With the globalization, Chinese, Ayurvedic, African or Arab complementary medicine became available to international consumers . People worldwide are increasingly consuming diverse natural health products, NHP (in the EU dietary supplements) with estimated 600 million visits for users of alternative medicine . Patients believe that the intake of these products is safe and unlike conventional medical therapies devoid of side effects, since they assume that NHP are prepared only out of herbs, animal and/or natural minerals. Notably some natural medicine therapy schools treat in accord- ance with the valid doctrine “similis similibus curantur” claiming that heavy metals can be used (in supposedly safe doses) for therapeutic detoxification. Case reports show, however, heavy metal intoxication in NHP con- sumers worldwide [2–5]. American Studies  found in 20 % (n = 197) of such products lead, mercury and arsenic in concentrations 100–10,000 times higher than the allowable limit values. Our goal was to analyze and evaluate such natural products sent to our laboratory for indicatory analysis in the course of suspected heavy metal intoxications.
The Canadian federal department of health, Health Can- ada, conducted extensive consultations with industry members, consumers, health care providers, and research- ers to assist in developing regulations specifically for NHPs. Health Canada began implementing the NHP reg- ulations on January 1, 2004. The new NHP regulations classify NHPs as a sub-category of drugs, and apply to products commonly known as traditional herbal reme- dies, traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Native North American medicines, homeopathic medicines, and vita- min and mineral supplements. Health Canada seeks "to ensure that all Canadians have ready access to natural health products that are safe, effective, and of high quality, while respecting freedom of choice and philosophical and cultural diversity". The regulations specify industry requirements for selling NHPs in Canada, including man- ufacturing, packaging, labelling, storing, importing, and distributing specifications.
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Despite the belief that herbal medicine and other natural health products (NHPs) are safe , these products are pharmacologically active and therefore have inherent risk. Under Canadian federal regulations, NHPs are technically a sub-category of drugs. Any substance natu- rally found in plants, animals, fungi, algae or micro- organisms (regardless of the source used for the supple- ment) that is used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease and is suitable for self-care use is categorized as a NHP in Canada. This category includes vitamins (regardless of source), minerals, traditional Chinese medicines, Ayurvedic medicines, Native North American medicines, traditional herbal remedies and homeopathic medicines. Biologics such as insulin, tobacco and marijuana are specifically excluded from the NHP definition . Sev- eral reviews clearly document that NHPs, especially
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Pharmacists were invited to take part in the FG meetings if they were working in a community pharmacy in Qatar for no less than 1 year and were known by the researchers to be able to provide diverse and deep perspectives on the subject matter. Pharmacists were also asked to recommend others who they perceived to have insight and experience with NHPs who could enrich the discussions. All candidates were then emailed a letter of invitation describing the study and their expected role. Those who agreed to participate provided con- sent before being interviewed. The FG meetings took place during October and November 2011 in a primary health care clinic’s meeting room after regular business hours. Each of the interviews took approximately 1.5–2 hours. Questions for the FG meetings were grouped under the following main areas: perception about NHPs and CAM, sources of NHP knowledge, NHP regulations, and challenges and barriers when dealing with NHPs. Interviews were conducted following a systematic approach (opening, introductory, transitional, key, and closing questions). At the beginning of each interview, the aim of the study was shared with the pharmacists. Discussions during FGs were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, and all interviews were conducted by the same two interviewers. After reaching a point of saturation, no additional interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using a framework approach (familiarization, generating codes, identifying themes) to sort the data according to emerging themes. 16,17
All interviews were conducted by telephone by a trained research assistant and were approximately 30 to 45 minutes in length. The interview guide was semi- structured and included questions concerning which NHPs parents were using in their children’s health care, perceived benefits, sources of information, and whether they had talked to their family doctors about the NHPs their children were using. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered into the NVivo qualitative soft- ware package.
Most physicians thought that NHPs were probably of little benefit but not likely to be harmful. Most of the NHPs used were vitamins and minerals. Physicians rec- ognize that NHPs are often used by parents for children, but in general they believe that such products have little effect on their day-to-day medical practices. Thirty-eight (24.7%) of the 154 physicians have at least once recom- mended an NHP (including vitamins) for their pediatric patients. Physicians believe that parents do not often disclose use of NHPs in their children, but at the same time physicians generally do not actively inquire.
The diversity of products mentioned by parents, encouraged by our broad definition, hints that parents might need advice on OTC medicines and NHPs. It is noteworthy that 35.6% of purchases were not from pharmacies. Even there, selection from self-service displays can be confusing in part because products with different Health Canada designations can be found side by side, namely products with drug identification numbers, natural product numbers, and homeopathic preparation numbers. We do not know, for example, whether the Oragel noted by one parent was the homeopathic formulation or one with 20% benzocaine that carries the warning about allergic responses to “caine” products; or whether the omega-3-6-9 combination used was a children’s formulation or a dosage-age combination more likely to occasion side effects.
