Abstract: With the increasing trend of global outsourcing, companies are now facing ever more complex supply chains. When a company operates over a large geographical area, the likelihood of disruptions is potentially increased due to such unforeseen events as natural disasters, union strikes or social unrest. In this paper, we consider natural disasters as a form of risks in supply chains and propose to aid its management by analyzing Web data collected in real-time. Using Twitter "tweets" as our primary source of Web data, a real-time data crawler is developed to collect and analyze tweets that are identified as relevant to natural disasters. In addition, a visualization platform customizable to users’ requirements is implemented as part of the decision making dashboard for supply chain risk management. The applicability of such a system and its effectiveness for making informed decisions in risk mitigations are then discussed via a case study.
The main objective of risk reduction methodological and operational approaches is to protect lives and properties against the impact of natural or industrial disaster. Although it is unrealistic to expect to live in a risk free environment, it is possible to decrease this risk through pertinent prediction and management strategies (Boukri et al. 2018; Robat Mili et al. 2018). Lack of coherent programs, lack of attention to the needs of health care, poor coordination between agencies and organizations and lack of proper training of volunteers and people are obstacles against effective crisis management in earthquake (Nekoei-Moghadam et al. 2016). People living in areas prone to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little to lessen their risk of death, injury, or property damage. Therefore the task of facilitating community members to act is a challenging area (Bedini and Bronzini, 2018). A crisis management plan can guide various institutions responsible after natural disasters especially in low- and middle-income countries (Cordero-Reyes et al. 2017; Barthe-Delanoe et al. 2018).
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The data of Magnaye et al. showed that all medical personnel should be able to help people and victims of crisis and always be ready to offer medical services in the time of crises and disasters. They also need to be aware of their duty in critical situations  . In this regard, according to Husser, educational programs about crisis management could reduce mortality in people injured in the disaster  . Because such programs promote awareness of hospital personnel about available programs dealing with disasters, increase employee participation in planning
One of the main reasons Hurricane Mitch and other natural disasters have such great affect in Honduras and adjacent countries, is the severe topography and rugged terrain of the region (Harp et al., 2009; Harp et al., 2002). The art and science behind understanding landslide processes (USGS 2004) needs to be captured before identifying an appropriate management approach. The term “landslide” describes many processes that produce outward and downward movement of slope-materials including; rock, colluvium, soil, alluvium or a combination of these (USGS 2004) in the presence of water (alluvial mudslide) or without it (scree, rockslide).
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The impact of institutions on a more efficient allocation of resources in natural hazard management is not only restricted to post-disaster relief. The identification and mapping of hazard zones, the construction of preventive measures (e.g. dykes, levees or avalanche barriers) or the maintenance of early warning systems largely show the features of public goods (Congleton, 2006). Pure public goods show non- rivalness and non-excludability in consumption. Although the majority of preventive measures are not purely non-rival and non-excludable goods, the concept of public goods is a good explanation why common action is needed in this field. In addition, preventive measures can create positive and neg- ative externalities. Take for example a levee build by an up- stream town. Although this town is protected against floods, the levees might result in more water in the river channel and thus increasing the risk of a flood for downstream communi- ties. This is another reason why most of the above mentioned pre-disaster measures are provided by federal governments and agencies or international organizations.
