to the British historian David Lowenthal, heritage is very often the celebration of material legacies in order to shape an identity. In reference to the concept of preservation, he states that “buildings are the chief catalyst of collective historical identity. […] Relics saved […] link us with our own and other people’s past, and shed glory on nations, neighbourhoods, and individuals” (1985:389). In contrast to such celebrative heritage stand the concepts of dissonant heritage and dark tourism. ‘Dissonant heritage’, according to Tunbridge and Ashworth (1996) refers to a contrast of meaning and value systems between past and present. Consequently, it also suggests a discordance of different narratives that co-exist and inconsistencies regarding the representation of a certain history. This raises questions about who, how and in what conditions, should interpret this heritage. Tubridge and Ashworth assume that all heritage is intrinsically dissonant, involving always some kind of “discordance or lack of agreement and consistency” (1996:20). Within a perspective of marketing theory, they classify four different types of dissonance. First, dissonance is implicit in commodification, i.e. in the development of tourism heritage products. Tensions regard the choice between a homogeneous product reducing the variety of interpretations and aspects of a certain heritage, and a heterogeneous product stressing diversification (ibid.:21-23). Second, dissonance is implicit in place-products as the same location can be simultaneously interpreted in different ways for different audiences (ibid.:24-26). Third, dissonance can also be implicit in content of messages, created by the co-existence of contradictory messages, or by messages of a “history that hurts” (ibid.:27-29). Finally, an extreme example of dissonance is that associated with atrocity. The interpretation of such a highly charged controversy with respect to the identity of both victims and perpetrators creates heritage dissonance as well as unsettling political consequences.
The archipelago of Kerkena, located on the East Coast of Tunisia, at about 20 km from the city of Sfax, is characterized by the importance of palm trees in both its heritage and geography. The land occupied by palm trees extends almost over a third of the islands’ area which covers 150 km². Palm trees and the sea are the main elements of the natural landscape in Kerkena (Figure 3). The palm tree is "l’arbre roi de Kerkena": "the king tree of Kerkena", according to André Louis, because all its constituents were used in the traditional fishing techniques, particularly fixed fisheries, and also in the daily life of the inhabitants of Kerkena . However, today this natural vegetation is deteriorating because of several natural and anthropogenic factors. What are the natural and anthropogenic causes of palm degradation in Kerkena? How is it possible to preserve and enhance this naturalheritage for sustainable development?
It is well-known that mountain areas cover about 22% of the Earth’s surface (32 million km 2 ), and sustain directly about 13% of the world population (915 million inhabitants) and 70% of the rural population providing for 60-80% of the water resources of the earth. Due to the unique natural exquisiteness they host, many mountain regions are declared Protected Areas and enjoy special attention. Thus, approximately 25% from total land surfaces covered by mountains are framed within this category, as they represent the permanent dwelling of some rare species of fauna and flora, either relict or in peril 1 (Blyth et al., 2002) or shaping unique habitats and ecologic shelter corridors for forest species, etc. (Körner & Ohsawa, 2005). The mountain regions hold 60% from the biosphere’s reserves and contribute by 15-20% to tourism activities at global level and are covered in a share by 23% with forests.
(Centre Culturel et de Cooperation Linguistique) as well as the representative office of French Consulate General Surabaya (CCCL Surabaya) until 2012. On the same year, this building was officially gazetted by the Surabaya City government as a heritage listed building. After gazetted, it was then renovated and converted into a high-end restaurant in 2013, named The 1914 Restaurant. This restaurant is a multi-concept destination for food and beverage, entertainment, socialising, as well as for private dining. It offers a variety of Western, Mexican and Asian food, live music lounge, cigar bar, wine cellar and lounge, private function rooms and outdoor garden piazza.
Other AR applications developed in the same field aim at providing new ways of interaction between visitors and artworks inside museums. This “augmentation” of the real-world environment can lead to an intuitive access to museum information and enhances the impact of the museum exhibition on virtual visitors . Wojciechowski et al.  developed an AR-system composed by an authoring tool and an AR- browser. Using the former instrument, museum superintendents can design Virtual and Augmented Reality exhibitions. Through the AR-browser, installed for example in a kiosk, visitors can see the representations of cultural objects overlaid on the video captured by a camera. Similarly Chen et al.  proposed a new AR guidance system for museums based on markers. ARCube  exploits a 3D marker to enable 360° interaction with fully reconstructed three- dimensional archaeological artefacts in real-world contexts. Debenham et al.  developed an AR-system used inside the Natural History Museum in London which provides visitors with augmented contents through hand-held displays in order to enable an exciting new way to present the evolutionary history of our planet. In  Augmented Reality has been used instead to improve the work of the restorers and promote communication and cooperation between them.