Between 1997 and 2007, Canada was second to the United States in the growth of prescription drug expend- iture per capita . Annual growth was 10.1%, and by the end of this period, prescription drug expenditures had become the second largest component of health care spending in Canada . Heavy use of pharmaceuti- cals becomes particularly marked at older age ranges [6–9]. Eighty three percent of community-dwelling Canadians 65–79 years of age in 2007–2011 were tak- ing prescription medication with 33% taking 5 or more . In addition to prescribed medications, there is a widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC), diet- ary supplements, and alternative agents even within healthy populations [5, 8, 10, 11]. The use of comple- mentary and alternative medicine (CAM), defined by Health Canada as being for the “diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention that complements mainstream medicine”, is very common with a large proportion of adults using natural health products. Although the rise in the use of pharmaceuticals is well known, the pattern of the combined use of the various types of medications being consumed by individuals is less well defined. Few studies have described medication use in a unique population composed of otherwise healthy middle-aged and older sedentary Canadians.
Case Presentation: A previously healthy 37-year-old female presented with subacute hepatitis, in the context of a previous admission to a separate institution, months prior for undiagnosed acute hepatitis. Importantly, she had disclosed taking complex regiments of natural health products (NHPs) for months. Her only other medication was rivaroxaban for her homozygous Factor V Leiden deficiency. She had an extensive work up for causes of acute and unresolving hepatitis. She discontinued several but not all of her NHPs after her initial presentation for acute hepatitis at the first institution and continued taking NHPs until shortly after admission to our institution. The predominant pathological features were that of drug induced liver injury, although an abnormal amount of copper was noted in the core liver biopsies. However, Wilson ’ s disease was ruled out with normal serum ceruloplasmin and 24-urine copper. After 2 months of stopping all the NHPs, our patient improved significantly since discharge, although there is evidence of fibrosis on ultrasound at last available follow up.
Alopecia, a dermatological disorder, it is common problem that has affected men and women. It is investigated through many treated are on offered including natural or synthetic based products. Natural products are continuously gaining popularity and the use of plant extract in formulation. Synthetics based product may cause human health hazard with several side effects. In the future it is possible that many new plants extract of commercial significance will be identified.
Conjugated polyenes are an important class of organic molecules that have found applications in chemistry, medicine, and materials science. The ability of !-bond rich polyenes to rapidly generate structural complexity through domino pericyclic reactions renders them powerful reagents for synthesis. This thesis, which is submitted in publication format, describes the application of through-conjugated and cross-conjugated polyenes in step-economic natural product synthesis. The first synthesis of a family of all-(Z)-polyene hydrocarbons is also presented.
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Complicating matters further is that SJW and its compo- nents have been studied in treating HIV due to its antiret- roviral properties in vitro . While this is likely a minor issue as the compound was administered intravenously and not found efficacious, the possibility exists HIV patients will take SJW to treat their HIV/AIDS which could compromise their conventional cocktails/therapy. This possibility is heightened by the fact that some SJW prod- ucts are labeled with this type of indication (e.g. "has been skillfully crafted to promote antiviral/antibacterial prop- erties..." is one such statement found on the study product labels). Alarmingly, information and recommendations of SJW to treat HIV persist on the Internet in both scien- tific and non-scientific sources that could send mixed messages to consumers and health care professionals [33,34].
There are also databases that focus only on metabolites, chemicals that are produced by living organisms (generally, but not only through enzyme-catalyzed reactions) and that are involved in primary and secondary metabolisms. The two major and most comprehensive databases for metabolites covering most of the domains of life are KEGG  and MetaCyc  . They contain an equivalent amount of chemicals, also involved in secondary metabolism, i.e. natural products, but present a different point of view on data organization and have been widely compared in the literature  . The BRENDA database  focuses on enzyme activities, but also contains the compounds involved in enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and this, covering most of all known domains of life. The particularity of this database is the manually validated compounds, reactions and enzyme activities in its main part, and exhaustive taxonomic origins for enzymes and compounds; however, NPs and primary metabolites are not clearly separated in this resource, so it is difficult to estimate their respective numbers. The Chemical Structure Lookup Service ( CSLS)  was developed for a very rapid metabolite structure lookup in an aggregated collection of more than 80 databases comprising more than 27 million unique structures in 2007. Not updated anymore, it is still possible to download the datasets, but the lookup service is not available so the extraction of natural products only requires an extensive data curation. The last database presented in this section is BiGG  : a platform for highly-curated genome-scale metabolic models. It contains, as parts of the metabolic models metabolites, but the distinction of primary and secondary metabolism is not clear, so it requires a lot of efforts to extract information on natural products only.