Natural disasters are not bound by political boundaries and have no social or economic considerations. They are borderless as they affect both developing and developed countries. They are also merciless, and as such the vulnerable tend to suffer more at the impact of natural disasters. For example, the developing countries are much more seriously affected in terms of the loss of lives, hardship borne by population and the percentage of their GNP lost. India is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, losing about two percent of the GDP on an average to disasters. 6 The extent to which a population is affected by a calamity does not purely lie in the physical components of vulnerability, but is contextual also to the prevailing social and economic conditions and it’s consequential effect on human activities within a given society. Research indicates that single parent families, women, handicapped people, children and the aged are particularly vulnerable social groups. The geophysical setting with unplanned and inadequate developmental activity is a cause for increased losses during disasters. In the case of India, the contribution of over-population to high population density, which in turn results in escalating losses, deserves to be noted. This factor sometimes tends to be as important as physical vulnerability attributed to geography and infrastructure alone. Disasters lead to enormous economic losses that are both immediate as well as long term in nature and demand additional revenues. Also, as an immediate fall-out, disasters reduce revenues from the affected region due to lower levels of economic activity leading to loss of direct and indirect taxes. In addition, unplanned budgetary allocation to disaster recovery can hamper development interventions and lead to unmet developmental targets. Disasters may also reduce availability of new investment, further constricting
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increasing trend in the number of disasters over time is observed. Concerning the trend, there is an argument that “we should pay attention to the possibility that the reported increase is partly due to an increased tendency to report, not necessarily an increase in the occurrence of disasters” (Kurosaki 2013, p.2). The windfalls generated by foreign aid possibly lead recipient countries to adopt opportunistic behavior such as rent-seeking activities, which impede institutional quality (Ades, & Di Tella 1999; Svensson 2000; Djankov et al. 2008). It has been suggested that in developing countries, the reporting of the impact of natural disasters tends to be exaggerated for the purposes of obtaining international aid from developed countries (Albala-Bertrand 1993; Skidmore & Toya 2002). Inevitably, measurement errors cause some degree of bias in the estimations in developing countries. Measurement error is less likely to exist in developed countries. Hence, estimation error seems trivial when the sample is limited to developed countries. Dividing the sample into developed and developing countries facilitates the avoidance of measurement error when estimations are conducted. As demonstrated in Figure 2, the number of disasters in the United States is significantly larger than in other countries, even though it is a developed country. Garret and Sobel (2003) made it evident that disaster declaration and the level of disaster expenditure are both politically motivated rather than driven by the severity or frequency of disaster. This is because of the system of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which is concerned with the disaster declaration process and the subsequent allocation of disaster relief money. It is important for the President to manipulate disaster declaration with the aim of being re-elected. Thus, “the vast majority of disasters declared over the last decade have been for weather events that most people would not consider disasters at all” (Sobel & Leeson 2006, 60). Canada is a
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In this paper, we analyse the intersection between six academic theories about ‘catastrophic failure’ and journalistic reportage about disasters. What can these theories tell us about Black Saturday and possible causal and risk factors for the bushfires? How well are these theories understood by journalists, planners and policy makers? Why is it important that journalists understand these theories, and how might this change future reportage? Some answers might lie in the extensive literature on the organisational sociology and emergency management of natural disasters (Drabek 2010; Drabek 2004; Dynes 2004; Tierney, Lindell and Perry 2001; Quarantelli 1998), of extreme events, and human judgment and decisions under uncertainty (Taleb 2005; Taleb 2007; Taleb 2008; Bazerman and Watkins 2004, Perrow 1999, Perrow 2007, Moeller 1999; Sagan 1993; Vaughan 1996; Burns 2008).
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With the development of online social networks, a variety of applications of these networks for disaster relief management also are emerged. Crisis management organizations, are using data extracted from social networks to determine where aid are needed and to broadcast their own needs . As instance, Ushahidi (www.Ushahidi.com) is an open source platform providing crisis map to show the different needs of injured by their locations . A great deal of research has been made in this regard. A survey showed that Twitter activity after a hurricane has a strong correlation with per-capita economic damages, and it suggested that the online social networks could be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale natural disaster . Based on Zhu et al. (2011) the understanding of the factors that influence the behavior of Twitter users in retweeting tweets on natural disasters will make it easier for disaster managers to choose optimal messages to propagate in the network. In other words, they focused on how to choose the best content to speed up the information propounding the disaster to help injured . In a comprehensive review, Landwehr et al. (2014) divided the social network analysis and efforts in crisis management into four categories, keyword-based labeling, crowdsourcing-based labeling, sentiment based labeling and network analysis for relevance . Based on literature analysis, the social media have been considered as an influential channel to engage people and donors in crisis management during natural disasters.
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The article deals with state and regional actions taken to eliminate the eﬀ ects of natural disasters. It focuses on clarifying the causes, extent and impact of ﬂ ood damage in the years 1997–2010, not only in the Czech Republic but also in neighboring countries within each river basin crossing the border. The legislative framework is given by the European Union´s Directive on the assessment and management of ﬂ ood risks. The directive is followed by the strategy of ﬂ ood protection in the Czech Republic according to the speciﬁ cations of the assets of the state, municipalities, citizens and businesses. Action plans for ﬂ ood protection are then processed in accordance with individual river basins, the ones discussed in this article being the Elbe, Danube and Odra. A chronological summary of ﬂ oods during the 1997–2010 period presents relevant data on these events, including comparisons with previous periods. In conclusion, the authors present data on the number of claims, the extent of the damage, and the total sum of insurance claims paid out by member associations of the Czech Insurance Association. It also deals with problems concerning the underestimation of insurance coverage, especially among small and medium-sized businesses.