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There are many reasons for which online pharmacies are attracting such a huge number of customers . Different surveys have shown that people find it convenient to purchase medicine online. It is particularly the case with people who cannot go to a pharmacy for one reason or the other. Prescription and nonprescription drugs, herbal products, health products and beauty products, drugs information, consultation fee advice, health information and many other products are offered by online pharmacies. Customers have also stated that it is faster to buy online. Online medicine is also relatively inexpensive as many types of charges drop . As one has always the option to check whether in any other online seller the medicine is cheaper. Furthermore, the price of prescription drugs continues to rise each year and tends to become the trend to stay. This has forced people to check for alternatives. One way to receive medicines at a lower cost is to order medicine by post . A huge benefit is that a customer can purchase medicines even outside working hours. Another advantage is that they can buy products which are otherwise not accessible to them. To help the customers to make informed decisions, online pharmacies tend to provide extra information on product substitutes which makes a comparison of products easier online and faster than can be obtained in a pharmacy. They can get more information about different alternates. Some also say that they get better quality products online than from pharmacy .
Abstract: The segment of Fast Moving Consumer Goods is one of the rapid growing segments in this entire world. There are several FMCG companies working in our country ranging from Hindustan Unilever Limited to ITC including Patanjali. The rationale of this research work is to know about the preference and perception of households of Patanjali products in District-Mathura (UP) - India. The primary data was gathered from 170 households of the district with the help of a well prepared questionnaire. Exploratory Factor analysis is used for the analysis of the data while reliability analysis has been conducted to test the reliability of the data. The important findings of this work revealed that the originality of the products along with their quality influences the households here to buy the Patanjali products. Also, the household perceives these products very safe to be consumed as they are unadulterated and the company is not compromising with the quality of its products. Further analysis of the facts also explain whether the company may have long term sustained success in the market or not, in response of which the households have agreed to repeatedly purchase the Patanjali products and they also refer it to their relatives and friends. Therefore, it can be assumed primarily that the households generally prefer to buy Patanjali products over other available substitutes in the market because they perceive these products to be of superior quality.
In recent years, however, increased usage has led to calls for tighter regulation of botanical products sold within the European Union . The resultant new category of Trad- itional Herbal Remedy allows manufacturers to market plants used for more than 30 years, including 15 in the Euro- pean Union, on the basis of tradition of use . Because Traditional Herbal Remedy status requires only evidence of tradition and safety, not actual efficacy, manufacturers are now mandated to remove any text implying a benefit from packaging. Although manufacturers can submit individual benefit claims for approval to the European Food Standards Authority this process has become mired in assessment diffi- culties, leaving thousands of claims currently on hold. As a result many manufacturers now argue they are no longer
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Scientists from many countries including those from nearby Pacific islands such as Tahiti, Fiji, and New Caledonia are presently active in natural products research utilizing their traditional knowledge and biodiversity. At present, Samoa has a rich pharmacopoeia, with names for various internal and external disorders, and a host of appropriate remedies. 10–13 However,
A low MW (less than 500 Daltons) is usually favoured because of its impact on oral absorption of compounds . However, some natural products with MW >500 Daltons have been absorbed via the biological mem- brane . From the results, the average computed total molecular weight (TMW) was similar for HA (462.47), A (430.93) and MA (447.26) but significantly different (p value < 0.05) from N and CRAD (Fig. 2, panel c). This result attests to the greater structural complexity of NAA over CRAD. A slight negative correlation (r = −0.303) was observed between TMW and antiplasmodial activi- ties of the NAA i.e., most active (HA) showed the high- est TMW. Although it has been demonstrated that the median MW of oral drugs has increased substantially over the past years with about 2 % having MW >500 Daltons , a TMW below 500 may be desirable for hit compounds that are yet to be optimized into lead compounds.
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However, recent findings indicate that all herbal products may not be safe as severe consequences are reported for some herbal drugs. Most herbal products on the market today have not been subjected to drug approval process to demonstrate their safety and effectiveness. Thousand years of traditional use can provide us with valuable guidelines to the selection, preparation and application of herbal formulation. To be accepted as viable alternative to modern medicine, the same vigorous method of scientific and clinical validation must be applied to prove the safety and effectiveness of a therapeutical product.
Natural immnuostimulants are biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for the environment and human health.  These products can be used as novel methods of minimizing disease risk and as a good substitution for antibiotics in aquaculture.  Our results depicted that the fish bathed in 100% leaf extract of Annona squamosa showed increase in the TEC count, haemoglobin level, TLC count and Differential Leucocyte count in pre-challenged and post challenged groups, but it was observed that the TEC count and haemoglobin level showed minimal decrease in post challenged group as compared to pre challenged group after 15 days could be due to stress. It was also found that aqueous leaf extracts of the Annona squamosa Linn. plants contain considerable amounts of most of the secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, tannins, phenols, reducing sugar, saponin and flavonoids.
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