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Another key issue to emerge was that care is needed when making decisions about resettlement. One of the lessons from recent disasters in the Pacific islands is that relocation is complex and should be seen as a last resort. In the case where long-term relocation is required, the customary land tenure system may be flexible enough to provide reasonable solutions. However, this is not the case everywhere and planning must include responses that explicitly address and limit potential conflicts by providing secure tenure for the host community as well as for those resettled. Often the most vulnerable people (including women, elderly, children, poor and outsiders) face the greatest impact and uncertainty and have the least resources to cope with and recover from disasters. Measures to protect these people from land grabbing and eviction must include improvements to their tenure security. Implementing responsible governance of tenure will help protect the vulnerable from the impacts of natural disasters and climate change.
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Insurance can be a very important tool for disaster mitigation and in some contexts is the only available remedy. The valuer and loss-adjuster support the insurance function by quantifying the risk insured before the event and supporting claims after the event. When large-scale disasters occur it is usually difficult to mobilize valuation and loss-adjusting expertise fast enough to settle claims promptly enough to prevent hardship. This is frequently a critical factor. Insurance is usually, although not always, a private sector function and insurance companies are usually private sector entities. The policy-holders are usually individuals or private companies. It is rare, although not unknown, for the public sector to provide insurance cover or arrange reinsurance for those large-scale risks that private sector insurers refuse to cover at the property level. This can especially be the case for natural disasters where huge financial risks may be realized across a wide area from a single event.
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Epidemics, Pest Attacks, Cattle epidemics and Food poisoning. The document that reflects the detailed hazard profile of the states in India is the Vulnerability Atlas prepared by the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Centre (BMTPC). The Atlas produced by BMTPC in 1997 was revised in 2006 with latest information available on various hazards. Given the complications in comparing states, the Working Group on Disaster Management for the 12th Five Year Plan has compared the data on various losses incurred due to disasters and rated the states (Table 3). “The states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka and Bihar come under the top 10 states in case of human lives lost, cattle lost, houses damaged and crop area damaged. Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal record the highest cattle loss due to disasters. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and West Bengal account for maximum human lives lost, damage to houses and crop area as compared to other states. While the reasons for the vulnerability can be established only on the basis of further analysis these states fall in the high vulnerability category and need special attention” (12th Plan Working Group on DM) (Padmanabhan, 2012).
Our recommendations are to re-establish and improve delivery of primary health care. To facilitate this, additional medical supplies and case management training will need to be provided to medical personnel. In order to identify dis- aster impacts and health needs, public health responders need to be set up to conduct rapid disease risk assessments within the first week of a disaster. Prac- tical, promptly applied control measures, appropriate case management and surveillance systems, are essential for minimizing infectious disease. Natural disasters and infectious disease outbreaks represent global challenges to Millen- nium Development Goals . It is an important for the general public, policy- makers, and health officials to understand the concept that disaster does not transmit infectious diseases; that the primary cause of death in the aftermath of a disaster is non-infectious; that dead bodies (from disasters) are not a source of epidemic; and that infectious disease outbreaks result secondarily from exacer- bation of disease risk factors . Education on personal hygiene and proper hand washing procedures, as well as provision of an adequate quantity of safe water, sanitation facilities and appropriate shelter are important for the preven- tion of infectious diseases during natural disasters. 2) Food supply
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We use a cross-country panel data set to investigate our hypothesis and examine 108 countries over the period 1990 to 2014 (2,700 observations). As indicated in the supplementary material 1, the dataset represents OECD and non-OECD countries as well as developed and developing economies. Among the selected countries, per capita natural capita is higher in New Zealand, Kuwait and Iceland whereas low in Singapore, Lesotho and Bangladesh. The main disaster variables – economic damage, total size of the affected population and frequency of natural disasters – are available in the EM-DAT database maintained by the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED) 5 . EM-DAT compiles detailed disaster data based on different types of disasters. Existing studies are based on either single types of hazards (see, Bakkensen and Mendelsohn, 2016; Noy, 2015; Gignoux and Menéndez, 2014) or multiple hazards (see, Schumacher and Strobl, 2011). However, in this study, we considered six types of disasters: droughts, floods, storms, earthquakes, landslides and wildfires 6 . We included
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experienced in the aftermath of many natural disasters. A natural disaster can cause a heightening of social unrest if income redistribution is not appropriately conducted, which can result in social turmoil or disturbance. 2 Such negative externalities of natural disasters can lead to additional economic and human losses. In order to consider the likelihood that this externality occurs, I have found it crucial to accumulate the evidence concerning the impact of disasters on income inequality. Despite the increasing number of studies examining the impact of natural disasters, few studies have attempted to deal with the relationship between a natural disaster and income inequality. For example, the study by Anbarci et al. (2005), which is regarded as an exceptional work in this debate, found that GINI increases the damage level in natural disasters; however, an inverse causality has not been assessed in this study. To date, no study that has scrutinized whether a natural disaster has an influence on income inequality. Investigating the association between the occurrence of natural disasters and income inequality is, therefore, a timely project.
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Vietnam is currently under economic restructuring, including agricultural restructuring for sustainable development. One of the solutions for agricultural restructuring suggests that farmers and agricultural enterprises need to cooperate with scientists to carry out research and direct investment in order to modernize the production process, technologies and equipment to promote higher productivity and more efficient use of natural resources. On the other hand, the State should actively review, amend and supplement agricultural production plans (cultivation, husbandry) by exploiting product advantages, regional advantages and ensure effective implementation of green growth and climate change response strategies. While carrying out agricultural restructuring, the State should continue to enforce policies supporting farmers (poor and near-poor households) to join value chains and agricultural insurance schemes for risk mitigation.
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By developing an awareness of both the positive and negative aspects of disaster coverage, you can be better prepared to view both the print and electronic media in a more realistic manner. 1. The media may exaggerate some elements of the disaster and create unnecessary panic. 2. The media’s inaccurate portrayal of human behavior during and after disasters may create a very dramatic and exciting, but only partially truthful story. For instance, it is not uncommon to see footage of people looting after a disaster on all news networks, but most viewers may not realize that all the networks were covering the same store being looted. As a result, people may feel that widespread and uncontrollable looting is taking place in the affected area(s) which may not be true at all.
We next turn to a parochial chapter about Norwegian rock falls and tsunamis. The reader may wonder why they have never heard of such things, and the reason is simple. Norwegian natural disasters sometimes kill as many people as a car crash (ok to be fair let’s say a bus crash). We are told that ‘as many as 2,000 people have lost their lives in landslides since 1850 alone’ (p. 92) – making Norwegian fjords practically the safest places on the planet. Svensen does try hard to convince us that there is an issue with serious rock falls and local tsunamis, I think he fails; these happenings just don’t appear on the radar. But not to worry, religion makes its mandatory appearance. There was the old woman who recounted a vision at an evangelical meeting in 1904. A Christ-like figure had appeared to her and warned of a major rockfall at a mountain called Ramnefjell. A year later she had the same vision, and the very next day a section of Ramnefjell collapsed causing a tsunami that killed 61 people. I’d like to see the definitive evidence that that was documented before the event! Then, in 1936 after an identical rock fall and tsunami in which 73 died, God was back in the front line still taking the blame, despite the fact that few lessons had been learned about the dangers of living up steep sided fjords. Fortunately after 1936 lessons were learned and by 1950 you could have identical happenings with no death toll. God is presumably smarting at the fickleness of people for finally learning not to live in dangerous locations.
Strobl (2012) examined the growth impacts of hurricanes on developing economies in the Central American and Caribbean regions. The paper argues against investigating disaster impacts without paying specific attention to the region within which disasters occur due to the fact that different geographical regions suffer from different probabilities of experiencing a disaster for which reason it focuses solely on the geographical region it used for its study. After controlling for country specific economic conditions and timing of the disaster occurrence, the author finds that on average a hurricane strike resulted in loss in output growth by 0.84 percentage points in the study area. Felbermayr and Groschl (2014) also show in their study of over 100 countries that natural disasters unequivocally have negative effects on growth. They find that a disaster in the top 1 percentile disaster index causes a reduction in per capita GDP by almost 7% at the minimum the top 5 percentile index leads to a reduction of 0.46% in per capita GDP. They argue, though that factors such as stronger institutions, greater trade openness and financial openness help to reduce the negative effects of disasters on growth by speeding up the economic recovery process.
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